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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Articles containing the keyword 'forest soils'

Category: Article

article id 5399, category Article
Raisa Mäkipää. (1994). Effects of nitrogen fertilization on the humus layer and ground vegetation under closed canopy in boreal coniferous stands. Silva Fennica vol. 28 no. 2 article id 5399.
Keywords: ground vegetation; forest soils; dwarf shrubs; nitrogen fertilization; mosses; nitrogen saturation; nitrogen deposition
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Forest ecosystems may accumulate large amounts of nitrogen in the biomass and in the soil organic matter. However, there is increasing concern that deposition of inorganic nitrogen compounds from the atmosphere will lead to nitrogen saturation; excess nitrogen input does not increase production. The aim of this study was to determine the long-term changes caused by nitrogen input on accumulation of nitrogen in forest soils and in ground vegetation.

The fertilization experiments used in this study were established during 1958–1962. They were situated on 36- to 63-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stands of different levels of fertility. The experiments received nitrogen fertilization 5–7 times over a 30-year period, and the total input of nitrogen was 596–926 kg/ha.

Nitrogen input increased the amount of organic matter in the humus layer and the nitrogen concentration in the organic matter. Furthermore, the total amount of nutrients (N, P, K, Ca and Mg) bound by the humus layer increased due to the increase in the amount of organic matter. However, nitrogen input decreased the biomass of ground vegetation. The nitrogen concentration of the plant material on the nitrogen-fertilized plots was higher than on the control plots, but the amount of nutrients bound by ground vegetation decreased owing to the drastic decrease in the biomass of mosses. Ground vegetation does not have the potential to accumulate nitrogen, because vegetation is dominated by slow-growing mosses and dwarf shrubs which do not benefit from nitrogen input.

  • Mäkipää, E-mail: rm@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5494, category Article
Jari Nieppola. (1993). Site classification in Pinus sylvestris L. forests in southern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 1 article id 5494.
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; forest soils; Southern Finland; forest types; site classification; TWINSPAN
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

It was examined whether the present site classification method, and especially its applicability to site productivity estimation, could be improved in upland Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests in Southern Finland by developing a classification key based on Two-way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN), and/or by inclusion of soil texture, stoniness and the humus layer depth more closely in the classification method. TWINSPAN clusters (TW) explained 71%, and forest site types (FST) 64% of the variation in site index (SI) (H100). When soil texture (TEXT) was added to the regression model, the explanatory power increased to 82% (SI = TW + TW * TEXT) and to 80% (SI = FST + FST * TEXT), respectively. Soil texture alone explained 69% of the variation in site index. The influence of stoniness on site index was significant (P <0.05) on sorted medium sand soils and on medium and fine sand moraine soils. The thickness of the humus layer (2–6 cm) was not significantly (P=0.1) related to site index.

It is suggested that the proposed TWINSPAN classification cannot replace the present forest site type system in Scots pine stands in Southern Finland. However, the TWINSPAN key may be used to aid the identification of forest types. The observation of dominant soil texture within each forest type is recommended.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Nieppola, E-mail: jn@mm.unknown (email)

Category: Research article

article id 10211, category Research article
Gernot Erber, Raffaele Spinelli. (2020). Timber extraction by cable yarding on flat and wet terrain: a survey of cable yarder manufacturer’s experience. Silva Fennica vol. 54 no. 2 article id 10211.
Keywords: forest soils; soil compaction; logging equipment; sensitive soils
Highlights: Survey of all European cable yarder manufacturers on flat-terrain yarding; Manufacturers are frequently contacted concerning flat-terrain yarding; Forest resource inaccessibility, regulatory and environmental considerations are most important motivations; Lack of clearance, tree stability and installation costs are major challenges; Mobile, self-anchoring tail spar is considered a chief adaptation; Cost-competitiveness with ground-based systems cannot be achieved without subsidies; Increasing environmental awareness and climate change present opportunity to expand flat-terrain cable yarding.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Cable yarding is a general solution for load handling on sites not accessible to ground-based machinery, and is typically associated with steep terrain. On flat terrain, such conditions can primarily be found on soft or wet soils, most frequently encountered in Central and Northern European countries. Today, changed environmental and market conditions may offer an unprecedented opportunity to the actual implementation of cable yarding on flat terrain in commercial operations. The study goal was to collect cable yarder manufacturers experience regarding the use and adaption of cable yarding technology on flat terrain. European manufacturers of cable yarding technology were interviewed about customer experience, particular challenges, adaptation potential, future potential and main hurdles for the expansion of cable yarding on flat terrain. Almost all manufacturers have received requests for flat-terrain yarding technology solutions, primarily from Germany. Temporal or permanent inaccessibility, regulatory or environmental reasons were the most frequent motivation for considering cable yarding technology. Installation was considered particularly challenging (clearance, stable anchoring). Potential adaptations included higher towers, artificial anchors, mechanized bunching before extraction and un-guyed yarder-systems. An artificial, highly mobile, self-anchoring tail spar was considered the most useful adaptation. While concerned about limited profitability and qualified labour shortage, most manufacturers demonstrated a positive or neutral view concerning the expansion of cable yarding on flat terrain. However, cable yarding is not considered to be cost-competitive wherever ground-based systems can be employed and cable yarding is not subsidized.

  • Erber, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna, Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, Institute of Forest Engineering, Peter Jordan Strasse 82, 1190 Vienna, Austria ORCID E-mail: (email)
  • Spinelli, CNR-IBE Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche-Istituto per la BioEconomia, Via Madonna del Piano 10, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze, I-50019, Italy; AFORA, University of the Sunshine Coast, Locked Bag 4, Maroochydore, QLD, Australia ORCID E-mail:
article id 989, category Research article
Anna Saarsalmi, Pekka Tamminen, Mikko Kukkola. (2014). Effects of long-term fertilisation on soil properties in Scots pine and Norway spruce stands. Silva Fennica vol. 48 no. 1 article id 989.
Keywords: boreal forest; nitrogen; Pinus sylvestris L.; phosphorus; liming; forest soils; Picea abies (L.) Karst.
Highlights: N fertilisation increased the amount of carbon in the organic layer; N fertilisation decreased the C/N ratio in the surface soil; N addition increased the amount of most nutrients in the organic layer; N fertilisation tended to lower pH, although only slightly.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info
The response of surface soil after 45- to 52-years to repeated nitrogen and phosphorus fertilisation was studied. This study included 30 factorial experiments established in young (5- to 30-year-old) stands using plots of 900 m2, on average, and by randomising treatments within each experiment. Total amount of N added varied from 534 to 1908 kg ha–1 and that of P from 69 to 193 kg ha–1, repeated at every second N fertilisation. Liming was performed twice; in total, 6000 kg ha–1 of dolomite was applied. Nitrogen fertilisation increased the mass of the organic layer and the amount of carbon and consequently the amounts of most of the elements in the organic layer. In both the organic layer and the 0–10 cm layer of mineral soil, nitrogen fertilisation decreased the C/N ratio and tended to lower pH, although only slightly. Phosphorus fertilisation increased the amounts of P and Ca. Liming increased the total amounts of most elements in the organic layer, except for C and N. We were able to derive models to describe how changes in the chemical properties of the surface soil depended on doses of elements and on site and stand properties.
  • Saarsalmi, Finnish Forest Research Institute, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland E-mail: (email)
  • Tamminen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland E-mail:
  • Kukkola, Finnish Forest Research Institute, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland E-mail:

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