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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Silva Fennica 1926-1997 vol. 21 | 1987

Category: Article

article id 5337, category Article
Pekka Hako. (1987). Musiikki, metsä ja ihminen. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 4 article id 5337. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15494
English title: Music, forest and man.
Original keywords: identiteetti; musiikki; metsä; kulttuuri

In Finnish music national forests and international urban culture meet in an original way. Around the last turn of century, composers believe they had discovered their spiritual roots in nature and especially in the forests. The universal musical language of Jean Sibelius, for example, is based on a deep Finnish identity, the atmosphere of Kalevala. Sibelius’ Tapiola is, thus, among our century’s most powerful musical interpretations of feelings about nature. Nature inspired music is, generally, associated with such positive qualities as beauty, peace, softness, light and joy. A great deal of forest music is based on literature, where natural images have almost always had a positive interpretation.
The paper is based on a lecture given in the seminar ‘The forest as a Finnish cultural entity’, held in Helsinki in 1986. The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hako, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5336, category Article
Pekka Virtanen. (1987). Kansanperinteen metsäkuvia. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 4 article id 5336. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15493
English title: The forest in Finnish folk lore.

Several views to forest’s role in the Finnish folklore are presented. They clearly show how many important dimensions forests have had in Finnish life. Descriptions concentrate on forest-related traditions of ancient times. They give a basis to examining the role of forests in the modern Finnish mind.

The paper is based on a lecture given in the seminar 'The forest as a Finnish cultural entity’, held in Helsinki in 1986. The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Virtanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5335, category Article
Juhani Pallasmaa. (1987). Metsän arkkitehtuuri. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 4 article id 5335. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15492
English title: The architecture of the forest.

The paper presents aspects of town and forest architecture. A feature of the Finnish building tradition is that the forest is allowed to grow next to buildings. After the Second World War a new type of town was created in Finland, ”the forest town”. The most prominent feature of the history of Finnish architecture, from national romanticism to functionalism and up to the present day, is the modification of international ideals to a certain ”forest culture” style.

The paper is based on a lecture given in the seminar ‘The forest as a Finnish cultural entity’, held in Helsinki in 1986. The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Pallasmaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5334, category Article
Aimo Reitala. (1987). Metsä suomalaisessa kuvataiteessa. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 4 article id 5334. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15491
English title: Forests in Finnish art.

The Finnish forest was elevated into an appreciated artistic motif by Werner Holmberg with his picture ”The Finnish conifer forest” in 1858. The second significant period was during national romanticism in the 1980’s, when the decorative beauty of the winter forests was discovered. At the turn of the century, the forest obtained a central national symbolic significance, and many leading artists regarded increased cuttings as a rape of the forests. Since that period, individual artists have succeeded in bringing new features in the art history of our forests.

The paper is based on a lecture given in the seminar ‘The forest as a Finnish cultural entity’, held in Helsinki in 1986. The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Reitala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5333, category Article
Pekka Suhonen. (1987). Metsä ja kirjallisuus. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 4 article id 5333. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15490
English title: Forest and literature.

In world literature, there are many forests of significance, e.g. oak forest of Mamre and in Dante’s Divine Comedy. Finnish literature has abounded with forest topics since ancient folkore. We have a literature of floaters, loggers and paper workers of industrialized Finland, not to speak of a hunting literature. A major theme is ”from forest to town”, where the first work, Aleksis Kivi’s ”Seven brothers”, is a landmark in Finnish literature. Forests of many other authors are also presented, as well as ancient chants and poems.

The paper is based on a lecture given in the seminar ‘The forest as a Finnish cultural entity’, held in Helsinki in 1986. The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Suhonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5332, category Article
Aarne Reunala. (1987). Metsä arkkityyppinä. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 4 article id 5332. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15489
English title: Forest as an archetype.

