Current issue: 57(3)

Under compilation: 58(1)

Scopus CiteScore 2021: 2.8
Scopus ranking of open access forestry journals: 8th
PlanS compliant
Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Silva Fennica vol. 57 no. 1 | 2023

Category : Editorial

article id 23011, category Editorial
Sergio de Miguel. (2023). Artificial intelligence-driven disruption in science production ahead. Silva Fennica vol. 57 no. 1 article id 23011. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.23011
Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info
  • de Miguel, University of Lleida, Av. Alcalde Rovira Roure 191, 25198 Lleida, Spain; Joint Research Unit CTFC – AGROTECNIO – CERCA, Ctra de Sant Llorenç de Morunys, km 2, 25280 Solsona, Spain ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9738-0657 E-mail: sergio.demiguel@udl.cat

Category : Research article

article id 23001, category Research article
Eirik Ogner Jåstad, Niels Oliver Nagel, Junhui Hu, Per Kristian Rørstad. (2023). The location and capacity-dependent price impacts of biofuel production and its effect on the forest industry. Silva Fennica vol. 57 no. 1 article id 23001. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.23001
Keywords: partial equilibrium model; biofuel location policy; biomass supply; forest-based biofuel; nordic forest sector
Highlights: Large biofuel units prefer regions close to transportation facilities; Forest owners are the main winners if large-scale biofuel production is established; The first production units reduce export, hence should be located at an exporting hub; Biofuel production will reduce the Norwegian export of roundwood to Sweden; Biofuel production increases the local demand and pulpwood prices.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Forest-based biofuel stands out as a promising solution to avoid fossil emissions in parts of the transport sector. Biofuel production will need large amounts of forest biomass, collected from a large area. Roundwood is costly to transport compared with other goods. Therefore, the location of forest-based biofuel production is a crucial part of an investment decision. This study analyses the optimal location of biofuel plants in Norway and the implications for the traditional forest sector in the Nordic countries. We test different numbers of production units, different sizes of the units, and various raw materials. The study applies a partial equilibrium model that covers the Norwegian and Nordic forest sectors, with 356 regions in Norway. The results indicate that small biofuel plants have the potential to turn exporting regions into importing regions. Larger biofuel plants are suitable for areas with large harvest activity today or regions with access to harbour or timber terminals along railways. We find that forest owners close to a biofuel plant will profit the most from biofuel production. Policymakers and investors should take into account that different locations and production capacities have different impacts on the forest sectors.
  • Jåstad, Faculty of Environmental Sciences and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, NO-1432 Ås, Norway ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1089-0284 E-mail: eirik.jastad@nmbu.no
  • Nagel, Faculty of Environmental Sciences and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, NO-1432 Ås, Norway ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3171-0262 E-mail: niels.oliver.nagel@nmbu.no
  • Hu, Faculty of Environmental Sciences and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, NO-1432 Ås, Norway ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0001-5993 E-mail: junhui.hu@nmbu.no
  • Rørstad, Faculty of Environmental Sciences and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, NO-1432 Ås, Norway E-mail: per.kristian.rorstad@nmbu.no
article id 22019, category Research article
Aleksi Nirhamo, Juha Pykälä, Kimmo Jääskeläinen, Jari Kouki. (2023). Habitat associations of red-listed epiphytic lichens in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 57 no. 1 article id 22019. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.22019
Keywords: boreal forests; deciduous trees; biodiversity; conservation; threatened species
Highlights: We analyzed the habitat associations of 231 nationally red-listed epiphytic lichen species in Finland; Their habitat associations were varying, but deciduous trees, old forests and trees, and microclimates with intermediate or high light availability and humidity were particularly important; The maintenance of the habitats of many red-listed epiphytic lichens is difficult if not impossible to combine with intensive forest management.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info
The Finnish red list shows that the epiphytic lichen flora of Finnish forests is highly threatened and declining steeply. Red lists provide limited information on the habitat associations of threatened species, which could be relevant in informing management and conservation measures. We used documented empirical data and expert assessments to determine for each red-listed (IUCN categories Near Threatened, NT; Vulnerable, VU; Endangered, EN; Critically Endangered, CR; Regionally Extinct, RE) epiphytic lichen species of Finland the following key habitat associations: host tree species, substrate type, habitat type, geographical distribution, preferred microclimate, and minimum required forest and tree age. The most important host tree species were Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. and Populus tremula L. Other tree species of high importance included Sorbus aucuparia L. and Salix caprea L. One fourth of red-listed epiphytic lichens were primarily lignicolous. Most species required old-growth forests (required by 41% of species) or old trees (52%), but many species required only mature forests (36%) or trees (35%). The microclimatic preferences of most red-listed epiphytic lichens consisted of high or intermediate light availability and humidity. Most species whose status had deteriorated were dependent on deciduous trees. The continuous availability of old deciduous trees (especially Populus, Salix and Sorbus) requires special attention in both managed and protected forests. Red-listed epiphytic lichens would be aided by increased forest protection or transitioning to less intensive management regimes.
