Current issue: 56(3)
Under compilation: 56(4)
The article presents the characteristics of different vegetation areas (meadows and peatlands) by their distinctive vegetation. The study area is by the Barents Sea and is the northernmost part of continental European Russia. Different sites are classified by plant communities and/or vegetation units.
The article continues on the second PDF-file.
The most important characteristics for the quality of round timber is knottiness. Knots decrease the strength of the wood in sawn goods. Knots in pulpwood obstruct the production process of ground pulp and lower the quality. A qualitative classification of saw logs has been suggested, and the abundance of knots could also be used to determine the quality of pulpwood. In this study, visual observations on the preparation of pulpwood in pulp mill were made to observe the quality of the wood. Samples of the wood was collected, and they were divided in five quality classes. To study the influence of age, forest site type and stand on knots, 140 sample trees of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) were analyzed. The article includes detailed analysis of the abundance and position of knots in the stems of spruce, anatomical structure of the knots, microscopic structure of the fibers, and mechanical properties of the branch and knot wood.