Table 1. Biomass removal and changes in ground water level (GWL) recorded in indicated studies. | |||

Biomass removal ^{1 } | Δ GWL ^{2} (cm) | Note ^{3 } | Reference |

Partial removal, peat soils | |||

PCT (from 3.5–10.4 m^{2} ha^{–1} to 0.4–2.5 m^{2} ha^{–1}) | c. 2 | Mean rise from June to August, during 2 years monitored. A.b. and L.l. dominated stands at 4 sites in Quebec, Canada (organic top layer > 50 cm). | Jutras et al. 2006 |

T_{BA} 20–50% | 1.7 – 2.3 cm. | P.s. on 4 drained peat (depth > 90 cm) sites in N Finland. IS 70–110 m ^{3} ha^{–1}. | Hökkä and Penttilä 1995 |

T_{VO} 10% T _{VO} 15%, 28% | ± 0 ≤ 7 | P.s. on a drained bog in S Finland. IS = c. 95 m ^{3} ha^{–1}. | Päivänen and Sarkkola 2000 |

T_{BA} 0%, 20%, 30%, 50% | c. 2–5 (data from figure). GWL lowest in 0% and highest in 50%; non-significant differences. | Drained P.a. mire in E Finland. IS 200–350 m ^{3} ha^{–1}. DC concurrently with T. | Hökkä et al. 2000b |

T 17%, T 26% | 0–15 The heavier cutting the larger the GWL change. | Mature P.s. and P.a. stands on drained peat in S Finland with volumes of 107–120 m^{3} ha^{–1} (P.s.) and 137–198 m^{3} ha^{–1} (P.a.). | Päivänen 1982 |

T 17% T 30% | 0–9 5–15 | P.s. (IS = 110–120 m^{3} ha^{–1}) N.s. (IS = 140–200 m ^{3} ha^{–1}) in drained peatlands. | Päivänen 1980 |

T 20–50% | A few cm, but clearly discernible. | Seven exp. in P.s. and B.spp. in drained peatlands in central Finland. IS = 50–150 m ^{3} ha^{–1}. | Heikurainen 1967 |

T 20%, 40% T 60% | 0–4 5–7 | P.s. in a drained peatland in central Finland. IS = c. 90 m ^{3} ha^{–1}. | Heikurainen and Päivänen 1970 |

T (SC) | 2–13 | Four P.a. stands on mires in central Sweden. Mean of three years after harvest. | Lundin 2000 |

Partial removal, mineral soils | |||

PCT (from 3.5–10.4 m^{2} ha^{–1} to 0.4–2.5 m^{2} ha^{–1}) | 1.5–3 | Mean rise from June to August, during 2 yrs monitored. A.b. and L.l. dominated stands at 2 sites in Quebec, Canada (organic top layer < 20 cm). | Jutras et al. 2006 |

T 0%, 40%, 50%, 60% | GWL rise linearly related to cutting percentage. | P.r. and A.b. dominated stand on gleyed humoferric podzol (organic top layer c. 10 cm) in Quebec, Canada. IS = 40 m ^{3} ha^{–1}. | Pothier et al. 2003 |

Final cutting, peat soils | |||

FC | 4 | Organic soil. | Marcotte 2005 (in Jutras et al. 2006) |

FC | 2–27 | P.s. (IS = 110–120 m^{3} ha^{–1}) and P.a. (IS = 140–200 m ^{3} ha^{–1}). | Päivänen 1980 |

FC | 20–40 | Seven exp. in P.s. and B.spp. in drained peatlands in central Finland. IS = 50–150 m ^{3} ha^{–1}. | Heikurainen 1967 |

FC | 5–14 cm | P.s. in a drained peatland in central Finland. IS = c. 90 m ^{3} ha^{–1}. | Heikurainen and Päivänen 1970 |

FC | c. 22 cm | P.r. and A.b. dominated stand on gleyed humoferric podzol (organic top layer c. 10 cm) in Quebec, Canada. IS = 40 m ^{3} ha^{–1}. | Pothier et al. 2003 |

FC | No significant GWL rise after shelterwood removal relative to some years after shelterwood cut. | FC of shelterwoods, treatments 40%, 50%, 60% in the study by Pothier et al. (2003) See above. | Prévost and Gauthier 2013 |

FC | 4–11 | Four P.a. stands on peatlands in central Sweden. Mean of three years after harvest. | Lundin 2000 |

FC | 18 (12–37 within site variation) | P.s. on a drained peatland in S Finland. IS = 100 m ^{3} ha^{–1}. | Sarkkola et al. 2013 |

FC | 17 | P.a. on peatland in Sweden. IS = 300–400 m ^{3} ha^{–1}. | Lundin 1999 |

FC | No GWL rise at 20 m ditch distance. At 40 and 60m ditch distances GWL rise occurred 10–30 m away from the ditches. | P.m. dominated stand on a fen with highly humified peat as top soil (100 cm) in Quebec, Canada. IS = 60 m ^{3} ha^{–1}. | Jutras and Plamondon 2005 |

FC | 4–7 | Five fens, bogs and swamps (peat thickness > 30 cm). Study in Quebec, Canada, in a flat lowland forested wetland area with poor drainage. A variety of tree species included, e.g. A.b., P.r., P.m., A.r. and T.o. | Dubé et al. 1995; Dubé and Plamondon 1995 |

FC | 12–16 cm, depending on total removed volume | Mature P.a. and P.s. stands in southern Finland, volumes removed 138 m^{3} ha^{–1} and 114 m^{3} ha^{–1}. | Päivänen 1982 |

Final cutting, mineral soils | |||

FC | 10 | Mineral soil. | Marcotte 2005 (in Jutras et al. 2006) |

FC | 20 | Two gleyed mineral soil sites (thickness of organic layer 10–30 cm). Study in Quebec, Canada, in a flat lowland forested wetland area. A.b. and P.r. dominated stands. | Dubé et al. 1995; Dubé and Plamondon 1995 |

FC | 31 | Mean during 4 years after harvest. P.s. and P.a. dominated stands (IS = 100–200 m^{3} ha^{–1}) on upland morainic mineral soil in central Sweden. | Lundin 1979 |

^{1} PCT = Pre-commercial thinning; T = Thinning; T_{BA} = Thinning by stem basal area; T_{VO} = Thinning by stem volume; SC = Shelterwood cut; FC = Final cutting. | |||

^{2} Commonly given as mean change in ground water level (GWL) over the vegetation period. | |||

^{3} IS = Initial stocking before harvest; DC = Ditch cleaning; A.b. = Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.; L.l. = Larix laricina (Du Roi) K. Koch; P.s. = Pinus sylvestris L.; P.a. = Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.; P.r. = Picea rubens Sarg.; P.m. = Picea mariana (Mill.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.; B.spp. = Betula spp.; A.r. = Acer rubrum L.; T.o. = Thuja occidentalis L. |