According to universal primitive beliefs, there was a huge pole or tree in the centre of the universe to support the sky. These beliefs gave rise to innumerable customs where both trees and wood have been used to promote health and good luck. Even today, many such customs exist: the Christmas tree, maypole, Midsummer birches, birch whisks in the Finnish sauna, ritual tree plantings etc. In addition to the tree, also the forest as both a protecting and a frightening maternal symbol can be considered as an archetype. Intensive forestry diminishes the archetypal contents of forests, which may be one reason behind critical attitudes towards modern forestry.

The paper is based on a lecture given in the seminar ‘The forest as a Finnish cultural entity’, held in Helsinki in 1986. The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Reunala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5331, category Article
Pirkko Siltala. (1987). Metsän turvallisuus. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 4 article id 5331. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15488
English title: The security of the forest.
Original keywords: metsä; turvallisuudentunne; kokemus
English keywords: forest; sense of safety; experience

The security provided by forests is approached through various authors’ descriptions and through psychotherapeutic experience. The lap of the forest can recreate early security, protection and unity, for example the lap of mother or father. The forest is also a safe place to externalize inner feelings, desires, fears and erotic images. Intensive forest management and air pollution are nowadays threatening the protective role of forests.

The paper is based on a lecture given in the seminar ‘The forest as a Finnish cultural entity’, held in Helsinki in 1986. The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Siltala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5330, category Article
Pirkkoliisa Ahponen. (1987). Metsä elämäntavassa. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 4 article id 5330. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15487
English title: The forest in way of life studies.

Sociological studies on the way of life tell rather little about the impact of forests on Finn’s everyday life. The change of life styles, urbanization and middle-class values, signify a detachment from immediate and practical relationship with nature. Those born in the countryside conserve their relationship with nature in their leisure activities, but the urban-born generation needs the mass-media, education, travel and other institutions in order to maintain and develop its relationship with nature.

The paper is based on a lecture given in the seminar ‘The forest as a Finnish cultural entity’, held in Helsinki in 1986. The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ahponen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5329, category Article
Bo Lönnqvist. (1987). Kultivoitunut metsä - herraskartanon puisto. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 4 article id 5329. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15486
English title: Cultivated forests – the case of manor parks.

The earliest manor parks, which are a special form of cultivated forests, were created at the end of the 18th century. The surrounding of the main buildings was divided into two parts, an aesthetic park and yard serving household and economic purposes. Early in the 19th century, large parks were created which represented dominant aesthetic ideals but, on the other hand, formed a ”wild” counterpart to the structured inner world of the main building. A good example is Ratula Manor and its park, which represent the diversity of the cultivated forest of the 19th century manors.

The paper is based on a lecture given in the seminar ‘The forest as a Finnish cultural entity’, held in Helsinki in 1986. The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lönnqvist, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5328, category Article
Max Guignard. (1987). The tree in the Paris and Helsinki areas. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 4 article id 5328. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15485

The paper describes some examples from Paris and Helsinki areas, where trees are essential landscape elements. It is typical in France to plant trees around town squares, market places and along streets and roads. In Finland trees are almost always kept close to the house, together with other vegetation protecting the entrance and windows. These traditional uses of trees should be studied to serve landscape management.

The paper is based on a lecture given in the seminar ‘The forest as a Finnish cultural entity’, held in Helsinki in 1986. The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Guignard, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5327, category Article
Yrjö Sepänmaa. (1987). Metsäestetiikka ja metsän estetiikka. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 4 article id 5327. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15484
English title: Forstästhetik and forest aesthetics.

Forstästhetik is a programme for forest management, resembling an art manifesto. Forest managers are programme executors. Forest aesthetics is forest investigation from the point of view of beauty. In the case of managed forests, it is possible to ask, what is the manager’s programme and his skill to achieve personal solutions. In forests, the functioning and sustainability of the ecosystem are basic principles affecting all other values. On this basis it is possible to evaluate the competence of taste systems and the logic of their application.

The paper is based on a lecture given in the seminar ‘The forest as a Finnish cultural entity’, held in Helsinki in 1986. The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Sepänmaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5326, category Article
Matti Linkola. (1987). Metsä kulttuurimaisemana. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 4 article id 5326. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15483
English title: The forest as a cultural landscape.

