Full text of this article is only available in PDF format.

Vesa Juntunen (email), Seppo Neuvonen

Natural regeneration of Scots pine and Norway spruce close to the timberline in northern Finland

Juntunen V., Neuvonen S. (2006). Natural regeneration of Scots pine and Norway spruce close to the timberline in northern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 40 no. 3 article id 329. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.329

Abstract

Two different datasets were analyzed in order to clarify the factors that affect regeneration success of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) in the climatically extreme areas in northern Finland. First, pine seed maturity and the number of cones in the trees were investigated at five pairs of study sites during the period 1997–2003. Secondly, the rate of seedling establishment and seedling survival of Scots pine and Norway spruce were monitored and compared among three different timberline zones (forest zone, timberline, tree line) in 13 localities during the period 1983–1999. The first study showed that both cone production (bud formation) and seed maturity may be limiting factors for successful reproduction in the climatically marginal habitats. Seed maturity correlated well with the temperature sum of the summer, but variation in the number of cones had a periodic component rather than strictly following the temperature sum of the summer of bud formation. Monitoring surveys since 1983 showed that pine and spruce regenerated more or less regularly in all the zones during 1983–1999. However, seedling mortality of pines was much higher compared to spruce. In general, initially small sized seedlings showed higher mortality compared with larger ones. The results suggest that besides restrictions in reproduction, stand dynamics in the timberline habitats are strongly controlled by seedling mortality due to a variety of causes.

Keywords
Norway spruce; regeneration; Scots pine; timberline; tree line; seed maturity; seedling mortality

Author Info
  • Juntunen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kolari Research Unit, Muoniontie 21, FI-95900 Kolari, Finland E-mail vesa.juntunen@metla.fi (email)
  • Neuvonen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Unit, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail sn@nn.fi

Received 18 April 2005 Accepted 24 March 2006 Published 31 December 2006

Views 2360

Available at https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.329 | Download PDF

Creative Commons License CC BY-SA 4.0

Register
Click this link to register to Silva Fennica.
Log in
If you are a registered user, log in to save your selected articles for later access.
Contents alert
Sign up to receive alerts of new content

