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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Silva Fennica vol. 33 no. 4 | 1999

Category : Research article

article id 652, category Research article
M. J. Youngman, G. D. Kulasiri, I. M. Woodhead, G. D. Buchan. (1999). Use of combined constant rate and diffusion model to simulate kiln-drying of Pinus radiata timber. Silva Fennica vol. 33 no. 4 article id 652.
Keywords: simulation; timber drying; diffusion; constant drying-rate
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
This paper presents the use of a combined constant drying-rate and diffusion model to simulate the drying of Pinus radiata timber under kiln-drying conditions. The constant drying-rate and diffusion coefficients of the model, which control the drying rate of individual pieces of timber, were determined from calibrating the model against the experimental drying curves obtained under the kiln-drying conditions. The experimental drying curves were obtained from the gravimetric measurements of the moisture content of timber during kiln drying. Statistical relationships were developed for the constant drying-rate and the diffusion coefficients of the model as functions of kiln temperature and the dry basis density of timber. To determine the effects of variability of timber, a simulation scheme was developed based on the model, the probability distribution of the density of timber, the equations for the constant drying-rate coefficient and the diffusion coefficient. The model and the associated simulation method provides a simple way to estimate the drying time of a stack of timber using parameters determined from experimental results for the specific timber kiln.
  • Youngman, Lincoln University, Appl. Management and Computing Division, P.O. Box 84, Canterbury, New Zealand E-mail:
  • Kulasiri, Lincoln University, Appl. Management and Computing Division, P.O. Box 84, Canterbury, New Zealand E-mail: (email)
  • Woodhead, Lincoln University, Appl. Management and Computing Division, P.O. Box 84, Canterbury, New Zealand E-mail:
  • Buchan, Lincoln University, Appl. Management and Computing Division, P.O. Box 84, Canterbury, New Zealand E-mail:
article id 651, category Research article
Annika S. Kangas, Jyrki Kangas. (1999). Optimization bias in forest management planning solutions due to errors in forest variables. Silva Fennica vol. 33 no. 4 article id 651.
Keywords: forest planning; uncertainty; prediction; decision analysis
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
The yield of various forest variables is predicted by means of a simulation system to provide information for forest management planning. These predictions contain many kinds of uncertainty, for example, prediction and measurement errors. Inevitably, this has an effect on forest management planning. It is well known that uncertainty in the forest yields causes optimistic bias in the observed values of the objective function. This bias increases with the error variances. The amount of bias, however, also depends on the error structure and the relations between the objective variables. In this paper, the effect of uncertainty in forest yields on optimization is studied by simulation. The effect of two different sources of error, the correlation structure of these errors and relations among the objective variables are considered, as well as the effect of two different optimization approaches. The relations between the objective variables and the error structure had a notable effect on the optimization results.
  • Kangas, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kannus Research Station, P.O. Box 44, FIN-69101 Kannus, Finland E-mail: (email)
  • Kangas, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kannus Research Station, P.O. Box 44, FIN-69101 Kannus, Finland E-mail:
article id 650, category Research article
Jouni Siipilehto. (1999). Improving the accuracy of predicted basal-area diameter distribution in advanced stands by determining stem number. Silva Fennica vol. 33 no. 4 article id 650.
Keywords: dbh distribution; parameter prediction; Johnson’s SB distribution; Weibull distribution
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
The objective of this paper was to study to what extent the accuracy of predicted basal-area diameter distributions (DDG) could be improved by means of stem number observations in advanced (H > 10 m) stands. In the Finnish forest management planning (FMP) inventory practice, stem number is determined only in young stands; in older stands stand basal area is used. The study material consisted of sixty stands of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) and ninety-one stands of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) with birch (Betula pendula Roth and B. pubescens Ehrh.) admixtures in southern and eastern Finland. For test data, 167–292 independent, National Forest Inventory-based, permanent sample plots were used. DDGs were estimated with the maximum likelihood method. Species-specific models for predicting the distribution parameters were derived using regression analysis. The two-parameter Weibull distribution was compared to the three-parameter Johnson’s SB distributions in predicting DDGs. The models were based on either predictors that are consistent with current FMP (model G), or assuming an additional stem number observation (model G+N). The predicted distributions were compared in terms of the derived stand variables: stem number, total and timber volumes. The results were similar in modelling and test data sets. Methods, based on the SB distribution obtained with model (G+N), proved to give the most accurate description of the stand structure. Differences were marginal in stand total volumes. However, the error variation in stem number was 20% to 80% lower than when applying model (G). SB and Weibull distributions gave very much the same results if model (G) was applied.
  • Siipilehto, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Centre, P.O. Box 18, FIN-01301 Vantaa, Finland E-mail: (email)
article id 649, category Research article
Tord Johansson. (1999). Biomass production of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) growing on abandoned farmland. Silva Fennica vol. 33 no. 4 article id 649.
Keywords: Norway spruce; biomass production; Picea abies; thinning; LAI; abandoned farmland; basic density
