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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Silva Fennica 1926-1997 vol. 14 no. 1 | 1980

Category: Article

article id 5073, category Article
Matti Leikola. (1980). Kasvien toiminnan mallit systeemiteoreettisen tarkastelun kohteena. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 1 article id 5073. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15014
English title: Book review: dynamic models in plant ecology.
Keywords: book review

This article is a book review on a Finnish book 'Dynaamiset mallit kasviekologiassa' by Holmberg. A., Mäkelä A and Sievänen R., concentrating on dynamic models in plant ecology.

  • Leikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5072, category Article
Matti Leikola. (1980). Kaupunkimetsien hoidon opaskirjanen ilmestynyt. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 1 article id 5072. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15013
English title: Book review: Utilization of forests in urban planning.
Keywords: book review

This article is a book review on a Finnish book 'Luonnon olosuhteiden huomioonottaminen uusien asuntoalueiden suunnittelussa' by Kellomäki, Seppo and Lakka, Aura, concentrating on utilization of forests in urban planning.

  • Leikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5071, category Article
Martti Ryynänen. (1980). X-ray radiography of ageing Scots pine seeds. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 1 article id 5071. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15012

Soft X-ray radiation (Grenz rays) has been used in the X-ray radiography of seeds. It is based on the principle that the different parts of the seed absorb X-rays to a slightly varying extent. Empty seeds and empty regions in the seeds appears as dark areas on the film. X-ray radiography without staining and X-ray contrast radiography were compared to study the stored seeds of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The results were compared with the results of germination in a Jacobsen germinator according to ISTA norms.

Normal X-ray radiography gave too good estimates of germinative capacity of the seeds, and was shown to suit only when it is used to study fully ripe seeds which have recently been collected in an undamaged condition. The results of X-ray contrast radiography when barium chloride was used as the stain, however, followed closely the germination results.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Ryynänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5070, category Article
Olavi Luukkanen, Stig Johansson. (1980). Flower induction by exogenous plant hormones in Scots pine and Norway spruce grafts. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 1 article id 5070. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15011

The aim of the present study was to establish whether hormone treatments would promote flowering in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) grafts under Finnish conditions. Also, an attempt was made to test the efficiency of hormones as well as the variation in response among different clones. Six Scots pine and six Norway spruce clones were selected in each seed orchard based on their flowering intensity, and treated with growth hormones (GA, NAA) of different dosages by spraying. Flowering was observed one year after the treatments.

None of the treated or untreated spruce grafts flowered. However, poor flowering in the natural stands indicated that the environmental conditions during the previous years did not favour flowering. On the other hand, a distinct increase in flowering in Scots pine was observed as a result of spraying with hormone solutions. Treatments with gibberellin had a distinct promoting effect both on male and female flowering in the Scots pine grafts, although the responses varied between the different hormones or clones. The relative effect was generally stronger in male flowering.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Luukkanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Johansson, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5069, category Article
Jouni Mikola. (1980). The effect of seed size and duration of growth on the height of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) provenances and progenies at the nursery stage. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 1 article id 5069. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15010

In this paper the connection between seed weight and amount and duration of growth are studied at the progeny level within stands or climatically uniform areas, and at the provenance level within larger geographic areas. The material consists of materials of several experiments in the nursery of Maisala in Southern Finland in 1971–76. The origins of the plant material used in the different experiments ranged from progenies of individual Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) or Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) trees to provenance selections covering almost the whole natural range of these species.

The effect of seed weight on plant height is strongest immediately after germination and subsequently decreases steadily, when the genetic growth properties of the plants themselves become effective. The effect is usually visible at least until the end of the 1st growing season. This relationship varies considerably depending on the material studied. The connections between the duration and the amount of height growth also proved to differ according to the nature of genetic variation. In wide selection of provenances, which show clear genetic differentiation in annual growth rhythm. The variation in the duration of growth accounts for most of the differences in total height growth. At the individual and family level or between provenances of a limited area, there seems to be no clear connection between the duration and the amount of growth. It seems that the duration of the annual growing period is a genetic property, which is not affected by seed weight.