article id 22014, category Research article
Nea Kuusinen, Aarne Hovi, Miina Rautiainen. (2023). Estimation of boreal forest floor lichen cover using hyperspectral airborne and field data. Silva Fennica vol. 57 no. 1 article id 22014. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.22014
Keywords: remote sensing; Cladonia; spectroscopy
Highlights: A pilot study on estimating forest floor lichen cover from hyperspectral data; Multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis applied to field and airborne data; Accuracy of lichen cover estimates was good; Tree cover and presence of dwarf shrubs may influence lichen cover estimation.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Lichens are sensitive to competition from vascular plants, intensive silviculture, pollution and reindeer and caribou grazing, and can therefore serve as indicators of environmental changes. Hyperspectral remote sensing data has been proved promising for estimation of plant diversity, but its potential for forest floor lichen cover estimation has not yet been studied. In this study, we investigated the use of hyperspectral data in estimating ground lichen cover in boreal forest stands in Finland. We acquired airborne and in situ hyperspectral data of lichen-covered forest plots, and applied multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis to estimate the fractional cover of ground lichens in these plots. Estimation of lichen cover based on in situ spectral data was very accurate (coefficient of determination (r2) 0.95, root mean square error (RMSE) 6.2). Estimation of lichen cover based on airborne data, on the other hand, was fairly good (r2 0.77, RMSE 11.7), but depended on the choice of spectral bands. When the hyperspectral data were resampled to the spectral resolution of Sentinel-2, slightly weaker results were obtained. Tree canopy cover near the flight plots was weakly related to the difference between estimated and measured lichen cover. The results also implied that the presence of dwarf shrubs could influence the lichen cover estimates.
  • Kuusinen, Department of Built Environment, School of Engineering, Aalto University, P.O. Box 14100, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8063-1739 E-mail: nea.kuusinen@aalto.fi
  • Hovi, Department of Built Environment, School of Engineering, Aalto University, P.O. Box 14100, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4384-5279 E-mail: aarne.hovi@aalto.fi
  • Rautiainen, Department of Built Environment, School of Engineering, Aalto University, P.O. Box 14100, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6568-3258 E-mail: miina.a.rautiainen@aalto.fi
article id 10767, category Research article
Semo Mogeia, Alberto A. Manhiça, Andrade F. Egas. (2023). Wood ash content variation in Eucalyptus grandis clones in Mozambique. Silva Fennica vol. 57 no. 1 article id 10767. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10767
Keywords: sapwood; heartwood; base-top; bioenergy quality; woody fuel
Highlights: Eucalyptus grandis heartwood produces better fuel than sapwood, if assuming ash content as energy quality parameter; Younger individuals have higher ash content in sapwood, and older individuals in the heartwood; There was not significant stem end variation of ash content in heartwood and sapwood.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The sustainability of native forests in Sub-Saharan Africa depends on the diversification of sources to generate bioenergy, and Eucalyptus spp. wood has been highlighted. However, the determination of energy quality parameters has been a challenge to enable plantation wood to generate energy. The research assessed the ash content of radial and longitudinal samples of Eucalyptus grandis (Hill) clone with different ages and growth sites. Samples were collected in three pre-established plots in the center of Mozambique. Five trees were cut down in each plot and six discs were removed from each tree. Grinded samples with <0.5 mm particle size were generated from the heartwood and sapwood of each disk to determine the ash content. Wood from 7-year-olds had a higher ash content compared to 9-year-olds. The two sample plots differed from each other in terms of wood ash content. Heartwood samples had smaller ash content than sapwood samples. In general, the ash content of the intermediate positions was lower than those from the base and top of the stem, for both radial sections. No conclusive differences were found between samples from the base and the top of the trees, indicating that the material from the top of the trees can also be used as wood fuel. Ash content can be a considerable parameter to assess the quality of the wood of Eucalyptus spp. as a fuel.

