Fungal diseases in forest nurseries in Finland
Lilja A., Poteri M., Petäistö R.-L., Rikala R., Kurkela T., Kasanen R. (2010). Fungal diseases in forest nurseries in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 44 no. 3 article id 147. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.147
Norway spruce (Picea abies), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and silver birch (Betula pendula) are the major tree species grown in Finnish forest nurseries where 99% of the seedlings are grown in containers first in plastic-covered greenhouses and later outdoors. The main diseases on conifer seedlings are Scleroderris canker (Gremmeniella abietina), Sirococcus blight and cankers (Sirococcus conigenum), snow blights (Herpotrichia juniperi and Phacidium infestans) and needle casts (Lophodermium seditiosum and Meria laricis). Also grey mould (Botrytis cinerea) and birch rust (Melampsoridium betulinum) are among the diseases to be controlled with fungicides. During last years Scleroderris canker has been a problem on Norway spruce, which has been since 2000 the most common species produced in Finnish nurseries. Root die-back (uninucleate Rhizoctonia sp.) on container-grown spruce and pine was a problem in the 1990s. Today the disease has become less common in modern nurseries due to improvements in hygiene and cultivation practice. Since 1991 stem lesions and top dying caused by Phytophthora cactorum has been a problem on birch. The ongoing climate change has already had effect on rusts and powdery mildews as well as other fungi infecting leaves. All diseases, which gain high precipitation and warm and long autumns. For same reasons winter stored seedlings need sprayings against grey mold. Fungal infections are also possible during short-day (SD) treatment, that is necessary for summer and autumn plantings and a beneficial step prior freezing temperatures outside or in freezer storage. Growers are encouraged to use cultural and integrated pest management techniques such as better nursery hygiene, including removing plant debris in nursery growing areas and hot water washing of containers plus removal of diseased, spore-producing seedlings and trees around the nursery.
Received 30 July 2009 Accepted 19 April 2010 Published 31 December 2010