The total height alone in 1-year old test material grown in a greenhouse had hardly any value in the forecasting of growth capacity. The growth differences were caused mainly by the variation in seed size and growth rate differences during the growing period.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Mikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5068, category Article
S. A. Petrov. (1980). Quantitative analysis of the effect of genotype and environment in forest tree populations. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 1 article id 5068. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15009

The paper discusses the theoretical basis of quantitative analysis of the effect of genotype and environment in forest trees. Perhaps the main problem in the understanding of the laws of intrapopulation variability of the species of woody forest plants is the study of the structure of their populations. It may be characterized by a number of parameters. The intrapopulation variability of quantitative characteristics appears as a result of environmental and genetic factors, but to determine the relative weight of these factors in a concrete case is not easy. The study of the structure of a population by its quantitative characteristics has a wider task: to establish the relevance of the hereditary differences of the individuals of a population. Also, the differences caused by diverse growth conditions and how they are reflected in the level of general phenotypic variability of the quantitative characteristics in a given population has to be identified. The author gives examples of assessment of heritability in forest trees.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Petrov, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5067, category Article
Veikko Koski. (1980). On the variation of flowering and seed crop in mature stands of Pinus sylvestris L. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 1 article id 5067. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15008

The paper discusses the variation of flowering and seed crop of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands based on literature published in Finland. According to the studies, the list of good seed years given by different authors do not completely match, and no essentially new about the periodicity of the seed crop or the causes of variation has been found. The difficulty in classification of the seed crops in different years in different stands and locations can be handled through the concept of capacity. It is suggested in the paper that to be able to compare the occurrence of good flowering and seed years of different stands and localities, a case exceeding 50% of the capacity is described as abundant, and a case exceeding 75% as very heavy.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Koski, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5066, category Article
J. P. Efimov. (1980). Some results on the regularities of seed crops in Scots pine seed orchards. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 1 article id 5066. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15007

Establishment of seed orchards to produce genetically improved seed started in the USSR in the 1960’s. The aim is that within 10–15 years the total seed production will reach 50% of the seed used. The paper describes seed production in seed orchards of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in the forest-steppe of the European part of the USSR. The orchards have been established either by grafting or by planting of seedlings originating from plus trees. The grafts begin flowering relatively early, however, only at the age of 8–10 years seed crops become relatively regular and abundant. The cone yield in young seed orchards have great variability, and the yield of cones varies between clones. Cone yield does not always correlate with a good seed yield. One of the reasons for high amount of empty seeds is the difference in the periods of flowering between the clones.

The seed crops can be improved by establishing optimal conditions for the growth of the trees. Also, when a seed orchard is founded, the peculiarities of the generative activities of the clones and their reactions to changes in the environmental conditions must be taken account by taking an individual and selective measure approach to improvement measures. The orchards can be established with clones for their genetic combining ability and their requirements for the stimulation of seed-bearing.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Efimov, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5065, category Article
Juhani Niiranen. (1980). Methods used in cutting propagation of forest trees in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 1 article id 5065. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15006

Cutting propagation of forest trees has recently been done in Finland mainly by the Foundation for Forest Tree Breeding. The aim has been to develop methods which could be used in forest nurseries for large scale production of rooted cuttings. Methods are being developed for tree species which seem to offer possibilities for economically profitable vegetative propagation. The most important tree species has been Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) RH. Karst.), and also larches (Larix sp.), lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta), birches (Betula sp.), alders (Alnus sp.) and hybrid aspen (Populus tremula x P. tremuloides) are propagated. The sensitive rooting phase takes place in plastic greenhouses which have ventilation on the roof top, mist irrigation equipment and separate heating systems for the air and the ground. Methods used for cutting propagation of Norway spruce, lodgepole pine, larch species and broadleaved trees are described.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish

