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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Articles by Matleena Kniivilä

Category: Article

article id 5636, category Article
Timo Pukkala, Jyrki Kangas, Matleena Kniivilä, Anne-Mari Tiainen. (1997). Integrating forest-level and compartment-level indices of species diversity with numerical forest planning. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 4 article id 5636.
Keywords: simulation; heuristics; biodiversity conservation; forestry decision-making; environmental planning
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The study proposes a technique which enables the computation of user-defined indices for species diversity. These indices are derived from characteristics, called diversity indicators, of inventory plots, stand compartments, and the whole forest holding. The study discusses the modifications required to be made to typical forest planning systems due to this kind of biodiversity computation. A case study illustrating the use of the indices and a modified forest planning system is provided. In the case study, forest-level species diversity index was computed from the volume of dead wood, volume of broadleaved trees, area of old forest, and between-stand variety.

At the stand level, the area of old forest was replaced by stand age, and variety was described by within-stand variety. All but one of the indicators were further partitioned into two to four sub-indicators. For example, the volume of broadleaved trees was divided into volumes of birch, aspen, willow, and other tree species. The partial contribution of an indicator to the diversity index was obtained from a sub-priority function, determined separately for each indicator. The diversity index was obtained when the partial contributions were multiplied by the weights of the corresponding indicators and then were summed. The production frontiers computed for the harvested volume and diversity indices were concave, especially for the forest-level diversity index, indicating that diversity can be maintained at satisfactory level with medium harvest levels.

  • Pukkala, E-mail: tp@mm.unknown (email)
  • Kangas, E-mail: jk@mm.unknown
  • Kniivilä, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown
  • Tiainen, E-mail: at@mm.unknown

Category: Research article

article id 10151, category Research article
Jyri Hietala, Riitta Hänninen, Matleena Kniivilä, Anne Toppinen. (2019). Networks in international opportunity recognition among Finnish wood product industry SMEs. Silva Fennica vol. 53 no. 4 article id 10151.
Keywords: wood products; business networks; institutional networks; internationalization; opportunity recognition; social networks
Highlights: In line with earlier literature, we found the networks in our study to positively impact international opportunity recognition; Despite the reliance on various network forms and levels, a strategic stance towards opportunity recognition can be characterized as being more reactive than proactive; Institutional networks represented a more systematic way of recognizing international opportunities among case companies.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Bioeconomy development will create new opportunities for firms operating in the international wood products markets, and identifying and exploiting these opportunities is emphasized as a key concept to achieving business success. Our study will attempt to address a gap in the literature on sawmill industry business development from the viewpoint of international opportunity recognition. The aim of our study is to provide a holistic description on how small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the wood products industry recognize and exploit international business opportunities, and how they utilize network perspectives in this context. The subject was examined through Finnish wood product industry SMEs by interviewing 11 managers and industry representatives. The results suggest that SMEs recognize international opportunities reactively per se. Social networks formed in professional forums were an important information channel for identifying international opportunities. Through vertical business networks, such as sales agents, firms have been able to increase their international market presence and free their own resources for other important activities. Horizontal dyadic business networks were seen to facilitate new international opportunities through cooperation, while excessive reliance on vertical networks raised concerns and seemed not to be effective in international opportunity recognition. Institutional networks formed a systematic way of recognizing international opportunities, but more so at the initial market entry stage.

  • Hietala, United Bankers, Aleksanterinkatu 21 A, FI-00100 Helsinki, Finland E-mail: (email)
  • Hänninen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Bioeconomy and environment, Latokartanonkaari 9, FI-00790 Helsinki, Finland E-mail:
  • Kniivilä, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Bioeconomy and environment, Latokartanonkaari 9, FI-00790 Helsinki, Finland E-mail:
  • Toppinen, University of Helsinki, Helsinki Institute of Sustainability Science, Latokartanonkaari 7, P.O. 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland E-mail:
article id 526, category Research article
Matleena Kniivilä, Olli Saastamoinen. (2002). The opportunity costs of forest conservation in a local economy. Silva Fennica vol. 36 no. 4 article id 526.
Keywords: nature conservation; local economy; economic impacts; cost of conservation
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Costs generated by nature conservation are repeatedly under discussion. Most often the costs of conservation are estimated as aggregate figures at the national or regional level or alternatively, for a forest owner. In this study they were examined at the local level, in the forestry dependent municipality of Ilomantsi in Eastern Finland. The estimations of lost net revenues (stumpage income less silvicultural costs), wages, entrepreneurial income and profits, employment and value added were based on alternative forest management plans calculated for conservation areas. The annual losses as regards employment during the first decade were estimated to be 5.7–20.4 jobs. Later, the employment effects were estimated to be 2.4–6.3 lost jobs. Although the value added lost during the first decade was estimated to be at maximum only 3.4% of the present total value added of the municipality, the share of the value added of forestry was estimated to be higher than the mere protected forest land share would indicate. The use of conservation areas for forestry would create a moderate increase of employment in forestry, i.e. 3.8–14%, during the first decade, but it would later stabilise at a much lower level. Employment impacts at the municipal level were estimated as very small (at maximum 0.9%), but on the other hand, for some villages even single jobs may matter. The main reasons for the minor impacts were the high mechanisation rate of logging and the major flow of stumpage income outside the locality.
  • Kniivilä, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, P.O. Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail: (email)
  • Saastamoinen, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, P.O. Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail:

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