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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Articles by Mika Härkönen

Category : Research article

article id 10196, category Research article
Karri Uotila, Jari Miina, Timo Saksa, Ron Store, Kauko Kärkkäinen, Mika Härkönen. (2020). Low cost prediction of time consumption for pre-commercial thinning in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 54 no. 1 article id 10196.
Keywords: forest vegetation management; early cleaning; release treatment; linear mixed model; topographic wetness index; work productivity
Highlights: Time consumption (TC) in pre-commercial thinning (PCT) can be predicted by variables describing site and stands conditions and previous silvicultural management; Applying variables available in forest resources data the field-assessment of worksite difficulty factors is not needed; The TC model could facilitate the predictions of the labour costs of PCT in forest information systems.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The time consumption (TC) of pre-commercial thinning (PCT) varies greatly among sites, stands and forest workers. The TC in PCT is usually estimated by field-assessed work difficulty factors. In this study, a linear mixed model for the TC in PCT was prepared by utilizing forest resources data (FRD). The modelling data included 11 848 and validation data included 3035 worksites with TC information recorded by forest workers within the period of 2008–2018. The worksites represented a range of site and stand conditions across a broad geographical area in Finland. Site and stand characteristics and previous management logically explained the TC in PCT. The more fertile the site, the more working time was needed in PCT. On sites of medium fertility, TC in the initial PCT increased with stand age by 0.5 h ha–1 yr–1. Site wetness increased the TC. PCT in summer was more time consuming than in spring. Small areas were more time consuming to PCT per hectare than larger ones. The between-forest worker variation involved in the TC was as high as 35% of the variation unexplained by the TC model. The coefficient of determination in validation data was 19.3%, RMSE 4.75 h ha–1 and bias –1.6%. The TC model based on FRD was slightly less precise than the one based on field-assessed work difficulty factors (removal quantity and type and terrain difficulty): RMSE 4.9 h ha–1 vs. 4.1 h ha–1 (52% vs. 43%). The TC model could be connected to forest information systems where it would facilitate the predictions of the labour costs of PCT without field-assessing work difficulty factors.

  • Uotila, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Natural resources, Latokartanonkaari 9, FI-00790 Helsinki, Finland E-mail: (email)
  • Miina, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Natural resources, Yliopistokatu 6 B, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland E-mail:
  • Saksa, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Natural resources, Survontie 9, FI-40500 Jyväskylä, Finland E-mail:
  • Store, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Bioeconomy and environment, Teknologiakatu 7, FI-67100 Kokkola, Finland E-mail:
  • Kärkkäinen, E-mail:
  • Härkönen, Tornator Oyj, Pielisentie 2–6, FI-81700 Lieksa, Finland E-mail:

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