Your selected articles
Your search results
Maltamo M., (1997) Comparing basal area diameter distributions esti.. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 1 article id 5609
Vettenranta J., (1996) Effect of species composition on economic return.. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 1 article id 5574
Lindgren K., Lindgren D. (1996) Germinability of Norway spruce and Scots pine po.. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 1 article id 5571
Koistinen E., Valkonen S. (1993) Models for height development of Norway spruce a.. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 3 article id 5510
Kolström T., (1991) Results from the sowing and planting experiment .. Silva Fennica vol. 25 no. 2 article id 5445
Nygren M., (1990) Variation in the seed mass of Scots pine and Nor.. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 1 article id 5410
Tomminen J., Nuorteva M. et al. (1989) Occurrence of the nematode Bursaphelenchus mucro.. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 4 article id 5389
Kuuluvainen T., Pukkala T. (1989) Effect of Scots pine seed trees on the density o.. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 2 article id 5379
Bergsten U., (1988) Invigoration and IDS-sedimentation of Pinus sylv.. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 4 article id 5364
Hänninen H., Pelkonen P. (1988) Effects of temperature on dormancy release in No.. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 3 article id 5357
Pukkala T., (1987) Effect of seed production on the annual growth o.. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 2 article id 5312
Pukkala T., (1987) Model for predicting the seed crop of Picea abie.. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 2 article id 5311
Kellomäki S., Hänninen H. et al. (1987) A tentative model for describing the effects of .. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 1 article id 5302
Kärkkäinen M., (1986) Value relations of Scots pine and Norway spruce .. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 2 article id 5267
Kärkkäinen M., (1986) Model of knottiness of wood material in pine, sp.. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 2 article id 5266
Suoheimo J., (1984) The occurrence of Otiorrhynchus nodosus and its .. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 3 article id 5218
Heikurainen L., Laine J. et al. (1983) Fertilization and ditch spacing experiments conc.. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 4 article id 5198
Pohtila E., Pohjola T. (1983) Results from the reforestation experiment on plo.. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 3 article id 5188
Soikkeli S., (1981) The types of ultrastructural injuries in conifer.. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 4 article id 5136
Ollinmaa P. J., (1981) Physical properties of wood growing on drained s.. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 3 article id 5128
Kellomäki S., (1980) Preliminary results of the effect of drying and .. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 4 article id 5089
Jokinen R., (1980) Estimation of growth response achieved through f.. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 3 article id 5081
Luukkanen O., Johansson S. (1980) Flower induction by exogenous plant hormones in .. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 1 article id 5070
Mikola J., (1980) The effect of seed size and duration of growth o.. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 1 article id 5069
Velling P., (1980) Variation in the density of wood of different Sc.. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 1 article id 5063
Enivaara A., (1979) Regeneration and improvement of the Scots pine f.. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 2 article id 5026
Haapanen A., Siitonen P. (1978) Forest fires in Ulvinsalo strict nature reserve .. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 3 article id 5002
Huttunen S., (1978) The effects of air pollution on provenances of S.. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 1 article id 4983
Mäkelä M., (1977) Calculating the basic density of whole tree- and.. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 2 article id 4970
Lehtiniemi T., (1977) Factors affecting gamma-irradiation sensitivity .. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 1 article id 4963
Kärkkäinen M., (1976) Density and moisture content of wood and bark, a.. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 3 article id 4948
Kapustinskaité T., (1975) Ash content of peatland soils and stand growth i.. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 3 article id 4924
Westman C. J., (1974) Effect of urea application on nitrogen available.. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 2 article id 4902
Luukkanen O., (1973) Observations on CO2 exchange in open pollinated .. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 4 article id 4888
Kärkkäinen M., (1972) The proportion of heartwood in Norway spruce (Pi.. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 3 article id 4872
Pohtila E., (1972) Effect of fine-grounded copper rock phosphate pl.. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 1 article id 4859
