Full text of this article is only available in PDF format.

Timo Saksa (email), Juha Heiskanen, Jari Miina, Jaakko Tuomola, Taneli Kolström

Multilevel modelling of height growth in young Norway spruce plantations in southern Finland

Saksa T., Heiskanen J., Miina J., Tuomola J., Kolström T. (2005). Multilevel modelling of height growth in young Norway spruce plantations in southern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 39 no. 1 article id 403. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.403

Abstract

Height development of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) transplants was studied on 22 sites prepared by disc trenching or mounding. At the age of 4–9 years the plantations were surveyed using a multistage sampling design. For every planted spruce on a plot, the past annual height increments were measured as far into the past as possible. Multilevel mixed linear modelling was used to analyse the variation in growth at different levels (year, stand, cluster, plot, tree) and the effects of climatic and site characteristics on height growth. The within-plantation variation in height growth was higher on mounded sites than on disc-trenched sites. The mean temperature and the precipitation sum of the summer months affected height growth positively. Soil characteristics measured from undisturbed soil did not explain the height growth of seedlings on mounded sites, whereas on disc-trenched sites, the depth of the organic layer and the soil temperature had a positive effect and the depth of the eluvial horizon a negative effect. The modelling approach used proved to be a useful method for examining the sources of variation in development of young plantations.

Keywords
Norway spruce; Picea abies; height growth; mounding; disc trenching; container seedlings; intra-level correlation; variance-component model

Author Info
  • Saksa, The Finnish Forest Institute, Suonenjoki Research Station, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland E-mail ts@nn.fi (email)
  • Heiskanen, The Finnish Forest Institute, Suonenjoki Research Station, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland E-mail jh@nn.fi
  • Miina, The Finnish Forest Institute, Joensuu Research Centre, P. O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail jm@nn.fi
  • Tuomola, The University of Joensuu, Mekrijärvi Research Station, FI-82900 Ilomantsi, Finland E-mail jt@nn.fi
  • Kolström, The University of Joensuu, Mekrijärvi Research Station, FI-82900 Ilomantsi, Finland E-mail tk@nn.fi

Received 10 December 2003 Accepted 28 December 2004 Published 31 December 2005

Views 3853

Available at https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.403 | Download PDF

Creative Commons License CC BY-SA 4.0

Register
Click this link to register to Silva Fennica.
Log in
If you are a registered user, log in to save your selected articles for later access.
Contents alert
Sign up to receive alerts of new content

