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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Articles by Toini Holopainen

Category : Article

article id 5580, category Article
Virpi Palomäki, Toini Holopainen, Seppo Kellomäki, Kaisa Laitinen. (1996). First-year results on the effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 and O3 concentrations on needle ultrastructure and gas exchange responses of Scots pine saplings. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 2–3 article id 5580.
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; climate change; Scots pine; CO2; ozone; needle ultrastructure; gas exhange
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The effects of realistically elevated O3 and CO2 concentrations on the needle ultrastructure and photosynthesis of ca. 20-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) saplings were studied during one growth period in open-top field chambers situated on a natural pine heath at Mekrijärvi, in eastern Finland. The experiment included six different treatments: chamberless control, filtered air, ambient air and elevated O3, CO2 and O3 + CO2. Significant increases in the size of chloroplast and starch grains were recorded in the current-year needles of the saplings exposed to elevated CO2 These responses were especially clear in the saplings exposed to elevated O3 + CO2 concentrations. These treatments also delayed the winter hardening process in cells. In the shoots treated with O3, CO2 and combined O3 + CO2 the Pmax was decreased on average by 50% (ambient CO2) and 40% (700 ppm CO2). Photosynthetic efficiency was decreased by 60% in all the treated shoots measured under ambient condition and by 30% in the CO2 and O3 + CO2 treated shoots under 700 ppm. The effect of all the treatments on photosynthesis was depressive which was probably related to evident accumulation of starch in the chloroplasts of the pines treated with CO2 and combined O3 + CO2. But in O3 treated pines, which did not accumulate starch in comparison to pines subjected to ambient air conditions, some injuries may be already present in the photosynthetic machinery.

  • Palomäki, E-mail: vp@mm.unknown (email)
  • Holopainen, E-mail: th@mm.unknown
  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown
  • Laitinen, E-mail: kl@mm.unknown
article id 5149, category Article
Toini Holopainen. (1981). Alterations in the ultrastructure of epiphytic lichens Hypogymnia physodes and Alectoria capillaris caused by air pollution. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 4 article id 5149.
Keywords: lichens; air pollution; bioindicators; indicator plants; Hypogymnia physodes; fertilization plant; pulpmill; Bryoria capillaris; ultrastructure
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The ultrastructure of Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. and Alectoria capillaris (Bryoria capillaris (Ach.) Brodo & D. Hawksw.) grown or transplanted near a fertilizer plant and a pulp mill was compared to normal ultrastructure of these lichen species. The ultrastructural changes observed were highly similar in the symbionts of both species and near both the factories although the emissions are different. In the lichens grown near the factories the number of algae had clearly increased. The appearance of the chloroplasts was roundish compared to controls. The pyrenoglobuli and cytoplasmic storage bodies were smaller than normally and the number of polyphosphate bodies had increased. Also, in mycobionts storage droplets were very small or absent and many vacuoles and dark inclusions appeared to hyphae in contrast to controls. In transplanted lichen there existed mainly the same ultrastructural changes as in the lichen grown near factories. Near the fertilizer plant the damage was, however, more severe because all the lichens died during 6–7 months after transplantation. Near the pulp mill part of the lichens survived and seemed to adapt to air pollution.

  • Holopainen, E-mail: th@mm.unknown (email)

Category : Research article

article id 681, category Research article
Virpi Palomäki, Alpo Hassinen, Matti Lemettinen, Timo Oksanen, Heljä-Sisko Helmisaari, Jarmo Holopainen, Seppo Kellomäki, Toini Holopainen. (1998). Open-top chamber fumigation system for exposure of field grown Pinus sylvestris to elevated carbon dioxide and ozone concentration. Silva Fennica vol. 32 no. 3 article id 681.
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; CO2; open-top chamber; O3
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
An open-top chamber fumigation system was built in a young Scots pine stand to study the effects of realistic elevated ozone (O3) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations and their combination on trees in natural conditions. Doubled CO2 concentration compared to present ambient concentration, and O3 concentration between 40 ppb and 70 ppb in the first study year (1994) and doubled O3 concentration in years 1995 and 1996 were the target concentrations in the chambers. The O3 concentration in the chambers was successfully maintained close to the target concentration and differences between chambers were small. The mean CO2 concentration in the CO2 treatment was ca. 100 ppm below the target, but was maintained at this level throughout the growing season. Two degrees higher mean air temperature and slightly lower light intensity compared to open air were measured in the chambers. The operation of the fumigation system was satisfactory during the three study years and repeatability of the gas treatments can be regarded good in this low cost exposure system.
  • Palomäki, University of Kuopio, Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, P.O.Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio, Finland E-mail: (email)
  • Hassinen, Mekrijärvi Research Station, FIN-82900 Ilomantsi, Finland E-mail:
  • Lemettinen, Mekrijärvi Research Station, FIN-82900 Ilomantsi, Finland E-mail:
  • Oksanen, University of Kuopio, Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, P.O.Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio, Finland E-mail:
  • Helmisaari, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Department of Forest Ecology, P.O.Box 18, FIN-01301 Vantaa, Finland E-mail:
  • Holopainen, Agricultural Research Centre, FIN-31600 Jokioinen, Finland E-mail:
  • Kellomäki, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, P.O.Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail:
  • Holopainen, University of Kuopio, Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, P.O.Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio, Finland E-mail:

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