  • Niiranen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5064, category Article
E. P. Prokazin. (1980). Geographic variation in forest trees. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 1 article id 5064. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15005

Planting of forest trees takes place in USSR on millions of hectares but without permanent forest seed bases having yet been established in every region of the country. Consequently, local seed does not suffice the need, and it is necessary to secure it from other geographical regions. To avoid negative consequences of seed transfer it is necessary to study geographic variation of the genetic characteristics of forest trees and construct scientifically based division into seed zones. Geographic transfer of seed can also be regarded as a breeding measure. A large research program is being carried out in the USSR on the subject. Most of the existing trials are provenience tests of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Over 2,000 hectares of new provenience experiments is to be established in near future.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Prokazin, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5063, category Article
Pirkko Velling. (1980). Variation in the density of wood of different Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) origins in provenance tests. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 1 article id 5063. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15004

The study concerned with variations in the density of the wood of different provenances in provenance test series of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) RH. Karst.), established in 1931. Increment cores were collected from 10 sample trees from each sample block. The density of the pine wood was noticeably higher than that of spruce. The basic density was in average 450 kg/m3 for Scots pine, and the variation between different origins was 3–9%, while the average basic density of spruce was under 400 kg/m3 and the variation 3–10%. Statistically significant differences were found between the mean basic densities of different provenances in all sub-experiments for spruce, but only in one pine sub-experiment. However, these differences were not due to the altitude or latitude of the place of the origin. Volume growth seems to be the dominant component in the formation of dry matter yield.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Velling, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5062, category Article
I. Etverk. (1980). Geographical variability of the Norway spruce in the Estonian SSR. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 1 article id 5062. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15003

The productivity and several morphological features of Estonian Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) show significant geographical variation. This is no doubt because of differences in the climatic and soil conditions, which in spite of the small area of the country is quite large. In order to check the possible geographical variability of the gene pool, preliminary experiments were carried out in 1969, when seeds from 93 spruce stands originating from 14 forest enterprises were sowed in a nursery. After two years, the seedlings originating from south-eastern Estonia were the tallest. The seedlings from northern origins were smallest. However, it cannot be maintained that spruces from Southern Estonia are of better genotype than genotype from Northern Estonia since the genotypes are evaluated on the basis of ecological conditions under which the experiments are carried out. Another study suggests that an average shift of 7° to the east of the territory for spruces are suitable for cultivation in Estonia.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Etverk, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5061, category Article
Max Hagman. (1980). Experiences with Norway spruce provenances in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 1 article id 5061. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15002

Ecological investigations have shown that Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) reached Western Finland about 1,500–1,000 years B.C. and did not reach Åland islands before around the year 0. The species spread into Finland from the east and north-east, having survived the glaciation somewhere in the central parts of the Asian continent. Geographical variation has provided foresters with provenances of better growth and higher economic yield. In Finland, provenances, for instance, from Austria, Eastern Germany, Romania, Southern Poland and Slovakia have been planted in experiments, mostly in various parts of Southern Finland. According to the results of the experiments, it seems that for the more northern parts of Finland and Sweden the best material was to be obtained from north-east Europe.

The Scandinavian countries decided in 1975 to make a common assessment of all the provenance experiments with Norway spruce. The synthesis confirms the earlier view that provenances from the most north-eastern parts of Central Europe are of the greatest value for Finland.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Hagman, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5060, category Article
A. I. Novoselceva. (1980). On the application of forest genetics and forest tree breeding research to practical forest seed production. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 1 article id 5060. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15001

The development of the scientific basis for the production of high-quality seed led to the introduction of a large part of the research findings in forest genetics and forest tree breeding into practical forest seed production in the USSR. Since 1971, work has begun in forest enterprises on the establishment of a permanent seed supply for the main tree species – Pinus sylvestris, Picea ssp., Larix ssp. Quercus robur, Haloxylon ssp. and nut trees.