The main features of the Finnish landscape are a result of preglacial erosion processes and the structural lines of the bedrock. The microstructure of the landscape was created by the Ice Age and its melting processes. Upon this base, human activities have created a palimpsest of cultural landscapes. The article describes the effects of slash-and-burn cultivation, tar production, cattle ranging and some other forest uses to the forest landscape. 

The paper is based on a lecture given in the seminar ‘The forest as a Finnish cultural entity’, held in Helsinki in 1986. The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Linkola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5325, category Article
Eero Julkunen, Altti Kuusamo. (1987). Kansallis/omaisuus. Metsän mielikuvat isänmaallisissa lauluissa ja metsämainoksissa. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 4 article id 5325. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15482
English title: Images of forests in patriotic songs and forest advertisements.

The article compares forest images in provincial and patriotic songs and in forest advertisements by banks and insurance companies. In songs, coniferous forests represent the primaeval nature and broadleaved forests represent culture. Coniferous forest is the real patriotic forest. Forest images in advertisements are twofold: both elevated patriotic forests and profane raw-material forests are found.

The paper is based on a lecture given in the seminar ‘The forest as a Finnish cultural entity’, held in Helsinki in 1986. The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Julkunen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kuusamo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5324, category Article
Jussi Raumolin. (1987). Metsän suojassa. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 4 article id 5324. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15481
English title: Under the shelter of forests: some thoughts about political anthropology and the geopolitics of forests.

Only a few studies exist concerning the political anthropology and geopolitics of forests. The role of forests in European geopolitics and their role in restraining concentration of power and promoting guerrilla warfare is examined. The shelter of forest cover has been a fundamental factor for the formation of the Finnish people and it has also played an important role in the defence of independent Finland. Clearcuttings, forest roads and modern reconnaissance technology have recently diminished the protective shelter of forests.

The paper is based on a lecture given in the seminar ‘The forest as a Finnish cultural entity’, held in Helsinki in 1986. The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Raumolin, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5323, category Article
Matti Leikola. (1987). Metsien hoidon aatehistoriaa. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 4 article id 5323. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15480
  • Leikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5322, category Article
Juhani Pietarinen. (1987). Ihminen ja metsä. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 4 article id 5322. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15479
English title: Man and the forest.

Four basic attitudes towards forests are distinguished: In utilitarianism the forest is seen merely as a means of increasing the standard of living. Humanism strives for the forest use in the service of educational ideals. Mysticism aims at an immediate experience of unity between man and nature. Primitivism denies all human privileges in nature. These attitudes describe that multiple relations exist between man and forest. An essential question is which attitude can best be defended.

The paper is based on a lecture given in the seminar ‘The forest as a Finnish cultural entity’, held in Helsinki in 1986. The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Pietarinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5321, category Article
Aarne Reunala, Pekka Virtanen. (1987). Metsä suomalaisten elämässä. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 4 article id 5321. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15478
English title: The forest as a Finnish cultural entity.

This publication consists of 16 papers on importance of forests to Finns, mainly from the viewpoint of various social and humanistic sciences. The articles are based on lectures given to a seminar organized in Helsinki, December 18-19, 1986.

This paper includes preface and list of the speeches in English.

  • Reunala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Virtanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5320, category Article
Veikko Hintikka. (1987). Germination ecology of Galeopsis bifida (Lamiaceae) as a pioneer species in forest succesion. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 3 article id 5320. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15477

The occurrence of Caleopsis bifida on clear-cut and burned forest soil and its disappearance in 4–6 years after disturbance is attributed to its germination ecology. Initially the seeds are dormant 96–100% and remain dormant in nylon gaze bags in different types of forest humus layers at least 10 years. Dormancy is released in laboratory (1) by treatment of 100 ppm aqueous solution of GA3, (2) by heating the dormant seeds to 40–55°C for 1–5 h, and (3) by 1% KNO3 solution. It is concluded that conditions in clear-cut and burned areas favour germination of seeds in regard to temperature and content of nitrates in contrast to humus of closed vegetation where the seeds remain dormant.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Hintikka, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5319, category Article
Heikki Hänninen. (1987). Effects of temperature on dormancy release in woody plants. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 3 article id 5319. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15476