Kozubov G. M., (1971) Electron microscopic studies in the development .. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 4 article id 4854
Luukkanen O., Räsänen P. K. et al. (1971) The use of needle colour in predicting growth an.. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 4 article id 4853
Mannerkoski H., (1971) Effect of fertilization on the initial developme.. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 2 article id 4841
Heikurainen L., Ouni J. (1970) Height growth of seedling stands growing on peat.. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 2 article id 4817
Tigerstedt P. M. A., Malmivaara E. (1970) The possibilities in forest tree breeding. I Sel.. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 2 article id 4816
Löyttyniemi K., (1969) The effect of treatment of Scots pine and Norway.. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 3 article id 4803
Eklund B., (1967) Annual variation of increment in Scots pine and .. Silva Fennica vol. 1 no. 4 article id 4756
Nuorteva M., (1967) Potential in using determination of insect speci.. Silva Fennica vol. 1 no. 1 article id 4736
Päivänen J., (1966) Distribution of rainfall in different types of f.. Silva Fennica vol. no. 119 article id 4732
Tamm C. O., (1965) Some experiences from forest fertilization trial.. Silva Fennica vol. no. 117 article id 4725
Jamalainen E. A., (1961) Damage by low-temperature parasitic fungi on con.. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 108 article id 4703
Kolehmainen V. A., (1955) Effect of prescribed burning in the forest regen.. Silva Fennica vol. no. 85 article id 4644
Sirén G., (1952) Observations on stands of Scots pine sown in sta.. Silva Fennica vol. no. 78 article id 4628
Kalliola R., (1942) Vegetation and flora in the Pyhätunturi National.. Silva Fennica vol. no. 59 article id 4579
Räsänen A. A., (1939) Forest regeneration in Northern Finland Silva Fennica vol. no. 52 article id 4559
Heikinheimo O., (1939) Experiences in forest management of Hylocomnium-.. Silva Fennica vol. no. 52 article id 4558
Borg L. E. T., (1936) Areas broadcast sown on snow in Tuomarniemi dist.. Silva Fennica vol. no. 38 article id 4479
Tikka P. U. S., (1928) Observations on Norway spruce growth and develop.. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 10 article id 4451
Keltikangas M., Tiililä P. (1968) The economic sequence of silver birch (Betula pe.. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 82 no. 5 article id 7178
Lähde E., (1966) Studies on the respiration rate in the different.. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 81 no. 8 article id 7173
Ilvessalo Y., (1967) The development of natural normal forest stands .. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 81 no. 5 article id 7170
Hårdh J. E., (1966) Trials with carbon dioxide, light and growth sub.. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 81 no. 1 article id 7166
Huuri O., (1965) The effects of storage in cones on the viability.. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 78 no. 5 article id 7158
Heikurainen L., Seppälä K. (1965) Regionality in stand increment and its dependenc.. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 78 no. 4 article id 7157
Kallio T., (1965) Studies on the biology of distribution and possi.. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 78 no. 3 article id 7156
Laiho O., Mikola P. (1964) Studies on the effect of some eradicants on myco.. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 77 no. 2 article id 7150
Yli-Vakkuri P., (1961) Experimental studies on the emergence and develo.. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 75 no. 1 article id 7135
Yli-Vakkuri P., (1961) Studies on the development of young sown pine st.. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 74 no. 3 article id 7130
Yli-Vakkuri P., (1961) Emergence and initial development of tree seedli.. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 74 no. 1 article id 7128
Ollinmaa P. J., (1960) Physical properties of wood growing on drained p.. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 72 no. 2 article id 7119
Ollinmaa P. J., (1959) Study on reaction wood Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 72 no. 1 article id 7118
Kallio K., (1960) The mensurational density of a stand in estimati.. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 71 no. 7 article id 7116
Yli-Vakkuri P., (1960) Snow cover and ground frost in Finnish forests Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 71 no. 5 article id 7114
Yli-Vakkuri P., (1959) On machines for abrading seed wings and their in.. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 68 no. 4 article id 7486
Heikurainen L., (1958) Root systems of mixed forest in drained peatlands Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 67 no. 2 article id 7476
Lehto J., (1956) Studies on the natural regeneration of Scots pin.. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 66 no. 2 article id 7472
Sirén G., (1955) The development of spruce forest on raw humus si.. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 62 no. 4 article id 7453
Kalela E. K., (1954) Root systems of Scots pine seed trees and stands Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 28 article id 7440
