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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Articles containing the keyword 'external stem quality'

Category: Research article

article id 7816, category Research article
Pentti Niemistö, Harri Kilpeläinen, Eero Poutiainen. (2018). Effect of first thinning type and age on growth, stem quality and financial performance of a Scots pine stand in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 2 article id 7816.
Keywords: bucking; growth and yield; external stem quality; profitability; Pinus silvestris; tree selection; saw log
Highlights: Early commercial first thinning at the top height of 11 m with tree selection targeting high quality of remaining stems was more profitable in a Scots pine stand than thinning from below at similar time or delayed thinning 10 years later; After early first thinning only one intermediate thinning was needed, but a late thinning at age of 60 years was feasible in connection with increased amount of high quality butt logs after artificial pruning; The optimal rotation period for a Scots pine stand using a lower interest rate of 1% was 80–85 years depending on the thinning pattern. With a higher rate of 4%, the optimal rotation took only 60 years.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The objective of the study was to ascertain the effects of tree selection (thinning from below, from above and according to stem quality) and timing of first commercial thinning (early and delayed) on the growth, yield and quality of trees in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand. A long-term field experiment (25 years) was measured in 5-year periods and the further development was simulated with growth and yield models to final cuttings using alternative rotation periods of 55–85 years. The measurements included also the exact location and type of technical defects detected on all trees in the experimental plots. The measured volume increment per unit area during the study period, 25 years after the early thinning stage was the lowest in the plots thinned from below, and the highest in the plots thinned from above or in the delayed thinning plots. However, the largest volume of saw logs during the whole rotation of 80 years was yielded after early first thinning according to the quality. The largest volume of very high-quality butt logs was produced by pruning connected with early thinning from above, and a smaller volume after early thinning according to stem quality but no after thinning from below or delayed first thinning. Without pruning an early quality thinning with one intermediate thinning was the most profitable thinning treatment in the Scots pine stand regardless the rotation length or the interest rate used. By interest rates of 1% and 2%, the optimal rotations were 80–85 years and 70 years respectively. A late thinning at the age of 60 year with long rotation was profitable only for the pruned pine stands with a low interest rate.

  • Niemistö, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Natural resources, Kampusranta 9 C, FI-60320 Seinäjoki, Finland E-mail: (email)
  • Kilpeläinen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Production systems, Yliopistokatu 6, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland E-mail:
  • Poutiainen, Oulu E-mail:
article id 245, category Research article
Saija Huuskonen, Jari Hynynen, Risto Ojansuu. (2008). Stand characteristics and external quality of young Scots pine stands in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 42 no. 3 article id 245.
Keywords: Scots pine; growth and yield; precommercial thinning; external stem quality; young stand management
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
The effects of silvicultural practices (regeneration method and young stand management) on the stand characteristics of young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris (L.)) stands were studied. Stand density, mean diameter, crown ratio and external quality of young Scots pine stands were analysed on the basis of extensive inventory data. The study material consisted of 181 stands containing inventory growth plots, representing the most common site types for Scots pine and covering all the important wood production areas in Finland. Intensive management practices, i.e. artificial regeneration and precommercial thinning, clearly enhanced mean diameter development of the stand. The overall stand density of the crop trees was relatively low in the material (1925 trees ha–1). In more than one third of the stands, the stem number of crop trees was below 1500 trees ha–1. Stand density was not affected by forest management, but it was slightly higher in Southern than in Northern Finland. The geographical location, in terms of annual effective temperature sum, affected the average slenderness and crown ratio. At a given mean stand diameter, the dominant height of the stand was lower, and the mean crown ratio was higher, in Northern than in Southern Finland. The average external quality of the Scots pine trees was relatively low. The proportion of trees without any observed defects was 54%. The most common external defects were curved stems (23%) and branchiness (9%). Branchiness was more frequent among the largest trees, while curved stems were more common in smaller trees. Defects were the most frequent in planted stands, and in stands growing on fresh sites. The defects were more frequent in Northern Finland than in Southern Finland. The relatively low stand density and poor external quality of the young stands emphasize the importance of stem quality as a tree selection criterion in commercial thinnings of Scots pine stands, if the goal is to produce high quality timber.
  • Huuskonen, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Ecology, Helsinki, Finland E-mail: (email)
  • Hynynen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, Vantaa, Finland E-mail:
  • Ojansuu, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, Vantaa, Finland E-mail:

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