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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Articles by Hannu Mannerkoski

Category: Article

article id 5429, category Article
Hannu Mannerkoski, Veikko Möttönen. (1990). Maan vesitalous ja ilmatila metsäaurausalueilla. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 3 article id 5429.
English title: Soil water conditions and air-filled porosity on ploughed reforestation areas.
Original keywords: maanmuokkaus; turvemaat; maavesi; maaveden potentiaali; huokostilavuus; pohjavedenpinta; vesipotentiaali; metsäauraus; kivennäismaat
English keywords: site preparation; Finland; peatlands; soil moisture; ground water table; water potential; soil aeration; forest ploughing; mineral soil sites
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Five ploughed research areas from Finnish Norther Karelia were selected for comparison studies of plough ridges and untouched soil. Measurements were made at a depth of 10 cm in sample plots on both mineral and paludified mineral soil and peatland parts of these areas. In summer 1987 daily soil water matric potential was measured using tensiometers, and volumetric soil moisture content and density were determined from soil samples at two dates during the summer. Water characteristics of the core samples were also determined. On paludified mineral and peat soils the water table depth from the soil surface was measured.

The results indicated that in plough ridges matric potential was lowest. Plough ridges were also seen to dry and wet faster and to a greater degree than untouched soils. In untouched soils, soil water relations and aeration were not affected by the distance to the furrow. The effect of the plough ridge was smallest on peatland, where there was a good capillary connection from plough ridge to the ground water, if the ditches were not very effective. The soil in the ridges did not dry too much to restrict seedling growth. The untouched surface soil in poorly drained peat and paludified minear soil was, at least in a rainy growing season, often and also for long times so wet that 10% minimum air space required for good seedling root growth was not available.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Mannerkoski, E-mail: hm@mm.unknown (email)
  • Möttönen, E-mail: vm@mm.unknown
article id 5000, category Article
Hannu Mannerkoski. (1978). Säteilymittarin m/Frankfurt soveltuvuus energiatasemittauksiin. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 3 article id 5000.
English title: Use of chemical totalizer of radiation in energy balance measurements.
Original keywords: mittausmenetelmät; haihdunta; energiatase; mittauslaitteet; säteilymittari
English keywords: evaporation; measuring methods; energy balance; measuring instrument; net radiation
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The investigation is concerned with testing chemical totalizer of radiation (Frankfurt radiometer) for use in measuring the components of a simple energy balance (latent heat = net radiation – sensible heat) so as to gain an estimate for evaporation. The meter is based on the temperature dependence of the inversion rate of sugar solution. The relationship is exponential. It was found that radiation sums for 2–6-day periods can be reliably determined with this meter when global radiation is below 20 MJ·m-2d-1. Determining sensible heat is noticeably inaccurate, and hence the calculation of evaporation values, too. In comparing evaporation from different types of ground and plant cover one thus has to be content with drawing conclusions on the basis of net radiation values. The totalizer is therefore only suited to describing radiation conditions.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Mannerkoski, E-mail: hm@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4882, category Article
Hannu Mannerkoski. (1973). Ekologisia havaintoja eräältä ojitetulta suolta. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 2 article id 4882.
English title: Ecological investigations in a drained peatland area.
Original keywords: kuusi; turvemaat; ojitetut suot; aluskasvillisuus; turpeen paksuus; ravinteet; ravinnepuutos; puusto
English keywords: Norway spruce; Picea abies; drained peatlands; nutrient deficiency; growing stock; nutrients; ground vegetation; thickness of peat
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper deals with the relationships between macronutrients, ground vegetation and tree crop on a drained peatland area in Central Finland. The former herb-rich spruce swamp was drained in 1930s. The Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) stand was established by planting under a nurse crop of birch, which was removed later.

There was a negative correlation between the thickness of the peat layer and the volume and mean height of the growing stock. This was found to depend on the negative correlation prevailing between the potassium content of the topmost peat layer and the thickness of the peat cover. The deficiency of potassium is clearly discernible as deficiency symptoms in the needles, the intensity of which showed a strong correlation with the stand characteristics studied. Among the nutrient characteristics of the topmost peat layer, total potassium and the N/K and P/K ratios showed the closest correlation with the stand characteristics. The communities into which the ground vegetation was divided differed from each other with regard to the calcium content of the peat substrate.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Mannerkoski, E-mail: hm@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4841, category Article
Hannu Mannerkoski. (1971). Lannoituksen vaikutus kylvösten ensi kehitykseen turvealustalla. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 2 article id 4841.
English title: Effect of fertilization on the initial development of Scots pine and Norway spruce plantations established by sowing on peat.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; turvemaat; lannoitus; itäminen; kuolleisuus; pituuskasvu
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; fertilization; Picea abies; germination; Scots pine; height growth; mortality; sowing
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Experiments were carried out to find out the effect of fertilizer application on germination, seedling emmergnece and initial development in conifer plantations established on peat by sowing, with a special reference to Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The experiments were carried out in 1968–70 in laboratory, in greenhouse and in the field.