Logical structure of three simulation models and one conceptual model concerning effects of temperature on dormancy release in woody plants was examined. The three basic types of simulation models differed in their underlying assumptions. Contrasting implications of the models were inferred by deduction. With the aid of these implications, the model types can be tested using experiments with continuous and interrupted chilling. Similarly, implications of the conceptual model of rest phases were inferred, by which the model can be tested using experiments with continuous chilling and forcing in multiple temperatures. The possibilities to synthetize the conceptual model with any of the three simulation model types, as well as the biological interpretation of the model variables, were discussed.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Hänninen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5318, category Article
Tapio Lindholm, Harri Vasander. (1987). Vegetation and stand development of mesic forest after prescribed burning. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 3 article id 5318. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15475

This study deals with the succession of vegetation and tree stand in 16 mesic Myrtillus site type Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) plantations after prescribed burning in Evo, Southern Finland. The oldest tree stands studied were about 30-year-old. The growth of trees followed the height index of Myrtillus type. The vegetation was first mesic, dominated by grasses and herbs, turning more xeric after four years. This change was accelerated by treatment with herbicides. After the closure of tree stand, vegetation became more characteristic of forest vegetation, but pioneer species and composition disappeared slowly. The basic characters of vegetation succession could be clearly described by DCA ordination and TWINSPAN classification. The study confirmed that Myrtillus type has succession phases which are typical for each age phases as Cajander’s forest site type theory has proposed. However, differences in primary and secondary site factors have their own effects on the vegetation of the succession phases.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Lindholm, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Vasander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5317, category Article
Ilari Lumme, Markku Yli-Halla. (1987). Behaviour of certain phosphorus and potassium compounds in a sedge peat soil. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 3 article id 5317. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15474

The solubilityof various phosphorus and potassium compounds in a sedge peat soil was studied in an incubation experiment aimed at screening potential fertilizers for the cultivation of fast-growing willows. (KPO3)n proved not to be a source of the slow-released K regarded as most desirable for this kind of cultivation as it was hydrolysed completely in the soil during incubation. Phosphorus from easily soluble or hydrolysable compounds (superphosphate, KH2PO4, (KPO3)n) was bound in the soil largely by Al and Fe and elevated the level of readily soluble P considerably, whereas rock phosphates were found to be practically unchanged after incubation and did not contribute to the readily soluble P in the soil. Apatites proved to be quite insoluble and are therefore assumed to be unsuitable as P fertilizers for fast-growing willows, which have a high nutrient demand.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Lumme, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Yli-Halla, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5316, category Article
Timo Pukkala, Timo Kuuluvainen. (1987). Effect of canopy structure on the diurnal interception of direct solar radiation and photosynthesis in a tree stand. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 3 article id 5316. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15473

The utilization of direct radiation was studied in five model stands of Poisson-type tree distribution and cone-shaped crowns. The radiation extinction depended on the self-shading of the crown and the shading caused by other trees. The results indicate that at low sun elevation a stand populated by very narrow-crowned trees is most effective in light interception and photosynthesis. At high sun elevation a broad-crowned canopy is best illuminated and most favourable for photosynthesis. A stand with a two-storey canopy is effective in all latitudes when the crowns are moderately narrow. In two-storey canopies the foliage of the lower storey can be better illuminated than in the lower parts of the upper storey, because of the smaller self-shading in the small crowns of the lower storey. A canopy where the crown volume is concentrated on few big crowns is less effective than a canopy consisting of many small crowns.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Pukkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kuuluvainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5315, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki, Matti Seppälä. (1987). Simulations on the effects of timber harvesting and forest management on the nutrient cycle and productivity of Scots pine stands. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 2 article id 5315. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15472

