Table 1. The generalized algebraic difference approach models fitted to dominant height time series of beech according to Sharma et al. (2011). Base model Generalized algebraic difference approach model
 Table 2. Parameter estimates and their t-values of the fitted models. Models fit statistics: mean absolute residual (MR), residual standard error (RSE), root mean squared error (RMSE), Akaike information criterion (AIC), adjusted R2-value (McNemar’s method), and variance components of the random effects (VAR). Chapman-Richards Hossfeld Hossfeld I King-Prodan Log-logistic Sloboda Strand Parameter estimates b1 0.0227 43.7466 0.0228 1.576 43.803 52.9402 0.1789 b2 –9.8636 121.078 –0.0054 118.678 –104.29 0.2502 –0.0034 b3 42.6561 1.5954 –5281.7 –1.6153 0.6489 2.2777 Estimate t-values b1 16.88 10.36 11.47 37.15 11.83 7.8 8.48 b2 1.91 2.65 4.7 2.17 0.06 7.57 2.03 b3 2.23 37.81 2.03 38.12 12.98 15.7 Model statistics MR (m) 0.48 0.51 0.72 0.52 0.53 0.49 0.51 RSE (m) 0.6 0.65 0.83 0.65 0.67 0.63 0.64 RMSE (m) 0.6 0.64 0.82 0.65 0.66 0.62 0.64 AIC 660.3 685.3 835 686.9 694.3 656.8 677.7 Adj. R2 0.9963 0.9956 0.9958 0.9956 0.9954 0.9959 0.9958 VAR (tree) 0.317 1.125 0.133 0.013 0.432 0.721 0.009 VAR (stand) 0.011 1.965 2.231 2.023 0.414 0.168 0.377 VAR (residual) 0.367 0.418 0.553 0.422 0.441 0.384 0.409

Fig. 1. The non-linear dominant height models (black lines) fitted to the observed data (grey lines, each line represent single tree); model predictions are for 3 m site index intervals for the range 21–42 m (A–G). Panel H show the height growth of beech in southern Sweden according to Carbonnier (1971); black line show site indices in 4 m intervals for the range 20–36 m.

Fig. 2. The differences between beech dominant height predicted by the developed Chapman-Richards (A) and Sloboda (B) models in the western part of Latvia and yield tables for southern Sweden (cf. Carbonnier 1971) according to stand age and site index.