Rummukainen U., (1954) Estimation of Scots pine and Norway spruce cone .. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 20 article id 7432
Kalela E. K., (1949) On the horizontal roots in Scots pine and Norway.. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 57 no. 2 article id 7398
Lukkala O. J., (1942) Measurements of rainfall in different kinds of f.. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 23 article id 7376
Lappi-Seppälä M., (1942) Growth of Siberian larch in mixed stands in stat.. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 8 article id 7361
Aaltonen V. T., (1942) Growth studies on tree seedlings Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 6 article id 7359
Kangas E., (1940) Studies on artificial regeneration in Pohjankang.. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 49 no. 4 article id 7351
Sarvas R., (1937) Natural regeneration of burned areas. Forest bio.. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 46 no. 1 article id 7336
Aaltonen V. T., (1936) Norway spruce as competitor in the sites typical.. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 42 no. 8 article id 7325
Cajander E. K., (1934) Observations in a storm damage area Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 10 article id 7287
Hertz M., (1929) Observations on annual and daily cycles in the h.. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 18 article id 7231
Heikkilä T., (1925) Growth studies in the northernmost Finland Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 29 no. 4 article id 7194
Ilvessalo Y., (1920) Growth and yield tables for the Scots pine, Norw.. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 15 no. 4 article id 7042
Lassila I., (1920) Studies on the regeneration and development of S.. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 14 no. 3 article id 7036
Renvall A., (1919) Protection forests IV. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 11 no. 4 article id 7024
Renvall A., (1919) Protection forests II Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 11 no. 2-3 article id 7022
Ilvessalo L., (1917) Studies on the regeneration years of Scots pine .. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 6 no. 2 article id 7013
Lahti T., (1995) Understorey vegetation as an indicator of forest.. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 0 no. 246 article id 7508
Leinonen K., Leikola M. et al. (1989) Natural regeneration of Norway spruce in Pirkka-.. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 0 no. 209 article id 7656
Henttonen H., (1984) The dependence of annual ring indices on some cl.. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 0 no. 186 article id 7633
Nyyssönen A., Ojansuu R. (1982) Assessment of timber assortments, value and valu.. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 0 no. 179 article id 7626
Thammincha S., (1981) Climatic variation in radial growth of Scots pin.. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 0 no. 171 article id 7618
Nyyssönen A., Mielikäinen K. (1978) Estimation of stand increment Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 0 no. 163 article id 7597
Brown R. T., Mikola P. (1974) The influence of fruticose soil lichens upon the.. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 0 no. 141 article id 7575
Heikurainen L., Veijola P. (1971) Effect of fertilization and ditch spacing on reg.. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 0 no. 114 article id 7548
Seppälä K., (1969) Post-drainage growth rate of Norway spruce and S.. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 0 no. 93 article id 7611
Leikola M., (1969) The influence of environmental factors on the di.. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 0 no. 92 article id 7610
Granvik B.-A., (1968) The quantity and quality of the sawing yield in .. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 0 no. 86 article id 7186
Jetsonen J., Laurén A. et al. (2024) Effects of nitrogen fertilization on the ground .. Silva Fennica vol. 58 no. 1 article id 23058
Nordin P., Olofsson E. et al. (2023) Within-site adaptation: growth and mortality of .. Silva Fennica vol. 57 no. 3 article id 23004
Häggström B., Lutter R. et al. (2023) Effect of arginine-phosphate addition on early s.. Silva Fennica vol. 57 no. 2 article id 22013
Uotila K., Luoranen J. et al. (2022) Long-term growth response of Norway spruce in di.. Silva Fennica vol. 56 no. 4 article id 10762
Aza A., Kallio A. M. I. et al. (2022) Species selection in areas subjected to risk of .. Silva Fennica vol. 56 no. 3 article id 10732
Goude M., Nilsson U. et al. (2022) Comparing basal area growth models for Norway sp.. Silva Fennica vol. 56 no. 2 article id 10707
Kuehne C., McLean J. P. et al. (2022) A stand-level growth and yield model for thinned.. Silva Fennica vol. 56 no. 1 article id 10627
Dahlgren Lidman F., Holmström E. et al. (2021) Management of spontaneously regenerated mixed st.. Silva Fennica vol. 55 no. 4 article id 10485
Siipilehto J., Allen M. et al. (2020) Stand-level mortality models for Nordic boreal f.. Silva Fennica vol. 54 no. 5 article id 10414
Pikkarainen L., Luoranen J. et al. (2020) Comparison of planting success in one-year-old s.. Silva Fennica vol. 54 no. 1 article id 10243