Effects of varying rotation, thinning, fertilization and harvest intensity on the productivity and nitrogen cycle of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand were studied on the basis of computer simulation. The increasing intensity of management increased the loss of nitrogen in the cycle. Short rotation, associated with early thinning by means of the whole tree harvest, proved to be especially detrimental regarding the productivity of the forest ecosystem. Fertilization associated with thinnings is of great importance in maintaining the productivity of a forest ecosystem during an intensive timber harvest.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Seppälä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5314, category Article
M. Saarilahti, E. Bakena, G. Mboya, T. Minja, T. Ngerageze, J. Ntahompagaze. (1987). Studies on Tanzanian forest work. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 2 article id 5314. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15471

Four teams of two workers were time-studied in clearcutting of a cypress plantation and three teams in sulky skidding. The heart rate was recorded every 30 s. The average heartrate in timber cutting was 117.5 ± 13.4 P/min, and it was mainly dependent on worker’s working capacity. Average work load index was 41 ± 3% when working at 97% performance. The production rate was then 2.5 m3/h (crew). In sulky skidding the heart rate was lower, 106 ± 1.1 P/min, as well as the work load (WLI 30 ± 1%) and performance rating (87%). The low production rate (1.1 m3/h) (crew)) over 45 m distance is mainly due to under-dimensioned load size. The energy expenditure in timber cutting was 21.4 kJ/min and in sulky skidding 16.3 kJ/min. Daily energy expenditure was 15.0 MJ/d, and most of the timber cutters belonged to the class ”exceptionally active”.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Saarilahti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Bakena, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Mboya, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Minja, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ngerageze, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ntahompagaze, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5313, category Article
Pentti Lähteenoja. (1987). Effects of forestry extension courses. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 2 article id 5313. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15470

The attitudinal, behavioural and cognitive effects of four forestry extension and training courses were evaluated. The courses produced positive effects on the participants’ forestry knowledge. Further new forestry skills were adopted, and the courses had some positive behavioural effects. The attitudinal effects of the courses were mainly inconclusive. Differences between the evaluated courses were remarkable.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Lähteenoja, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5312, category Article
Timo Pukkala. (1987). Siementuotannon vaikutus kuusen ja männyn vuotuiseen kasvuun. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 2 article id 5312. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15469
English title: Effect of seed production on the annual growth of Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris.

The study material consisted of 13 rather old Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and 17 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands located in different parts of Finland. In each stand the seed crops, radial growth and amount of latewood were measured during a period of about ten years. Seed production reduces the radial growth of spruce and pine in the year of seed maturing. In Southern and Central Finland also the proportion of latewood is reduced. Seed production accounts for about 14% of the variation in radial growth of a spruce stand growing in Lapland, and 27% in other parts of Finland. In pine stands the seed crop explains 19% of the variation in radial growth in Lapland, and only 7% in the rest of Finland. In spruce stands an average seed crop reduces radial growth by 14% in Lapland and 5% in the rest of the country. An abundant seed production causes a reduction of about 20%. In southern parts of Finland, the proportion of latewood is reduced by 5% in an average seed year and by 24% in a good seed year. In pine stands an average seed crop decreases the width of annual ring by 5%, and a good seed crop by 15%. Outside Lapland, also the proportion of latewood is reduced: in an average seed year by 5%, and in a good seed year by 16%. The reduction in volume growth of spruce stands due to an average seed crop was estimated to be about 10% in Lapland, and 6% in other parts of Finland. A prolific seed production causes a reduction of 20%. In old pine stands the reduction is 5% in an average seed year, and 15% in a good seed year.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Pukkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5311, category Article
Timo Pukkala. (1987). Kuusen ja männyn siemensadon ennustemalli. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 2 article id 5311. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15468
English title: Model for predicting the seed crop of Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris.

The seed crop of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is predicted with the help of mean monthly temperatures during May–August one and two years before the flowering year. The prediction models were made separately for Lapland and for the rest of Finland. The models are based on 10-year periods of seed crop measurements and climatic data. The total number of time series was 59.