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Biomass production of forests has been studied for at least a century. Tree biomass is used in Sweden both as industrial raw material and an energy source. Few studies dealing with biomass yield from Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) growing on farmland are published. Practical recommendations are sparsely. The aim of this study was to construct dry weight equations for Norway spruce growing on farmland. Dry weight equations for fractions of Norway spruce trees were made. Biomass production was estimated in 32 stands of Norway spruce growing on abandoned farmland. The stands were located in Sweden at latitudes ranging from 58° to 64° N, and their total age varied from 17 to 54 years. A modified ‘mean tree technique’ was used to estimate biomass production; i.e. the tallest tree was chosen for sampling. The actual mean total dry weight above stump level for the 32 stands was 116 ton ha–1, with a range of 6.0 to 237.4 ton d.w. ha–1. When previous thinning removals were included, the mean biomass value was 127 ton ha–1 (6.0–262.8). In addition to estimating conventional dry weights of trees and tree components, basic density, specific leaf area, total surface area and leaf area index, among other measures, were estimated. Norway spruce biomass yields on plots subjected to different thinning were compared. The total harvested biomass was 75–120 ton d.w. ha–1 in heavy thinnings from below. Stands were thinned four to five times, with the first thinning at 23–27 years and the last at 51–64 years. The harvested biomass obtained in the first thinning was 18–38 ton d.w. ha–1. Total biomass production was 178–305 ton d.w. ha–1. Stands thinned from above supplied 71–130 ton d.w. ha–1 in total and 17–42 ton d.w. ha–1 in the first thinning. The total biomass supply was 221–304 ton d.w. ha–1. Unthinned stands produced a total of 155–245 ton d.w. ha–1.
  • Johansson, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Management and Products, P.O. Box 7060, S-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden E-mail: (email)
article id 648, category Research article
Sauli Härkönen. (1999). Forest damage caused by the Canadian beaver (Castor canadensis) in South Savo, Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 33 no. 4 article id 648.
Keywords: Canadian beaver; Castor canadensis; forest damage; prevention of damage; type of damage
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
The increasing Canadian beaver (Castor canadensis) population has caused forest damage in Finland. However, the occurrence, extent and importance of the damage have not been comprehensively studied. The field inspection was carried out in all of the beaver damage areas (n = 50) in the Anttola, Juva and Pieksämäki game management units in summer 1998. The characteristics of the damage areas, types of damage and the severity of the damage were examined. The size of the damage areas averaged 2.2 ha. The damage areas occurred on peatland forest more (p < 0.05) than expected. The dominant tree species were commercially valuable trees such as Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) (33%), Norway spruce (Picea abies) (18%) and birches (Betula spp.) (47%). Birch occurred as dominant tree species more (p < 0.05) than expected. The proportion of older forest development classes was considerable. The most important type of damage was flooding (50%) caused by the damming activity of beavers. The trees were dead or dying in 18% of the damage areas. It was estimated that the ecosystem engineering performed by beavers was of no importance in 28% of the damage areas. Prevention of beaver damage has been carried out in 80% of the damage areas. In the study area, beaver numbers have steadily increased, although the number of beavers taken by hunting and the allowed hunting harvest have sharply increased. It is suggested that the methods used to prevent beaver damage should be improved and a compensation system should be provided by the state for the most damaged areas. Beavers can cause damage to commercial forestry, and this should be taken into account more effectively in the management plans made by the game management districts.
  • Härkönen, South Savo Game Management District, P.O. Box 14, FIN-51901 Juva, Finland E-mail: (email)
article id 647, category Research article
Tapio Linkosalo. (1999). Regularities and patterns in the spring phenology of some boreal trees. Silva Fennica vol. 33 no. 4 article id 647.
Keywords: Populus tremula; Pinus sylvestris; flowering; Alnus glutinosa; bud burst; Alnus incana; phenological regulation; phenological time series; Betula sp.
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Phenological time series of flowering and bud burst of Populus tremula (L.) and Betula sp., and the flowering of Pinus sylvestris (L.), Alnus glutinosa (L.) and Alnus incana (L.) were constructed from data collected in Finland during the period 1896–1955. The resulting combined time series were examined with two aims in mind: first, to determine the phenological regularities between different species and, second, to detect patterns of spring advancement over a geographically large area. The results indicate that the geographical pattern of spring advancement is rather uniform from year to year, and between different species. Furthermore, the mechanisms regulating the timing of phenological events in different species seem to function in a similar way, suggesting an unanimous optimal response to climatic conditions.
  • Linkosalo, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Ecology, Unioninkatu 40 B, P.O. Box 24, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland E-mail: (email)

Category : Research note

article id 653, category Research note
Desta Fekedulegn, Mairitin P. Mac Siurtain, Jim J. Colbert. (1999). Parameter estimation of nonlinear growth models in forestry. Silva Fennica vol. 33 no. 4 article id 653.
Keywords: parameter estimation; nonlinear model; partial derivative; Marquardt iterative method; initial value
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Partial derivatives of the negative exponential, monomolecular, Mitcherlich, Gompertz, logistic, Chapman-Richards, von Bertalanffy, Weibull and the Richard’s nonlinear growth models are presented. The application of these partial derivatives in estimating the model parameters is illustrated. The parameters are estimated using the Marquardt iterative method of nonlinear regression relating top height to age of Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) from the Bowmont Norway Spruce Thinning Experiment. Formulas that provide good initial values of the parameters are specified. Clear definitions of the parameters of the nonlinear models in the context of the system being modelled are found to be critically important in the process of parameter estimation.
  • Fekedulegn, Department of Statistics, West Virginia University, Eberly College of Arts and Sciences, P.O. Box 6330, Morgantown, WV26506, USA E-mail: (email)
  • Mac Siurtain, University College Dublin, Ireland E-mail:
  • Colbert, USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station, Morgantown, West Virginia E-mail:

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