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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Articles containing the keyword 'pollination'

Category : Article

article id 4910, category Article
Erkki Lähde, Katri Pahkala. (1974). Havupuiden siemenen kehitys ja itäminen kirjallisuuden valossa. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 4 article id 4910.
English title: Development and germination of the seeds of conifers according to literature.
Original keywords: kylvö; havupuut; itäminen; esi-idätysmenetelmä; kukkiminen; siementen kehitys; pölytys
English keywords: germination; flowering; conifers; pollination; seeds; sowing; seeding; development of seeds; pre-germination method
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of the present study was to collect information presented in literature concerning the development and germination of the seeds of coniferous trees with special reference to those species which thrive in the conditions prevailing in Finland. Along with the increase in the importance of direct seeding as a silvicultural means in Northern Finland, there is a growing demand for methods by means of which the germination of seeds could be promoted. According to the results obtained from previous studies, such a method can be found, provided that a practically usable and reliable pre-germination method is developed.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lähde, E-mail: el@mm.unknown (email)
  • Pahkala, E-mail: kp@mm.unknown
article id 4831, category Article
Lauri Mikkola. (1970). Kuusilajien risteytyvyydestä. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 4 article id 4831.
English title: On the crossability of Picea species.
Original keywords: mänty; metsänjalostus; itävyys; kuuset; risteytys; risteytyskokeet; keinollinen pölytys
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Picea abies; tree breeding; Picea; Abies; controlled pollination; interspecific sterility; hybrids; crossbreeding
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Seed development was microscopically studied after controlled pollinations. In all the interspecific crosses incompatibility occured. In the following crosses the growth of all the pollen tubes stopped before they had penetrated through the nuclear cap: Picea abies (L.) Karst. x mariana, abies x jezoensis (and the reciprocal), abies x omorika (and the reciprocal), mariana x asperata, mariana x jezoensis and Picea abies x Pinus sylvestris L.

Some of the eggs were fertilized in the crosses Picea abies x glauca (and the reciprocal) abies x asperata, abies x koyamai, abies x obovata, mariana x omorika and jezoensis x omorika. Embryo degeneration was observed in all these crosses. All the embryos died in the crosses abies x glauca (and the reciprocal) as well as jezoensis x omorika. Adequate amounts of full seed for germination test was obtained from the crosses abies x asperata, abies x koyamai and abies x obovata. In all these crosses there were seeds which were able to germinate and the hybrids are now one growth season old.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Mikkola, E-mail: lm@mm.unknown (email)

Category : Research article

article id 602, category Research article
Teijo Nikkanen. (2001). Reproductive phenology in a Norway spruce seed orchard. Silva Fennica vol. 35 no. 1 article id 602.
Keywords: Picea abies; flowering; receptive period; pollination; reproductive synchronisation
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Reproductive phenology was studied in a Norway spruce seed orchard, located in southern Finland (62°13’N, 25°24’E), consisting of 67 clones from northern Finland (64°–67°N). Timing of flowering was determined on the basis of data recorded by a pollen catch meter during 1984–1995, and visual observations made on grafts in 1989, 1992, 1993 and 1995. The genetic and environmental factors affecting female and male phenology, and reproductive synchronisation were studied. The between-year variation in the timing of flowering was more than three weeks. However, when it was defined on the basis of the effective temperature sum, the variation was smaller. No phenological reproductive isolation was found between the seed orchard and surrounding natural forests. The duration of the receptive period of the seed orchard varied from 5 to 8 days, and anthesis determined on the basis of airborne pollen from 5 to 10 days. The receptive period started about one day earlier than anthesis, except in one abnormally warm flowering period when female and male flowering started simultaneously. In general, the flowering periods of the different clones overlapped. The clonal differences in the phenology of receptivity were in most cases statistically significant, but in pollen shedding they were not. The broad-sense heritability estimates were higher for female than for male phenology. Environmental factors, conversely, had a stronger effect on male phenology. A wide graft spacing and a graft position that favoured solar radiation on the lower parts of the crown promoted early pollen shedding and, subsequently, better reproductive synchronisation between female and male flowering.
  • Nikkanen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Punkaharju Research Station, FIN-58451 Punkaharju, Finland E-mail: (email)

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