In Lapland, Norway spruce flowered abundantly and produced an abundant seed crop after warm July–August and two years after cool July–August. In other parts of Finland, warm June and July produced a good flowering year, especially if these months were cool two years before the flowering year.

In Lapland, Scots pine flowered abundantly if the whole previous growing season was warm. Elsewhere in Finland, a cool June preceded prolific flowering in the coming year if the rest of the growing season was considerably warmer than the average.

The prediction models explained 37–49 % of the variation in the size of the seed crop. The occurrence of good and poor seed years was usually predicted correctly. Using the presented models, the prediction of the seed crop is obtainable 1.5 year for Norway spruce and 2.5 year for Scots pine before the year of seed fall.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Pukkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5310, category Article
Petri Kärenlampi. (1987). Puun lahonkestävyys ja kosteusdynamiikka. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 2 article id 5310. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15467
English title: The decay resistance and moisture dynamics of wood.

In laboratory studies the heartwood content seems to be the only natural property of a wood of different tree species influencing the decay resistance. Moistening and drying by diffusion happen quite slowly. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sapwood takes moisture by capillary action quicker than pine heartwood and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) wood. Swelling and shrinkage are also greatest in pine sapwood. Impregnation of pine sapwood can give it better hydrophobic and dimensional stability than that of pine heartwood.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Kärenlampi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5309, category Article
Veli Pohjonen. (1987). Salix "Aquatica Gigantea" and Salix x dasyclados Wimm. in biomass willow research. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 2 article id 5309. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15466

Salix 'Aquatica Gigantea', widely experimented and promising species for temperate zone short rotation forestry, has since 1950 recorded in Finland 23 times with different clone numbers. Salix x dasyclados Wimm., by morphological, cultivational and productivity characteristics similar willow has been recorded 16 times.

The nomenclature and origin of both willows have remained unclear in field research. Recent observations, based on morphological analyses and chromosome studies suggest that ’Aguatica gigantea’ and most S. x dasuclados clones can be collected under one Siberian species: Salix burjatica Nasarov. The true Salix x dasyclados Wimm. is a female hybrid S. x viminalis x cinerea, famous West-European basket willow that has been very little experimented in Finland.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Pohjonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5308, category Article
Martti Saarilahti, R. E. L. Ole-Meiludie. (1987). Production rate and work strain on workers in cutting of pines in Tanzania. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 1 article id 5308. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15465

A team of 2 experienced workers was time-studied and their heart rate recorded under 4 days in clearcutting of a highly self-pruned Pinus patula Schltdl. & Cham. plantation. Task work and bonus payment systems were compared, but there was no difference in production rate, only the workplace time was extended from 2.3 h/d in task work to 3.9 h/d in bonus payment. The heart rate was 115–116 P/min in felling, 105–109 P/min in debranching and 109–114 P/min in bucking. The average heart rate in timber cutting was 108–109 P/min. Work load index was 34–37%, and the workers did not show any symptoms of accumulated stress. The production rate was 3.2 m3/h, (WPT, crew), which corresponds average piecework rate, the comparable walking speed being about 6.0 km/h. There are possibilities to increase the daily task by ergonomic grounds.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Saarilahti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ole-Meiludie, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5307, category Article
Simo Poso, Raito Paananen, Markku Similä. (1987). Forest inventory by compartments using satellite imagery. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 1 article id 5307. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15464

A method for using satellite data in forest inventories and updating is described and tested. The stand characteristics estimated by the method showed high correlation with the same characteristics measured in the field. The correlation coefficients for volume, age and mean height were about 0.85. It seems that the method is applicable to practical forestry. Extensive work in programming, however, is required.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Poso, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Paananen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Similä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5306, category Article
Timo Pukkala, Taneli Kolström. (1987). Competition indices and the prediction of radial growth in Scots pine. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 1 article id 5306. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15463