  • Mogeia, Universidade Lúrio, Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias, Departamento de Silvicultura e Maneio [Lurio University, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forestry and Management], Campus de Wanaango, EN733, Km 42, Unango, Niassa, Mozambique E-mail: smogeia@unilurio.ac.mz (email)
  • Manhiça, Centro de Investigação Florestal, [Forestry Research Center], Marracuene, EN1, Maputo província, Mozambique E-mail: albertomanhica@gmail.com
  • Egas, Universidade Eduardo Mondlane, Faculdade de Agronomia e Engenharia Florestal, Departamento de Florestas, [Eduardo Mondlane University, Faculty of Agronomy and Forestry Engineering, Department of Forests], Av. Julius Nyerere, Maputo cidade, Mozambique E-mail: aegas8@gmail.com
article id 10752, category Research article
Oiva Hiltunen, Ville Hallikainen, Teijo Palander. (2023). Analysing the groundwater level and its determinants in a drained peatland forest: a case study in South Lapland, Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 57 no. 1 article id 10752. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10752
Keywords: peatland; groundwater level; load-bearing capacity; subsoil
Highlights: Mineral subsoils under a peat layer (less than 1 m) affect the groundwater level; During average precipitation, silty subsoil often makes groundwater level remain too high for timber haulage; If the subsoil is sandy and the peat layer is thin, the groundwater level gets lower; The amount of stand evapotranspiration alone is not enough to keep the groundwater level low enough.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In southern Lapland, 70% of drained peatland forests have a peat layer thickness of less than one metre. On these sites, the question is how the subsoil under the peat affects groundwater level and thus timber harvesting. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the peat layer (<1 m) and subsoil on the groundwater level and its variation during the growing season (non-frost) by modelling the factors affecting water level. In sandy soils, the groundwater level rose by 20 cm when the peat layer thickness increased from 20 to 70 cm. In silty soils the effect of the peat thickness on groundwater remained minor. When the subsoil was sand or coarser, the groundwater level was usually deeper than when it was silty or finer. The effect of stand volume (m–3 ha–1) on the groundwater level was rather weak albeit significant. The model explained a significant part of the groundwater surface variation, with a marginal coefficient of determination (R2) of 68%. It seems that the rutting of roads could be avoided in late summer if the precipitation is remarkably lower during that period, or if the subsoil is sandy with thin peat layer on top of it. Because the groundwater level affects the load-bearing capacity of timber-harvesting machinery, it is important to study this issue in more detail in the future.

  • Hiltunen, Lapland University of Applied Sciences, Jokiväylä 11, FI-96300 Rovaniemi, Finland E-mail: oivah@student.uef.fi (email)
  • Hallikainen, Natural Resources Institute Finland, Ounasjoentie 6, FI-96300 Rovaniemi, Finland E-mail: ville.hallikainen@luke.fi
  • Palander, The University of Eastern Finland, Faculty of Science, Forestry and Technology, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9284-5443 E-mail: teijo.s.palander@uef.fi
article id 10648, category Research article
Antti-Jussi Lindroos, Hannu Ilvesniemi. (2023). Weathering rates of Ca and Mg related to granitic and gabbro mineralogy in boreal forest soils and the effect of mechanical soil disturbance on weathering release. Silva Fennica vol. 57 no. 1 article id 10648. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10648
Keywords: ploughing; base cations; rotation period; mineral soil weathering
Highlights: Weathering rates were higher in the gabbro than the granitic areas; Weathering was an important Ca and Mg source to forest trees, and it increased after mechanical soil disturbance.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This study’s aim was to calculate the weathering rates of Ca and Mg for five boreal forest soils in southern Finland on granitic and gabbro containing bedrock. The effect of mineralogy on the total concentrations of Ca and Mg in soil and weathering rates was evaluated. The aim was also to estimate the effect of mechanical soil disturbance related to ploughing on the weathering in the gabbro area. The total concentrations of SiO2, CaO, MgO, and Zr were determined by XRF, and weathering rates of Ca and Mg were determined based on the changes in the CaO, MgO, and Zr concentrations. The weathering rates of Ca+Mg varied 5–38 mmolc m–2 year–1 in the E+B/BC horizons among the plots. Soil disturbance related to ploughing increased the weathering of Ca and Mg largely in the disturbed part of the topmost mineral soil as indicated by the decreasing concentrations of Ca and Mg after mechanical soil disturbance. The weathering input of Ca in the undisturbed soil did not fully replace the Ca output in final whole-tree cutting. The weathering input of Mg in the undisturbed soil was sufficient to replace the lost Mg in stemwood harvesting but not on all the plots the lost Mg in whole-tree harvesting. Weathering rates were higher in the gabbro than the granitic areas.