Your selected articles
Your search results
Hökkä H., Alenius V. et al. (1997) Individual-tree basal area growth models for Sco.. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 2 article id 5616
Skre O., Nes K. (1996) Combined effects of elevated winter temperatures.. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 2–3 article id 5581
Vettenranta J., (1996) Effect of species composition on economic return.. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 1 article id 5574
Jokinen K. J., Durzan D. J. (1994) Properties of rescued embryonal suspensor masses.. Silva Fennica vol. 28 no. 2 article id 5400
Koistinen E., Valkonen S. (1993) Models for height development of Norway spruce a.. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 3 article id 5510
Pulkkinen P., (1993) Frost hardiness development and lignification of.. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 1 article id 5497
Pukkala T., Kolström T. (1991) Effect of spatial pattern of trees on the growth.. Silva Fennica vol. 25 no. 3 article id 5449
Kolström T., (1991) Results from the sowing and planting experiment .. Silva Fennica vol. 25 no. 2 article id 5445
Rostad H., (1988) Frost resistance during shoot elongation in Pice.. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 3 article id 5355
Johnsen Ø., Apeland I. (1988) Screening early autumn frost hardiness among pro.. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 3 article id 5353
Pukkala T., (1987) Effect of seed production on the annual growth o.. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 2 article id 5312
Pukkala T., (1987) Model for predicting the seed crop of Picea abie.. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 2 article id 5311
Westman C. J., Leikola M. et al. (1985) The effect of large-scale nitrogen fertilization.. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 4 article id 5253
Parviainen J., (1985) Growth of young Scots pine, Norway spruce, siber.. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 4 article id 5249
Kärkkäinen M., (1985) Norway spruce wood grown in Finland compared wit.. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 2 article id 5238
Heikurainen L., (1985) The influence of birch nurse crop (Betula pubesc.. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 1 article id 5233
Kärkkäinen M., (1984) Effect of tree social status on basic density of.. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 2 article id 5208
Saranpää P., (1983) The influence of basic density and growth ring w.. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 4 article id 5199
Kärkkäinen M., Dumell O. (1983) Effect of basic density and growth ring width on.. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 2 article id 5181
Ollinmaa P. J., (1981) Physical properties of wood growing on drained s.. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 3 article id 5128
Greis I., Kellomäki S. (1981) Crown structure and stem growth of Norway spruce.. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 3 article id 5125
Jokinen R., (1980) Estimation of growth response achieved through f.. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 3 article id 5081
Luukkanen O., Johansson S. (1980) Flower induction by exogenous plant hormones in .. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 1 article id 5070
Mikola J., (1980) The effect of seed size and duration of growth o.. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 1 article id 5069
Kapustinskaité T., (1975) Ash content of peatland soils and stand growth i.. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 3 article id 4924
Kallio T., (1972) An example on the economic loss caused by decay .. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 2 article id 4865
Pohtila E., (1972) Effect of fine-grounded copper rock phosphate pl.. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 1 article id 4859
Luukkanen O., Räsänen P. K. et al. (1971) The use of needle colour in predicting growth an.. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 4 article id 4853
Mannerkoski H., (1971) Effect of fertilization on the initial developme.. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 2 article id 4841
Löyttyniemi K., (1971) Influence of damage caused to needles of Norway .. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 1 article id 4835
Heikurainen L., Ouni J. (1970) Height growth of seedling stands growing on peat.. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 2 article id 4817
Löyttyniemi K., (1969) An Eriophyidae species damaging Norway spruce se.. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 3 article id 4802
Eklund B., (1967) Annual variation of increment in Scots pine and .. Silva Fennica vol. 1 no. 4 article id 4756
Ilvessalo Y., (1967) The development of natural normal forest stands .. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 81 no. 5 article id 7170
Heikurainen L., Seppälä K. (1965) Regionality in stand increment and its dependenc.. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 78 no. 4 article id 7157
Kallio T., (1965) Studies on the biology of distribution and possi.. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 78 no. 3 article id 7156
Kallio K., (1960) The mensurational density of a stand in estimati.. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 71 no. 7 article id 7116
Yli-Vakkuri P., (1960) Snow cover and ground frost in Finnish forests Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 71 no. 5 article id 7114
Kallio K., (1957) On the development of spruce forests of the Oxal.. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 66 no. 3 article id 7473
Nuorteva M., (1956) Effect of fellings on bark beetle population in .. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 65 no. 4 article id 7467
Kalela E. K., (1949) On the horizontal roots in Scots pine and Norway.. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 57 no. 2 article id 7398