The effect of competition on the radial growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was studied in three naturally regenerated stands located in North Karelia, Finland. The competition situation of an individual tree was described with various competition indices which depended on the sizes and distances from the neighbouring trees. One competition index explained about 50% of the variation in 5-year radial growth in one stand. If all stands were combined, one index explained 43.5%, two indices 48.9% and three indices 51.2% of the variation. In one stand, the best competition indices accounted for about 20% of that variation which could not be explained by tree diameter. If all three stands were combined, the best index explained 11% of the residual variation. About 40% of the variation in 5-year radial growth could not be explained by the diameter and competition indices.
The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Pukkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kolström, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5305, category Article
Timo Pukkala. (1987). Simulation model for natural regeneration of Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, Betula pendula and Betula pubescens. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 1 article id 5305. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15462

In the model the regeneration process is derived into three subprocesses: birth, growth and mortality of seedlings. The main emphasis is on the birth process where the following phases are simulated: seed crop, quality of seeds, maturity of seeds, predation of seeds and germination. The parameters are based on data published in Finland. Part of the parameters are obtained directly from the investigations and part is proposed by the author. The model can be calibrated by changing parameter values. The simulation is made with the help of random numbers which have the same means as the estimates and the same distributions as the residuals of the equations used in simulation. The time step of the model is one year. The number of emerged seedlings in one year is obtained by multiplying the seed crop with the probabilities that the seed passes different phases of the birth process. Because of stochasticity the regeneration period is simulated several times. From the results it is possible to evaluate the risk and succeeding probability of the regeneration. The main drawbacks of the simulation method are the lack of empirical parameters and the difficulty of testing. The model could be further developed by including spatiality into the model.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Pukkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5304, category Article
Jimin Tan. (1987). A method to evaluate productivity of logging machines. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 1 article id 5304. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15461

This study deals with the evaluation of logging machines. The analyses were based on the results of a productivity study with special reference to a PIKA 35 processor, a delimber-bucker, working in Kyröskoski forest area in Finland. Factors affecting the productivity of the machine were surveyed. Mathematical models for determining the productivity were developed and their practical applications to the particular problem under study was demonstrated.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Tan, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5303, category Article
Hannu Raitio. (1987). Neulasvuosikertojen merkitys neulasanalyysin tulkinnassa. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 1 article id 5303. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15460
English title: The significance of the number of needle year classes of Scots pine in interpreting needle analysis results.

This study deals with significance of the number of needle year classes in estimating the nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and magnesium status of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) plants on the basis of needle analysis. Due to the nutrient retranslocation deficiencies in these nutrients are best determined by analysing separately the needles of the topmost branch whorls possessing one, two or three needle year classes. The concentrations of those nutrients which are not scarce will then increase as needle year classes decrease. In cases of deficiency, on the other hand, the content of the nutrient concerned will remain the same or decrease. Only severe deficiencies are revealed by the examination of the nutrient concentrations of only the youngest or the oldest needles.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Raitio, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5302, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki, Heikki Hänninen, Taneli Kolström, Ahti Kotisaari, Timo Pukkala. (1987). A tentative model for describing the effects of some regenerative process on the properties of natural seedling stands. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 1 article id 5302. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15459

The effect of the size of seed crop, dispersal of seeds and the early development of seedlings on the density and spatial distribution of young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands are evaluated on the basis of theoretical models. The models include (i) number and spatial distribution of parent trees on the regeneration area, (ii) size of annual seed crop, (iii) seed dispersal from a particular parent tree, (iv) germination of the seeds (germination percentage), (v) death of ageing seedlings after the establishment process, and (vi) height growth of the seedlings.

As expected, stand density and spatial distribution varied within a large range in relation to the density of the parent trees and the distance from them. The simulations also showed that natural seedling stands can be expected to be heterogenous due to the geometry of seed dispersal, emphasizing the frequency of young and small trees. The properties of the seedling stands were, however, greatly dependent on the density of the parent trees and the length of the regeneration period.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hänninen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kolström, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kotisaari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pukkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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