The basis for forest tree improvement is a gene pool which is built up using mass and individual selection of valuable forms in natural populations. In accordance with a long-term programme up to 1990, an inventory of 13.2 million ha of the best high-productive stands has been carried out for breeding purposes in the state forests. About 7,000 ha of plus stands have been selected, and a total of 9,453 ha of seed orchards and 141,253 ha of seed collection stands have been established. The first stage of the programme is planned to be complete in 1980, and in the second stage clonal high-quality seed orchards will be established.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish

  • Novoselceva, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5059, category Article
Pertti Harstela. (1980). Jäljelle jäävä puusto ja ajouralta toimivat harvennuspuun korjuukoneet. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 1 article id 5059. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15000
English title: Remaining trees and machines working from the strip roads in thinning.

In the first part of the study the hindrance of the remaining trees when felling trees by machines working from the strip road in selective thinning was studied on the basis of the literature. In the second part there was geometrically studied the need of schematic thinning in some type stands when bundles are pre-skidded straight-lined to the strip road. In average only 0-1 trees per pre-skidding trail needs to be removed. It was concluded that trees removed from the pre-skidding trail do not significantly increase the need of schematic thinning. Remaining trees do not limit the length of machine booms if the pre-skidding trails are planned during the felling.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Harstela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5058, category Article
Max Hagman. (1980). Suomalais-neuvostoliittolainen metsägenetiikan ja siemenhuollon symposiumi Punkaharjulla 17.–18.8.1978. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 1 article id 5058. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14999
English title: Reports of the Finnish-Soviet symposium on forest genetics and forest tree seed production, Punkaharju, Finland, August 17-18. 1978.

As a part of the scientific and technical cooperation between Finland and the USSR a symposium and an excursion on forest genetics and seed production was organized in Finland in August 1978. The symposium paper presented at Punkaharju are published here in order to bring them available for a wider audience.

The 12 symposium reports deal with the following subjects: Practical application of forest genetic research (A.I. Novoselceva), geographical variability and provenance transfer (E.P. Prokazin, M. Hagman, I. Etverk), variation in wood density (P. Velling), variation of flowering and seed crops in seed orchards (Y.P. Efimov), and natural stands (V. Koski), vegetative propagation (J. Niiranen), seed size effects and early test problems (J. Mikola), quantitative analysis of genotypic and environmental effects (S.A. Petrov), hormonal induction of flowering (O. Luukkanen) and x-ray photography analysis of the ageing of seeds during storage (M. Ryynänen).

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Hagman, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5057, category Article
Rainer Rauramaa, Kaj Husman, Katriina Kukkonen, Erkki Voutilainen. (1980). Metsurien ravinto ja seerumin lipoproteiinit - esitutkimus. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 1 article id 5057. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14998
English title: Preliminary observations about diet, serum lipids and lipoproteins among lumberjacks.

Energy intake of ten lumberjacks in Eastern Finland was estimated by using 24-hour recall. In addition, serum cholesterol and triglycerides were analysed in different lipoprotein fractions. Average energy intake was according to present recommendations in Finland, although there was great individual variation. Serum triglycerides were in the normal range. Five lumberjacks’ total cholesterol concentration was somewhat increased. Average HDL concentration was clearly greater than in men of the same age.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Rauramaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Husman, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kukkonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Voutilainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5056, category Article
Liisa Nylund, Antti Haapanen, Seppo Kellomäki, Markku Nylund. (1980). Radial growth of Scots pine and soil conditions at some camping sites in southern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 1 article id 5056. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14997

Radial growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was investigated in seven camping areas located in Southern Finland. Radial growth reduction of 20–40% were found. The magnitude of this reduction was related to the amount of damage in the trees, and the age of the trees. A loss of humus, exposure of the roots and soil compaction were associated with the use of area but not related to the reduction in growth.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Nylund, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Haapanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Nylund, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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