In the greenhouse experiments with Y fertilizer for peat soils (14% N, 18% P2O5, 10% K2O) it was shown that germination and seedling emergence decreased markedly with increased fertilizer application. Mortality among seedlings that had emerged was the higher the larger quantities of fertilizer had been applied. The effect of fertilization was the greater, the drier the substrate. Fine ground rock phosphate (33% P2O5) promoted seedling emergence on a dry substrate but not on a wet one.

The field experiments carried out in Central Finland included dry and wet sites. Y fertilizer, Oulu Saltpeter (25% N), fine-ground rock phosphate and potassium salt (50% K2O) were used. According to the results, easily soluble fertilizers decreased seedling emergence. On wet sites the effect of Y fertilizer was weaker than on drier sites. Fine-ground rock phosphate slightly increased the number of seedlings emerging. Height growth was increased during the first three growing seasons only by those fertilizers containing phosphorus.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Mannerkoski, E-mail: hm@mm.unknown (email)

Category: Article

article id 7604, category Article
Jukka Laine, Hannu Mannerkoski. (1980). Lannoituksen vaikutus mäntytaimikoiden kasvuun ja hirvituhoihin karuilla ojitetuilla nevoilla. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 0 no. 166 article id 7604.
English title: Effect on fertilization on tree growth and elk damage in young Scots pine stands planted on drained, nutrient-poor open bogs in Finland.
Original keywords: ojitus; mänty; kasvu; hirvituhot; lannoitus; taimikot; typpi; nevat; fosfori
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; fertilization; nitrogen; drained peatlands; Scots pine; growth; phosphorus; seedlings; elk damages; open pogs
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

An attempt was made in this study to determine which nutrients and in what amounts should be used in the fertilization of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedling stands on nutrient-poor open bogs in order to obtain optimum seedling growth and to minimize the risk of elk damage.

The most important nutrient to improve seedling growth in the experiments was phosphorus. Already rather small amounts produced a significant effect although the effect of higher dosages seemed to be longer lasting. After fertilization also nitrogen gave significant increase in growth. The number of seedlings damaged by elk increased the most on N-fertilized plots. Also, phosphorus increased the occurrence of elk damage, but effect seemed to be related to the better growth and more suitable size of P-fertilized seedlings. The effect of potassium on seedling growth and on occurrence of elk damage was negligible.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Laine, E-mail: jl@mm.unknown (email)
  • Mannerkoski, E-mail: hm@mm.unknown

Category: Research article

article id 328, category Research article
Pedro J. Aphalo, Markku Lahti, Tarja Lehto, Tapani Repo, Aino Rummukainen, Hannu Mannerkoski, Leena Finér. (2006). Responses of silver birch saplings to low soil temperature. Silva Fennica vol. 40 no. 3 article id 328.
Keywords: biomass; Betula pendula; photosynthesis; electrical impedance; mineral nutrients; soil temperature; stomatal conductance; water relations
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Two-year-old silver birch (Betula pendula) saplings were grown for a third growing season in controlled-environment rooms (dasotrons) at three soil temperatures (5, 10, and 20 °C). All trees grew the first flush of leaves, but the growth of the second flush was almost completely inhibited at the two lower temperatures. The dry weight of the second-flush leaves was 50 times larger at 20 °C than at 5 and 10 °C, with about 100 times more nitrogen. Root growth was less affected than shoot growth. Chlorophyll content, net assimilation rate and stomatal conductance were lower at low soil temperatures. The value of the cytoplasm resistance estimated from the electric impedance spectra was lower at 5 °C than at 10 or 20 °C. Leaf water potential was highest at the lowest soil temperature, and intercellular carbon dioxide concentration was only slightly lower in saplings growing in cooler soil. We conclude that the effect of long-term exposure to cold soil on net assimilation and growth was not caused by stomatal closure alone. It is likely to be additionally mediated by the limited nitrogen acquisition at the low soil temperatures, and perhaps additionally by some other factor. As the growth depression of aboveground parts in response to low soil temperature was more significant in silver birch than what has earlier been found in conifers, the relative changes in air and soil temperature may eventually determine whether birch will become more dominant in boreal forests with climate change.
  • Aphalo, University of Helsinki, Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences E-mail:
  • Lahti, The Finnish Forest Research Institute E-mail:
  • Lehto, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail: (email)
  • Repo, The Finnish Forest Research Institute E-mail:
  • Rummukainen, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail:
  • Mannerkoski, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail:
  • Finér, The Finnish Forest Research Institute E-mail:

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