Table 2. Effect of regenerating saplings (>0.5 m height) on vegetation composition constrained by management type in permutational multivariate analysis of variance. Mean height, DBH (diameter at breast height), basal area, and density of saplings are given. The significant effects are shown in bold. The letters designate significant differences according to the pairwise Tukey’s post-hoc test. The tests were conducted separately for each of the four forest types. | |||||||||||||||

Cladinoso-callunosa |
Vacciniosa |
Myrtilloso-sphagnosa |
Sphagnosa |
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NAT | SALNAT | SALPLA | NAT | SALNAT | SALPLA | NAT | SALNAT | SALPLA | NAT | SALNAT | SALPLA | ||||

Regenerated seedlings | |||||||||||||||

Pine | |||||||||||||||

Height (m) | 0.5A |
4.5B |
3.3A |
2.7A |
3.7B |
5.3AB |
1.8 | 1.5 | 6.5 | 1.2 | 2.6 | 3.8 | |||

DBH (cm) | 0.0A |
4.8B |
4.5C |
2.2A |
3.7B |
7.6AB |
0.9 | 0.7 | 10.3 | 0.4 | 2.0 | 4.8 | |||

Basal area (m^{2} ha^{–1}) |
0.0A |
0.004B |
0.004C |
0.00A |
0.003B |
0.009AB |
0.0003 | 0.0001 | 0.01 | 0.00009 | 0.0007 | 0.003 | |||

Density (n ha^{–1}) |
4560A |
5200AB |
1800B |
12880A |
4280B |
1560AB |
6640A |
5720B |
1240AB |
12440A |
8160B |
2240A |
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Birch | |||||||||||||||

Height (m) | 0.0A |
1.2B |
0.0A |
1.4A |
1.0B |
0.0AB |
1.9A |
1.2B |
0.0B |
0.9A |
2.0B |
0.0C |
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DBH (cm) | 0.0A |
0.3B |
0.0A |
0.4A |
0.4B |
0.0A |
0.6A |
0.2B |
0.0B |
0.0A |
0.7B |
0.0B |
|||

Basal area (m^{2} ha^{–1}) |
0.0A |
0.00003B |
0.0A |
0.0001 | 0.00007 | 0.0 | 0.0002A |
0.00002B |
0.0B |
0.0A |
0.0001B |
0.0B |
|||

Density (n ha^{–1}) |
0A |
1320B |
0A |
1080 | 1920 | 0 | 15080A |
10440AB |
0B |
7880A |
17280AB |
0B |
|||

Spruce | |||||||||||||||

Height (m) | 0.0 | 0.0 | 0.0 | 0.1 | 0.0 | 0.0 | 2.1A |
1.1B |
0.0B |
0.1 | 0.0 | 0.0 | |||

DBH (cm) | 0.0 | 0.0 | 0.0 | 0.0 | 0.0 | 0.0 | 1.5A |
0.4B |
0.0B |
0.0 | 0.0 | 0.0 | |||

Basal area (m^{2} ha^{–1}) |
0.0 | 0.0 | 0.0 | 0.0 | 0.0 | 0.0 | 0.0005A |
0.00009B |
0.0B |
0.0 | 0.0 | 0.0 | |||

Density (n ha^{–1}) |
0 | 0 | 0 | 200 | 40 | 0 | 5520 | 7320 | 0 | 80 | 0 | 0 | |||

Alder | |||||||||||||||

Height (m) | 0.0 | 0.0 | 0.0 | 0.0A |
0.7B |
0.0A |
3.5 | 0.4 | 0.0 | 0.1 | 0.0 | 0.0 | |||

DBH (cm) | 0.0 | 0.0 | 0.0 | 0.0A |
0.8B |
0.0A |
3.0A |
0.0B |
0.0B |
0.0 | 0.0 | 0.0 | |||

Basal area (m^{2} ha^{–1}) |
0.0 | 0.0 | 0.0 | 0.0A |
5.8B |
0.0A |
0.002A |
0.0B |
0.0B |
0.0 | 0.0 | 0.0 | |||

Density (n ha^{–1}) |
0 | 0 | 0 | 0A |
560B |
0A |
640A |
320B |
0B |
40 | 0 | 0 | |||

Survived pine | |||||||||||||||

Height (m) | 9.8A |
0.0B |
0.0A |
22.0A |
11.7B |
0.0C |
0.0 | 0.0 | 0.0 | 12.6A |
0.0B |
0.0AB |
|||

DBH (cm) | 24.0A |
0.0B |
0.0A |
14.5A |
25.9B |
0.0A |
0.0 | 0.0 | 0.0 | 23.0A |
0.0B |
0.0AB |
|||

Basal area (m^{2} ha^{–1}) |
7.3A |
0.0B | 0.0A | 2.3A |
4.5AB |
0.0B |
0.0 | 0.0 | 0.0 | 3.5A |
0.0B |
0.0AB |
|||

NAT – natural regeneration, SALNAT – salvage logged and left for natural regeneration, SALPLA – salvage logging with planting. |