Full text of this article is only available in PDF format.

Timo Pukkala (email)

Simulation model for natural regeneration of Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, Betula pendula and Betula pubescens.

Pukkala T. (1987). Simulation model for natural regeneration of Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, Betula pendula and Betula pubescens. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 1 article id 5305. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15462

Abstract

In the model the regeneration process is derived into three subprocesses: birth, growth and mortality of seedlings. The main emphasis is on the birth process where the following phases are simulated: seed crop, quality of seeds, maturity of seeds, predation of seeds and germination. The parameters are based on data published in Finland. Part of the parameters are obtained directly from the investigations and part is proposed by the author. The model can be calibrated by changing parameter values. The simulation is made with the help of random numbers which have the same means as the estimates and the same distributions as the residuals of the equations used in simulation. The time step of the model is one year. The number of emerged seedlings in one year is obtained by multiplying the seed crop with the probabilities that the seed passes different phases of the birth process. Because of stochasticity the regeneration period is simulated several times. From the results it is possible to evaluate the risk and succeeding probability of the regeneration. The main drawbacks of the simulation method are the lack of empirical parameters and the difficulty of testing. The model could be further developed by including spatiality into the model.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

Keywords
Pinus sylvestris; Betula pendula; Picea abies; germination; Betula pubescens; mortality; seed crop; computer model; stochastic simulation; birth model

Published in 1987

Views 2310

Available at https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15462 | Download PDF

Creative Commons License CC BY-SA 4.0

Register
Click this link to register to Silva Fennica.
Log in
If you are a registered user, log in to save your selected articles for later access.
Contents alert
Sign up to receive alerts of new content