  • Lindroos, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Natural resources, Latokartanonkaari 9, FI-00790 Helsinki, Finland E-mail: antti.lindroos@luke.fi (email)
  • Ilvesniemi, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Production systems, Latokartanonkaari 9, FI-00790 Helsinki, Finland E-mail: hannu.ilvesniemi@luke.fi

Category : Review article

article id 22018, category Review article
Felipe de Miguel-Díez, Thomas Purfürst, Mauricio Acuna, Eduardo Tolosana-Esteban, Tobias Cremer. (2023). Estimation of conversion factors for wood stacks in landings and their influencing parameters: a comprehensive literature review for America and Europe. Silva Fennica vol. 57 no. 1 article id 22018. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.22018
Keywords: log properties; roundwood measurement; roundwood purchase; stack properties; wood supply chain
Highlights: Midpoint diameter, stacking quality, crookedness, log length, delimbing quality and bark thickness strongly influence the conversion factors; In Europe and America, a total of 48 methods were developed to estimate the conversion factors of wood stacks; The conversion factors should be estimated for each wood assortment and tree species.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info
In commercial transaction of stacked roundwood, the estimation of the stack net volume plays a key role. One generalized method to determine the net volume is using conversion factors that relate the gross and net volumes. In this literature review the developed methods to estimate the conversion factors as well as their influencing parameters were analyzed based on 153 references from America and Europe. According to the results, 48 different methods (including their variants) for estimating the conversion factors were developed. The newest methods enabled their accurate determination inexpensively, e.g., photo-optical methods or 3D simulation models. The analyzed references revealed that 30 parameters influence the conversion factors. Based on this comprehensive review, each stakeholder involved in the roundwood supply chain can know which method is used for estimating the conversion factors in the analyzed territories and which influencing parameters should be considered when purchasing roundwood in order to accurately assess the solid wood content in the stacks.
  • de Miguel-Díez, Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development, Department of Forest Utilization and Timber Markets, Eberswalde, Germany; University of Freiburg, Chair of Forest Operations, Freiburg, Germany ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3800-7449 E-mail: felipe.diez@hnee.de
  • Purfürst, University of Freiburg, Chair of Forest Operations, Freiburg, Germany ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9661-0193 E-mail: thomas.purfuerst@foresteng.uni-freiburg.de
  • Acuna, University of the Sunshine Coast, Forest Research Institute, Sunshine Coast, Queensland, Australia E-mail: macuna@usc.edu.au
  • Tolosana-Esteban, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, E.T.S.I. Montes, Forestal y del Medio Natural, Madrid, Spain ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2561-0342 E-mail: eduardo.tolosana@upm.es
  • Cremer, Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development, Department of Forest Utilization and Timber Markets, Eberswalde, Germany ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7866-944X E-mail: Tobias.Cremer@hnee.de
article id 10709, category Review article
Pavel Škvor, Martin Jankovský, Pavel Natov, Jiří Dvořák. (2023). Evaluation of stress loading for logging truck drivers by monitoring changes in muscle tension during a work shift. Silva Fennica vol. 57 no. 1 article id 10709. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10709
Keywords: timber transportation; biofeedback; driver; electromyography; physical load
Highlights: This study compared the workload of drivers when driving different types of vehicles; The combination of a truck and trailer exposes the driver to a significantly greater workload than trucks without trailers; The workload of drivers varied during a work shift i.e. drivers experienced significantly more workload in the middle of their work shifts.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Our research aimed to quantify and evaluate the stress loading of drivers by monitoring the loading of the radial extensor muscle at the wrist joint (musculus extensor carpi radialis) when they drove different types of timber trucks. We monitored changes in the electric potential of skeletal muscles with electromyographic measurements and measurements of changes of heart rate using the Biofeedback 2000 x-pert device. The drivers were observed throughout their work shifts during normal operation of logging trucks and logging trucks with trailers. As a reference, muscle load was measured when driving a passenger car. We evaluated the normality of the measured data and obtained descriptive statistics from the individual measurements. The differences in stress load associated with driving the different types of vehicles increased whilst driving on lower-class roads. Results showed a high stress load for drivers of loaded vehicles when driving on narrow roads. It was more challenging to control a loaded logging truck with a trailer than driving a logging truck, with the difference in muscular loading reaching 22.5%. Driving a logging truck with a trailer produced 46.5% more muscle loading compared to driving a loaded passenger car. For preventive health and safety reasons, it would be reasonable to alternate between drivers when operating various vehicles, thus minimizing the development of possible health issues.

  • Škvor, Department of Forestry Technologies and Construction, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcká 129, 165 21 Prague 6 - Suchdol, Czech Republic ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7540-4761 E-mail: skvorp@fld.czu.cz (email)
  • Jankovský, Department of Forestry Technologies and Construction, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcká 129, 165 21 Prague 6 - Suchdol, Czech Republic E-mail: jankovskym@fld.czu.cz
  • Natov, Department of Forestry Technologies and Construction, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcká 129, 165 21 Prague 6 - Suchdol, Czech Republic E-mail: natov@fld.czu.cz
  • Dvořák, Department of Forestry Technologies and Construction, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcká 129, 165 21 Prague 6 - Suchdol, Czech Republic ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5986-8002 E-mail: dvorakj@fld.czu.cz

Register
Click this link to register to Silva Fennica.
Log in
If you are a registered user, log in to save your selected articles for later access.
Contents alert
Sign up to receive alerts of new content
Your selected articles