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Articles containing the keyword 'forest berries'

Category: Research article

article id 10341, category Research article
Arta Bārdule, Edgars Jūrmalis, Zane Lībiete, Ilze Pauliņa, Jānis Donis, Agita Treimane. (2020). Use of retail market data to assess prices and flows of non-wood forest products in Latvia. Silva Fennica vol. 54 no. 3 article id 10341. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10341
Keywords: forest berries; mushrooms; provisional ecosystem services; retail prices; spatial flows of NWFPs; tree sap
Highlights: Retail prices of non-wood forest products (NWFPs) may be used to study lifestyle-related consumption patterns; While retail sales of NWFPs may increase household budgets, this source of income is highly variable due to varying meteorological conditions; NWFP retail price analysis illustrates aspect of household economies not recorded in official statistics and cash flows of declared income.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In northern Europe, largest part of non-wood forest products (NWFPs) are gathered for recreational purposes and household consumption, but considerable amount of forest berries and mushrooms are sold as well. Retail market, largely invisible for the official statistics, reveals the lifestyle-related aspects of NWFP trade and may help to understand the flows of this ecosystem service when information on wholesale trade is inaccessible. The prices and flows of most common NWFPs – edible berries, mushrooms and tree sap – in the retail market in Latvia in 2017 and 2018 were analysed based on direct interviews with the sellers in marketplaces and telephone interviews with online retailers. The mean retail prices of NWFPs were compared between statistical regions and years and correlated with socio-economic data and forest characteristics. The directions of the NWFP flows were analysed according to the place of origin and place of retail sales. The highest prices were recorded for stinkhorn (Phallus impudicus Pers.) and Boletes spp. among mushrooms, for wild strawberries (Fragaria vesca L.) among berries and for maple (Acer platanoides L.) sap in the product group of tree sap. The retail price of the same products differed between years, most likely due to the product availability, largely caused by meteorological conditions. In more than half of the cases of recorded sales, NWFPs were consumed in the same region as they were gathered. For other cases of sales, the capital, Rīga, was the main service benefitting area of NWFP retail trade, and the largest part of the products originated from the two closest statistical regions.

  • Bārdule, Latvian State Forest Research Institute “Silava”, Rigas str. 111, Salaspils, Latvia, LV-2169 E-mail: arta.bardule@silava.lv (email)
  • Jūrmalis, Latvian State Forest Research Institute “Silava”, Rigas str. 111, Salaspils, Latvia, LV-2169 E-mail: edgars.jurmalis@silava.lv
  • Lībiete, Latvian State Forest Research Institute “Silava”, Rigas str. 111, Salaspils, Latvia, LV-2169 E-mail: zane.libiete@silava.lv
  • Pauliņa, Latvian State Forest Research Institute “Silava”, Rigas str. 111, Salaspils, Latvia, LV-2169 E-mail: paulina.ilze@gmail.com
  • Donis, Latvian State Forest Research Institute “Silava”, Rigas str. 111, Salaspils, Latvia, LV-2169 E-mail: janis.donis@silava.lv
  • Treimane, Latvian State Forest Research Institute “Silava”, Rigas str. 111, Salaspils, Latvia, LV-2169; University of Latvia, Jelgavas str. 1, Riga, Latvia, LV-1004 E-mail: agita.treimane@silava.lv
article id 10043, category Research article
Outi Manninen, Rainer Peltola. (2019). Continuous picking may increase bilberry yields. Silva Fennica vol. 53 no. 3 article id 10043. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10043
Keywords: sustainability; Vaccinium myrtillus; wild forest berries; collectable goods
Highlights: Bilberry fruit production and fruit set increased under continuous picking by rake in three-year study; Bilberry flower number and fruit mass were not affected by picking; Bilberry compensated for biomass loss; The highest relative deciduous species abundance was found in the picking treatment plots at the end of the experiment.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Accumulated knowledge about the health benefits of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) has increased the demand and utilization of wild bilberries. Intensive berry picking by metal rakes is believed to cause damage in bilberry stands in areas under continuous picking pressure, and hence expected to hamper the production of berries in forthcoming years. We conducted an experiment to examine the effect of continuous bilberry picking by metal rake on the number of bilberry flowers and fruits, fruit mass, compensation for biomass loss after picking, and plant functional type abundance in the understorey in northern Finland. Bilberry lost less than 0.5% of its biomass annually during the three-year study period due to rake harvesting. The number of flowers was not significantly affected by damage caused by picking, while both fruit production and fruit set increased without any indication of reduced fruit mass, and biomass loss was fully compensated. Moreover, the relative abundance of plant functional types was not affected by picking during the study. We suggest that the low intensity and timing of damage act as a buffer against the adverse effects of picking on bilberry fruit production. On the basis of this study, it is reasonable to anticipate that there are no indications that current intensive berry picking would not be on a sustainable level.

  • Manninen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Bioeconomy and environment, Paavo Havaksentie 3, FI-90014 University of Oulu, Finland E-mail: outi.manninen@luke.fi (email)
  • Peltola, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Bioeconomy and environment, Ounasjoentie 6, FI-96200 Rovaniemi, Finland E-mail: rainer.peltola@luke.fi
article id 972, category Research article
Outi H. Manninen, Rainer Peltola. (2013). Effects of picking methods on the berry production of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), lingonberry (V. vitis-idaea) and crowberry (Empetrum nigrum ssp. hermaphroditum) in Northern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 47 no. 3 article id 972. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.972
Keywords: berry yields; commercial picking; wild forest berries
Highlights: Berry production of bilberry, lingonberry and crowberry was studied after picking the berries by plastic hand rake, long-handed metal rake, and powerful picking by long-handed metal rake; Berry production was not affected by the damage caused by any of the picking method; Current commercial picking methods do not endanger the berry production of the berry species at least in short-term.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info
The effect of commercial wild berry picking on berry yields is under a strong public debate in Finland. Especially high concern has been arisen over damages caused by metal rakes used in commercial picking to subsequent berry production. We studied the berry production of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), lingonberry (V. vitis-idaea L.) and crowberry (E. nigrum ssp. hermaphroditum (Hagerup) Böcher) after picking the berries by 1) plastic hand rake, 2) long-handed metal rake and 3) powerful picking by long-handed metal rake, in northern Finland during 2010–2012. In the powerful long-handed metal rake treatment the aboveground vegetation was raked twice to the moss layer after berry picking. Biomass, which was removed from the vegetation by rakes was collected and used as a measure of the damage. We assumed that picking by plastic hand rake would result in lowest, long-handed metal rake intermediate and powerful picking by long-handed metal rake highest biomass loss from vegetation. The amount of biomass loss should in turn be reversely reflected into berry production. However, only the powerful picking by long-handed metal rake removed higher amount of biomass than other picking methods in bilberry and lingonberry. In crowberry, the amount of biomass removed by rakes increased from treatment to treatment. Contrary to our assumption, berry production of bilberry, lingonberry and crowberry was not affected by the damage caused by any of the picking method. We conclude that long-handed metal rake used in commercial picking is comparable to hand rake in terms of berry production.
  • Manninen, Agrifood Research Finland MTT, Eteläranta 55, FI-96300 Rovaniemi, Finland E-mail: outi.h.manninen@mtt.fi (email)
  • Peltola, Agrifood Research Finland MTT, Eteläranta 55, FI-96300 Rovaniemi, Finland E-mail: rainer.peltola@mtt.fi

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