Your selected articles
Your search results
Mäkelä A., Ikonen V.-P. et al. (1997) An application of process-based modelling to the.. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 3 article id 5632
Hökkä H., Alenius V. et al. (1997) Individual-tree basal area growth models for Sco.. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 2 article id 5616
Lilja A., Kurkela T. et al. (1997) Nursery practices and management of fungal disea.. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 1 article id 5611
Beuker E., Kellomäki S. et al. (1996) Changes in wood production of Picea abies and Pi.. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 2–3 article id 5591
Vanha-Majamaa I., Suominen R. et al. (1996) Seedling establishment after prescribed burning .. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 1 article id 5573
Silfverberg K., (1995) Forest regeneration on nutrient-poor peatlands: .. Silva Fennica vol. 29 no. 3 article id 5557
Hytönen J., Rossi P. et al. (1995) Biomass production and nutrient uptake of short-.. Silva Fennica vol. 29 no. 2 article id 5551
Ryynänen L., Viherä-Aarnio A. (1995) Growth, crown structure and seed production of b.. Silva Fennica vol. 29 no. 1 article id 5542
Viherä-Aarnio A., Ryynänen L. (1994) Seed production of micropropagated plants, graft.. Silva Fennica vol. 28 no. 4 article id 5538
Kolström T., Kellomäki S. (1993) Tree survival in wildfires. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 4 article id 5521
Pukkala T., Karsikko J. et al. (1992) A spatial model for the diameter of thickest bra.. Silva Fennica vol. 26 no. 4 article id 5490
Kellomäki S., Kolström M. (1992) Computations on the management of seedling stand.. Silva Fennica vol. 26 no. 2 article id 5478
Hytönen J., (1992) Allelopathic potential of peatland plant species.. Silva Fennica vol. 26 no. 2 article id 5475
Danell Ö., (1991) Survey of past, current and future Swedish fores.. Silva Fennica vol. 25 no. 4 article id 5463
Rikala R., Jozefek H. J. (1990) Effect of dolomite lime and wood ash on peat sub.. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 4 article id 5432
Paavilainen E., (1990) Effect of refertilization of pine and birch stan.. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 1 article id 5411
Nygren M., (1990) Variation in the seed mass of Scots pine and Nor.. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 1 article id 5410
Hänninen H., Pelkonen P. (1988) Effects of temperature on dormancy release in No.. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 3 article id 5357
Pukkala T., (1988) Effect of spatial distribution of trees on the v.. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 1 article id 5338
Pukkala T., (1987) Effect of seed production on the annual growth o.. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 2 article id 5312
Pukkala T., (1987) Model for predicting the seed crop of Picea abie.. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 2 article id 5311
Kellomäki S., Hänninen H. et al. (1987) A tentative model for describing the effects of .. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 1 article id 5302
Kärkkäinen M., (1986) Value relations of Scots pine and Norway spruce .. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 2 article id 5267
Kärkkäinen M., (1986) Model of knottiness of wood material in pine, sp.. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 2 article id 5266
Kärkkäinen M., (1986) Value relations of birch veneer logs and stems i.. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 1 article id 5261
Romakkaniemi P., (1986) The susceptibility of Betula pendula and B. pube.. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 1 article id 5258
Kärkkäinen M., Pietilä J. et al. (1985) Impact bending strength of Finnish tree species .. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 4 article id 5255
Parviainen J., (1985) Growth of young Scots pine, Norway spruce, siber.. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 4 article id 5249
Heikurainen L., (1985) The influence of birch nurse crop (Betula pubesc.. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 1 article id 5233
Pohtila E., Pohjola T. (1983) Results from the reforestation experiment on plo.. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 3 article id 5188
Bhat K. M., Kärkkäinen M. (1981) Variation in structure and selected properties o.. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 2 article id 5115
Bhat K. M., Kärkkäinen M. (1981) Variation in structure and selected properties o.. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 1 article id 5096
Bhat K. M., (1980) Variation in structure and selected properties o.. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 4 article id 5091
Meriluoto J., (1980) Applicability of MCPA- and 2,4,5-T-herbicides in.. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 4 article id 5086
Bhat K. M., Kärkkäinen M. (1980) Distinguishing between Betula pendula Roth. and .. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 3 article id 5084
Bhat K. M., (1980) Pith flecks and ray abnormalities in birch wood. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 3 article id 5082
Luukkanen O., Johansson S. (1980) Flower induction by exogenous plant hormones in .. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 1 article id 5070
Mikola J., (1980) The effect of seed size and duration of growth o.. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 1 article id 5069
Niiranen J., (1980) Methods used in cutting propagation of forest tr.. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 1 article id 5065
Lehtiniemi T., (1977) Factors affecting gamma-irradiation sensitivity .. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 1 article id 4963
Keltikangas M., Seppälä K. (1977) The economics of growing downy birch stands on d.. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 1 article id 4962
Lehtiniemi T., (1976) Effect of ionizing radiation on the germination .. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 1 article id 4930
Kapustinskaité T., (1975) Ash content of peatland soils and stand growth i.. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 3 article id 4924
Lehtiniemi T., Sarasto J. (1973) Betula verrucosa plantations on peat Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 1 article id 4876
Pohtila E., (1972) Effect of fine-grounded copper rock phosphate pl.. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 1 article id 4859
Mannerkoski H., (1971) Effect of fertilization on the initial developme.. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 2 article id 4841
Löyttyniemi K., (1969) The effect of treatment of Scots pine and Norway.. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 3 article id 4803
Leikola M., Pylkkö P. (1969) Influence of stand density on the minimum temper.. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 1 article id 4784
Schalin I., (1967) Microfungi in the humus layer of pine, spruce an.. Silva Fennica vol. 1 no. 2 article id 4745
Päivänen J., (1966) Distribution of rainfall in different types of f.. Silva Fennica vol. no. 119 article id 4732
Kuusela K., (1956) On the structure and growth of birch stands trea.. Silva Fennica vol. no. 90 article id 4652