Lappi-Seppälä M., (1942) Growth of Siberian larch in mixed stands in stat.. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 8 article id 7361
Aaltonen V. T., (1942) Growth studies on tree seedlings Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 6 article id 7359
Hertz M., (1929) Observations on annual and daily cycles in the h.. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 18 article id 7231
Ilvessalo Y., (1920) Growth and yield tables for the Scots pine, Norw.. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 15 no. 4 article id 7042
Valsta Lauri., (1992) An optimization model for Norway spruce manageme.. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 0 no. 232 article id 7678
Leinonen K., Leikola M. et al. (1989) Natural regeneration of Norway spruce in Pirkka-.. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 0 no. 209 article id 7656
Thammincha S., (1981) Climatic variation in radial growth of Scots pin.. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 0 no. 171 article id 7618
Brown R. T., Mikola P. (1974) The influence of fruticose soil lichens upon the.. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 0 no. 141 article id 7575
Seppälä K., (1969) Post-drainage growth rate of Norway spruce and S.. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 0 no. 93 article id 7611
Leikola M., (1969) The influence of environmental factors on the di.. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 0 no. 92 article id 7610
Häggström B., Lutter R. et al. (2023) Effect of arginine-phosphate addition on early s.. Silva Fennica vol. 57 no. 2 article id 22013
Goude M., Nilsson U. et al. (2022) Comparing basal area growth models for Norway sp.. Silva Fennica vol. 56 no. 2 article id 10707
Skrøppa T., Steffenrem A. (2019) Genetic variation in phenology and growth among .. Silva Fennica vol. 53 no. 1 article id 10076
Repola J., Hökkä H. et al. (2018) Models for diameter and height growth of Scots p.. Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 5 article id 10055
Levkoev E., Mehtätalo L. et al. (2018) Development of height growth and frost hardiness.. Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 3 article id 9980
Luoranen J., Sutinen S. (2017) Reduced height of short day induced bud scale co.. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 5 article id 7759
Bayer D., Pretzsch H. (2017) Reactions to gap emergence: Norway spruce increa.. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 5 article id 7748
Sharma R. P., Vacek Z. et al. (2017) Modelling tree crown-to-bole diameter ratio for .. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 5 article id 1740
Egbäck S., Nilsson U. et al. (2017) Modeling early height growth in trials of geneti.. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 3 article id 5662
Čermák P., Rybníček M. et al. (2017) Impact of climate change on growth dynamics of N.. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 2 article id 1781
Luoranen J., Rikala R. (2015) Post-planting effects of early-season short-day .. Silva Fennica vol. 49 no. 1 article id 1300
Hökkä H., Mäkelä H. (2015) Post-harvest height growth of Norway spruce seed.. Silva Fennica vol. 48 no. 5 article id 1192
Heiskanen J., Saksa T. et al. (2013) Soil preparation method affects outplanting succ.. Silva Fennica vol. 47 no. 1 article id 893
Gunulf A., Mc Carthy R. et al. (2012) Control efficacy of stump treatment and influenc.. Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 5 article id 917
Bace R., Svoboda M. et al. (2011) Density and height structure of seedlings in sub.. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 5 article id 87
Luoranen J., Rikala R. et al. (2011) Machine planting of Norway spruce by Bracke and .. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 3 article id 107
Luoranen J., Rikala R. (2011) Nutrient loading of Norway spruce seedlings hast.. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 3 article id 105
Schiessl E., Grabner M. et al. (2010) Sub-montane Norway spruce as alternative seed so.. Silva Fennica vol. 44 no. 4 article id 453
Uotila K., Rantala J. et al. (2010) Effect of soil preparation method on economic re.. Silva Fennica vol. 44 no. 3 article id 146
Zubizarreta Gerendiain A., Peltola H. et al. (2009) Growth and wood property traits in narrow crowne.. Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 3 article id 194
Luoranen J., Konttinen K. et al. (2009) Frost hardening and risk of a second flush in No.. Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 2 article id 209
Kankaanhuhta V., Saksa T. et al. (2009) Variation in the results of Norway spruce planti.. Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 1 article id 217
Zubizarreta Gerendiain A., Peltola H. et al. (2008) Differences in growth and wood properties betwee.. Silva Fennica vol. 42 no. 3 article id 247
Luoranen J., Rikala R. et al. (2005) Extending the planting period of dormant and gro.. Silva Fennica vol. 39 no. 4 article id 361
Saarsalmi A., Tamminen P. (2005) Boron, phosphorus and nitrogen fertilization in .. Silva Fennica vol. 39 no. 3 article id 373
Sikström U., (2005) Pre-harvest soil acidification, liming or N fert.. Silva Fennica vol. 39 no. 3 article id 372
Jacobson S., (2003) Addition of stabilized wood ashes to Swedish con.. Silva Fennica vol. 37 no. 4 article id 483
Lindström H., (2002) Intra-tree models of juvenile wood in Norway spr.. Silva Fennica vol. 36 no. 2 article id 542
Brække F. H., Salih N. (2002) Reliability of foliar analyses of Norway spruce .. Silva Fennica vol. 36 no. 2 article id 540
Lindström H., (2000) Intra-tree models of basic density in Norway spr.. Silva Fennica vol. 34 no. 4 article id 622
Helenius P., Luoranen J. et al. (2004) Effect of thawing duration and temperature on fi.. Silva Fennica vol. 38 no. 3 article id 421