Full text of this article is only available in PDF format.

Teijo Nikkanen (email)

Reproductive phenology in a Norway spruce seed orchard

Nikkanen T. (2001). Reproductive phenology in a Norway spruce seed orchard. Silva Fennica vol. 35 no. 1 article id 602. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.602


Reproductive phenology was studied in a Norway spruce seed orchard, located in southern Finland (62°13’N, 25°24’E), consisting of 67 clones from northern Finland (64°–67°N). Timing of flowering was determined on the basis of data recorded by a pollen catch meter during 1984–1995, and visual observations made on grafts in 1989, 1992, 1993 and 1995. The genetic and environmental factors affecting female and male phenology, and reproductive synchronisation were studied. The between-year variation in the timing of flowering was more than three weeks. However, when it was defined on the basis of the effective temperature sum, the variation was smaller. No phenological reproductive isolation was found between the seed orchard and surrounding natural forests. The duration of the receptive period of the seed orchard varied from 5 to 8 days, and anthesis determined on the basis of airborne pollen from 5 to 10 days. The receptive period started about one day earlier than anthesis, except in one abnormally warm flowering period when female and male flowering started simultaneously. In general, the flowering periods of the different clones overlapped. The clonal differences in the phenology of receptivity were in most cases statistically significant, but in pollen shedding they were not. The broad-sense heritability estimates were higher for female than for male phenology. Environmental factors, conversely, had a stronger effect on male phenology. A wide graft spacing and a graft position that favoured solar radiation on the lower parts of the crown promoted early pollen shedding and, subsequently, better reproductive synchronisation between female and male flowering.

Picea abies; flowering; receptive period; pollination; reproductive synchronisation

Author Info
  • Nikkanen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Punkaharju Research Station, FIN-58451 Punkaharju, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail teijo.nikkanen@metla.fi (email)

Received 9 May 2000 Accepted 22 January 2001 Published 31 December 2001

Available at https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.602 | Download PDF

Creative Commons License

Click this link to register for Silva Fennica submission and tracking system.
Log in
If you are a registered user, log in to save your selected articles for later access.
Contents alert
Sign up to receive alerts of new content

Your selected articles
Your search results