Kolehmainen V. A., (1955) Effect of prescribed burning in the forest regen.. Silva Fennica vol. no. 85 article id 4644
Kalliola R., (1942) Vegetation and flora in the Pyhätunturi National.. Silva Fennica vol. no. 59 article id 4579
Keltikangas M., Tiililä P. (1968) The economic sequence of silver birch (Betula pe.. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 82 no. 5 article id 7178
Hårdh J. E., (1966) Trials with carbon dioxide, light and growth sub.. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 81 no. 1 article id 7166
Huuri O., (1965) The effects of storage in cones on the viability.. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 78 no. 5 article id 7158
Yli-Vakkuri P., (1961) Experimental studies on the emergence and develo.. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 75 no. 1 article id 7135
Yli-Vakkuri P., (1961) Emergence and initial development of tree seedli.. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 74 no. 1 article id 7128
Ollinmaa P. J., (1960) Physical properties of wood growing on drained p.. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 72 no. 2 article id 7119
Yli-Vakkuri P., (1959) On machines for abrading seed wings and their in.. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 68 no. 4 article id 7486
Heikurainen L., (1958) Root systems of mixed forest in drained peatlands Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 67 no. 2 article id 7476
Ollinmaa P. J., (1955) On the anatomical structure and properties of th.. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 64 no. 3 article id 7463
Rummukainen U., (1954) Estimation of Scots pine and Norway spruce cone .. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 20 article id 7432
Aaltonen V. T., (1942) Growth studies on tree seedlings Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 6 article id 7359
Backman A. L., (1934) Early history of forests in Åland, Finland Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 20 article id 7297
Luomajoki A., (1999) Differences in the climatic adaptation of silver.. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 0 no. 263 article id 7523
Saramäki J., (1992) A growth and yield prediction model of Pinus kes.. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 0 no. 230 article id 7676
Finér L., (1989) Biomass and nutrient cycle in fertilized and unf.. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 0 no. 208 article id 7655
Kilkki P., Siitonen M. (1975) Simulation of artificial stands and derivation o.. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 0 no. 145 article id 7579
Brown R. T., Mikola P. (1974) The influence of fruticose soil lichens upon the.. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 0 no. 141 article id 7575
Leikola M., (1969) The influence of environmental factors on the di.. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 0 no. 92 article id 7610
Männistö L., Miina J. et al. (2024) How to utilize natural regeneration of birch to .. Silva Fennica vol. 58 no. 3 article id 23075
Häggström B., Lutter R. et al. (2023) Effect of arginine-phosphate addition on early s.. Silva Fennica vol. 57 no. 2 article id 22013
Mäkinen H., Nöjd P. et al. (2022) Recent unexpected decline of forest growth in No.. Silva Fennica vol. 56 no. 4 article id 10769
Kuehne C., McLean J. P. et al. (2022) A stand-level growth and yield model for thinned.. Silva Fennica vol. 56 no. 1 article id 10627
Dahlgren Lidman F., Holmström E. et al. (2021) Management of spontaneously regenerated mixed st.. Silva Fennica vol. 55 no. 4 article id 10485
Pikkarainen L., Luoranen J. et al. (2020) Comparison of planting success in one-year-old s.. Silva Fennica vol. 54 no. 1 article id 10243
Repola J., Hökkä H. et al. (2018) Models for diameter and height growth of Scots p.. Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 5 article id 10055
Becker H., Aosaar J. et al. (2018) Annual net nitrogen mineralization and litter fl.. Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 4 article id 10013
Viherä-Aarnio A., Velling P. (2017) Growth, wood density and bark thickness of silve.. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 4 article id 7731
Egbäck S., Nilsson U. et al. (2017) Modeling early height growth in trials of geneti.. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 3 article id 5662
Nevalainen S., Matala J. et al. (2016) Moose damage in National Forest Inventories (198.. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 2 article id 1410
Kreutz A., Aakala T. et al. (2015) Spatial tree community structure in three stands.. Silva Fennica vol. 49 no. 2 article id 1279
Gunulf A., Mc Carthy R. et al. (2012) Control efficacy of stump treatment and influenc.. Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 5 article id 917
Zubizarreta-Gerendiain A., Pellikka P. et al. (2012) Factors affecting wind and snow damage of indivi.. Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 2 article id 441
Niemistö P., Korpunen H. et al. (2012) Impact and productivity of harvesting while reta.. Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 1 article id 67
Kilpeläinen H., Lindblad J. et al. (2011) Saw log recovery and stem quality of birch from .. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 2 article id 117
Sumida A., Nakai T. et al. (2009) Ground-based estimation of leaf area index and v.. Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 5 article id 174
Kankaanhuhta V., Saksa T. et al. (2009) Variation in the results of Norway spruce planti.. Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 1 article id 217
Viherä-Aarnio A., Velling P. (2008) Seed transfers of silver birch (Betula pendula) .. Silva Fennica vol. 42 no. 5 article id 226
Kalliokoski T., Nygren P. et al. (2008) Coarse root architecture of three boreal tree sp.. Silva Fennica vol. 42 no. 2 article id 252
O'Reilly C., De Atrip N. (2007) Seed moisture content during chilling and heat s.. Silva Fennica vol. 41 no. 2 article id 293
Diéguez-Aranda U., Grandas-Arias J. A. et al. (2006) Site quality curves for birch stands in north-we.. Silva Fennica vol. 40 no. 4 article id 319
Repola J., Hökkä H. et al. (2006) Thinning intensity and growth of mixed spruce-bi.. Silva Fennica vol. 40 no. 1 article id 353
Hytönen J., Jylhä P. (2005) Effects of competing vegetation and post-plantin.. Silva Fennica vol. 39 no. 3 article id 374
Schmitt U., Jalkanen R. et al. (2004) Cambium dynamics of Pinus sylvestris and Betula .. Silva Fennica vol. 38 no. 2 article id 426
Jutras S., Hökkä H. et al. (2003) Modeling mortality of individual trees in draine.. Silva Fennica vol. 37 no. 2 article id 504
Siipilehto J., (2001) Effect of weed control with fibre mulches and he.. Silva Fennica vol. 35 no. 4 article id 577
Youngman M. J., Kulasiri G. D. et al. (1999) Use of combined constant rate and diffusion mode.. Silva Fennica vol. 33 no. 4 article id 652
Linkosalo T., (1999) Regularities and patterns in the spring phenolog.. Silva Fennica vol. 33 no. 4 article id 647
Karlsson A., Albrektson A. et al. (1998) An analysis of successful natural regeneration o.. Silva Fennica vol. 32 no. 3 article id 683
Viherä-Aarnio A., Velling P. (1999) Growth and stem quality of mature birches in a c.. Silva Fennica vol. 33 no. 3 article id 659