Repola J., Hökkä H. et al. (2018) Models for diameter and height growth of Scots p.. Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 5 article id 10055
Becker H., Aosaar J. et al. (2018) Annual net nitrogen mineralization and litter fl.. Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 4 article id 10013
Malinen J., Kilpeläinen H. et al. (2018) Validating the predicted saw log and pulpwood pr.. Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 4 article id 9972
Luoranen J., (2018) Autumn versus spring planting: the initiation of.. Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 2 article id 7813
Egbäck S., Karlsson B. et al. (2018) Effects of phenotypic selection on height-diamet.. Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 2 article id 7738
Egbäck S., Nilsson U. et al. (2017) Modeling early height growth in trials of geneti.. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 3 article id 5662
Vacek S., Vacek Z. et al. (2016) Structure, regeneration and growth of Scots pine.. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 4 article id 1564
Berlin M. E., Persson T. et al. (2016) Scots pine transfer effect models for growth and.. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 3 article id 1562
Saarsalmi A., Tamminen P. et al. (2014) Effects of long-term fertilisation on soil prope.. Silva Fennica vol. 48 no. 1 article id 989
Simonsen R., (2013) Optimal regeneration method – Planting vs. natur.. Silva Fennica vol. 47 no. 2 article id 928
Hyppönen M., Hallikainen V. et al. (2013) The contradictory role of understory vegetation .. Silva Fennica vol. 47 no. 1 article id 903
Hökkä H., Repola J. et al. (2012) Seedling establishment on small cutting areas wi.. Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 5 article id 920
Nilsson U., Elfving B. et al. (2012) Productivity of Norway spruce compared to Scots .. Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 2 article id 54
Grenfell R., Aakala T. et al. (2011) Microsite occupancy and the spatial structure of.. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 5 article id 89
Rouvinen S., Kouki J. (2011) Tree regeneration in artificial canopy gaps esta.. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 5 article id 88
Bace R., Svoboda M. et al. (2011) Density and height structure of seedlings in sub.. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 5 article id 87
Hökkä H., Repola J. et al. (2011) Seedling survival and establishment in small can.. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 4 article id 97
Pukkala T., Hokkanen T. et al. (2010) Prediction models for the annual seed crop of No.. Silva Fennica vol. 44 no. 4 article id 131
Stendahl J., Johansson M.-B. et al. (2010) Soil organic carbon in Swedish spruce and pine f.. Silva Fennica vol. 44 no. 1 article id 159
Havimo M., Rikala J. et al. (2009) Tracheid cross-sectional dimensions in Scots pin.. Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 4 article id 188
Repola J., (2009) Biomass equations for Scots pine and Norway spru.. Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 4 article id 184
Heikkilä J., Sirén M. et al. (2009) Energy wood thinning as a part of stand manageme.. Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 1 article id 220
Kankaanhuhta V., Saksa T. et al. (2009) Variation in the results of Norway spruce planti.. Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 1 article id 217
Rautiainen M., Mõttus M. et al. (2008) Crown envelope shape measurements and models Silva Fennica vol. 42 no. 1 article id 261
Hallikainen V., Hyppönen M. et al. (2007) Establishment and height development of harveste.. Silva Fennica vol. 41 no. 1 article id 308
Bolli J. C., Rigling A. et al. (2007) The influence of changes in climate and land-use.. Silva Fennica vol. 41 no. 1 article id 307
Repola J., (2006) Models for vertical wood density of Scots pine, .. Silva Fennica vol. 40 no. 4 article id 322
Nieminen M., (2004) Export of dissolved organic carbon, nitrogen and.. Silva Fennica vol. 38 no. 2 article id 422
Varmola M., Salminen H. et al. (2004) Thinning response and growth trends of seeded Sc.. Silva Fennica vol. 38 no. 1 article id 436
Jacobson S., (2003) Addition of stabilized wood ashes to Swedish con.. Silva Fennica vol. 37 no. 4 article id 483
Levula J., Ilvesniemi H. et al. (2003) Relation between soil properties and tree specie.. Silva Fennica vol. 37 no. 2 article id 502
Chantal M. d., Eskola L. et al. (2003) Early establishment of Pinus sylvestris and Pice.. Silva Fennica vol. 37 no. 1 article id 509
Hannerz M., Almqvist C. et al. (2002) Timing of seed dispersal in Pinus sylvestris sta.. Silva Fennica vol. 36 no. 4 article id 518
Vettenranta J., Miina J. (1999) Optimizing thinnings and rotation of Scots pine .. Silva Fennica vol. 33 no. 1 article id 671
Vettenranta J., (1999) Distance-dependent models for predicting the dev.. Silva Fennica vol. 33 no. 1 article id 670
Gaitnieks T., Brauners I. et al. (2018) Infection of pre-commercially cut stumps of P.. Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 1 article id 9911
Avtzis D. N., Aravanopoulos F. A. (2011) Host tree and insect genetic diversity on the bo.. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 1 article id 37
Fedorkov A., (2001) Climatic adaptation of seed maturity in Scots pi.. Silva Fennica vol. 35 no. 1 article id 609