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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Articles containing the keyword 'conflict management'

Category: Article

article id 7513, category Article
Jyrki Kangas, Teppo Loikkanen, Timo Pukkala, Jouni Pykäläinen. (1996). A participatory approach to tactical forest planning. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 0 no. 251 article id 7513.
Keywords: forest planning; public participation; optimization; heuristics; conflict management; decision analysis; participative planning
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper examines the needs, premises and criteria for effective public participation in tactical forest planning. A method for participatory forest planning utilizing the techniques of preference analysis, professional expertise and heuristic optimization is introduced. The techniques do not cover the whole process of participatory planning, but are applied as a tool constituting the numerical core for decision support. The complexity of multi-resource management is addressed by hierarchical decision analysis which assesses the public values, preferences and decision criteria toward the planning situation. An optimal management plan is sought using heuristic optimization. The plan can further be improved through mutual negotiations, if necessary. The use of the approach is demonstrated with an illustrative example. Its merits and challenges for participatory forest planning and decision making are discussed and a model for applying it in general forest planning context is depicted. By using the approach, valuable information can be obtained about public preferences and the effects of taking them into consideration on the choice of the combination of standwise treatment proposals for a forest area. Participatory forest planning calculations, carried out by the approach presented in the paper, can be utilized in conflict management and in developing compromises between competing interests.

  • Kangas, E-mail: jk@mm.unknown (email)
  • Loikkanen, E-mail: tl@mm.unknown
  • Pukkala, E-mail: tp@mm.unknown
  • Pykäläinen, E-mail: jp@mm.unknown

Category: Research article

article id 323, category Research article
Simo Kyllönen, Alfred Colpaert, Hannu Heikkinen, Mikko Jokinen, Jouko Kumpula, Mika Marttunen, Kari Muje, Kaisa Raitio. (2006). Conflict management as a means to the sustainable use of natural resources. Silva Fennica vol. 40 no. 4 article id 323.
Keywords: sustainability; conflict management; resource management; deliberative participation; frame analysis; assurance game; prisoner’s dilemma
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Democratic societies’ emphasis on individual rights and freedoms inevitably opens them up to political disputes. Conflict management should thus be seen as an integral part of democratic institutional design. The evolution and management of policy disputes concerning the use of different natural resources in Finland is analysed by using the theoretical models of frame analysis and strategic interaction. The studied disputes include lake fisheries, watercourse regulation, reindeer herding, and forestry. The institutional design in the case studies varies. Despite the differences, many common features are identified that could explain their successes or difficulties in achieving sustainable and cooperative use of the resources. Among these are problems involving complex and uncertain knowledge, differences in frames held by multiple users of a resource, and distrust between the users and other parties. The analysis concludes with preliminary conclusions on how various disputes related to sustainable resource use could be managed. These include addressing the knowledge and frame problems in order to initiate a learning process; establishing sub-processes in which mutual trust between the parties – including a managing authority or a third party – can emerge; giving explicit roles and a clear division of entitlement to the parties; and providing a credible alternative for co-operation that affects the parties’ payoff assessments during the process. Finally, the conflict management process shouldn’t be regarded as a distinct phase of dispute resolution, but as an essential aspect of ongoing co-management practices of resource use.
  • Kyllönen, Department of Social and Moral Philosophy, P.O. Box 9, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland E-mail: (email)
  • Colpaert, University of Joensuu, Department of Geography, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail:
  • Heikkinen, Taida, P.O. Box 1000, FI-90014 University of Oulu, Finland E-mail:
  • Jokinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kolari Research Unit, Muoniontie 21 A, FI-95900 Kolari, Finland E-mail:
  • Kumpula, Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Reindeer Research Station, Toivoniementie 246, FI-99910 Kaamanen, Finland E-mail:
  • Marttunen, Finnish Environment Institute, P.O. Box 140, FI-00251 Helsinki, Finland E-mail:
  • Muje, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyväskylä, Finland E-mail:
  • Raitio, Department of Social and Policy, University of Joensuu, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail:

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