Full text of this article is only available in PDF format.

Timo Pukkala (email), Jari Miina

Optimising the management of a heterogeneous stand

Pukkala T., Miina J. (2005). Optimising the management of a heterogeneous stand. Silva Fennica vol. 39 no. 4 article id 364. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.364


The study presents a method for taking the heterogeneity of the stand into account in the optimisation of stand management. Heterogeneity refers to within-stand variation in stand density and/or other characteristics. A set of plots, corresponding to different sub-areas of the stand, represents the stand in calculations. Cuttings and other treatments of the plots are done simultaneously. The method was used to analyse how the optimal management depends on the heterogeneity of a Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand. The results supported the hypothesis that the heterogeneity of a stand decreases its optimal prior-thinning density. Also the remaining stand basal areas were lower in heterogeneous stands, especially in spruce. The effect of stand heterogeneity prior to the first commercial thinning still affected the timing of the second thinning, which had to be conducted earlier and at lower prior-thinning basal areas in heterogeneous stands. This happened despite the fact that the first thinning greatly decreased the within-stand variation in stand basal area. In addition, heterogeneity decreased the soil expectation value, net income and timber harvests.

Hooke and Jeeves algorithm; thinning schedules; within-stand variation

Author Info
  • Pukkala, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail timo.pukkala@joensuu.fi (email)
  • Miina, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Unit, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:

Received 3 February 2005 Accepted 19 October 2005 Published 31 December 2005

Available at https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.364 | Download PDF

Creative Commons License

Click this link to register for Silva Fennica submission and tracking system.
Log in
If you are a registered user, log in to save your selected articles for later access.
Contents alert
Sign up to receive alerts of new content

Your selected articles
Your search results
Miina J., Bohlin I. et al. (2021) Lessons learned from assessing the cover and yie.. Silva Fennica vol. 55 no. 5 article id 10573
Nuutinen Y., Miina J. et al. (2021) Comparing the characteristics of boom-corridor a.. Silva Fennica vol. 55 no. 3 article id 10462
Uotila K., Miina J. et al. (2020) Low cost prediction of time consumption for pre-.. Silva Fennica vol. 54 no. 1 article id 10196
Saksa T., Miina J. et al. (2018) Quality of spot mounding performed by continuous.. Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 2 article id 9933
Turtiainen M., Miina J. et al. (2016) Modelling the coverage and annual variation in b.. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 4 article id 1573
Turtiainen M., Miina J. et al. (2013) Empirical prediction models for the coverage and.. Silva Fennica vol. 47 no. 3 article id 1005
Miina J., Hotanen J.-P. et al. (2009) Modelling the abundance and temporal variation i.. Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 4 article id 181
Saksa T., Miina J. (2007) Cleaning methods in planted Scots pine stands in.. Silva Fennica vol. 41 no. 4 article id 274
Pukkala T., Miina J. (2005) Optimising the management of a heterogeneous stand Silva Fennica vol. 39 no. 4 article id 364
Saksa T., Heiskanen J. et al. (2005) Multilevel modelling of height growth in young N.. Silva Fennica vol. 39 no. 1 article id 403
Pukkala T., Miina J. et al. (2002) Thinning response and thinning bias in a young S.. Silva Fennica vol. 36 no. 4 article id 524
Peltola H., Miina J. et al. (2002) Effect of early thinning on the diameter growth .. Silva Fennica vol. 36 no. 4 article id 523
Vettenranta J., Miina J. (1999) Optimizing thinnings and rotation of Scots pine .. Silva Fennica vol. 33 no. 1 article id 671
Miina J. (1994) Spatial growth model for Scots pine on drained p.. Silva Fennica vol. 28 no. 1 article id 5525