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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Articles containing the keyword 'grain angle'

Category: Research article

article id 154, category Research article
Henrik R. Hallingbäck, Gunnar Jansson, Björn Hannrup, Anders Fries. (2010). Which annual rings to assess grain angles in breeding of Scots pine for improved shape stability of sawn timber? Silva Fennica vol. 44 no. 2 article id 154.
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; spiral grain angle; warp; sawn timber; breeding
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
The shape stability properties of sawn timber could be improved by breeding or grading Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) for reduced grain angles. Currently, only grain angle assessments performed in single annual rings can be considered feasible in forest breeding programmes. The relevance of such methods in assessing shape stability traits was evaluated by taking grain angle measurements beneath the bark in a 36-year-old Scots pine progeny trial. Several grain angle measurements from stem discs were also taken from a sample of 162 trees. Phenotypic correlations were estimated between grain angle and the bow, crook and twist developed in 316 sawn and dried boards. All single annual ring assessments, including measurements taken directly under the bark, were significantly correlated with twist. The highest correlations (0.60–0.70) were observed in annual rings numbered 8–20 and at distances of 30–70 mm from the pith, indicating those parts of logs where grain angles have the largest impact on twist. These results suggests, that grain angles measured beneath the bark are relevant to the twist of sawn small timber, and that any single annual ring could be chosen for the assessment, provided that the tree diameter is within the 60–140 mm range. No appreciable correlations were observed between grain angles and either crook or bow.
  • Hallingbäck, Dept of Plant Biology and Forest Genetics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden E-mail: (email)
  • Jansson, The Forestry Research Institute of Sweden, Uppsala, Sweden E-mail:
  • Hannrup, The Forestry Research Institute of Sweden, Uppsala, Sweden E-mail:
  • Fries, Dept of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden E-mail:
article id 200, category Research article
Peder Gjerdrum, Mauro Bernabei. (2009). Three-dimensional spiral grain pattern in five large Norway spruce stems. Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 3 article id 200.
Keywords: grain angle; 3D-model; tree helix; split disk
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
There is a great deal of interest involved in investigating and understanding grain angle in trees. The objective of the study presented in this paper has been to identify a joint, three-dimensional model for grain angle in stems of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) Five large spruce trees were sampled. Transverse disks were extracted at regular intervals along the stem, split through the pith with a blunt knife, and observed for grain angle and cambial age along the north radius, setting pith observation to zero angle. The overall finding confirmed grain pattern congruent to distance from pith along the stem, a pattern that varies from tree to tree. Models expressing distance from the pith in cambial age performed slightly better than models in spatial distance. Grain pattern changed slightly along the stem, and this change was found to be consistent for the five stems: the left-handed grain angle in the juvenile wood was more pronounced upwards in the stem, and the angle changed faster towards right-handed spiralling. The model did not account for grain variation related to knots, undulating pith or other irregularities. Model residuals were normally distributed and seemingly homogeneous for all trees and for all height levels. The model is an extension of existing two-dimensional models for stem cross-cuts. After verification in a wider sample, the results should be applicable in tree and wood modelling.
  • Gjerdrum, Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute, P.O. Box 115, N-1431 Ås, Norway E-mail: (email)
  • Bernabei, Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute, P.O. Box 115, N-1431 Ås, Norway E-mail:
article id 666, category Research article
Rolf Pape. (1999). Influence of thinning on spiral grain in Norway spruce grown on highly productive sites in southern Sweden. Silva Fennica vol. 33 no. 1 article id 666.
Keywords: Norway spruce; thinning; grain angle; ring width; growth rate; spiral grain
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Grain spirality was investigated in eight stands of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) subjected to different thinning regimes. The dominating general pattern of spiral grain found in this study was typical for conifers, with a maximum of left-handed spirality close to the pith, which decreased towards the bark and sometimes changed to right-handed spiral grain in the outer growth rings. However, there was a large amount of between-tree variation in spiral grain. The effect of thinning on grain spirality was investigated by relating annual ring width to spiral grain, since thinning affects growth rate. A positive correlation between ring width and grain angle was found, but a considerable number of trees showed no or a negative correlation. A statistically significant effect of ring width was only found in five of the eight stands. Heavy thinnings, removing 60% of the basal area of a stand, considerably increased spiral grain, whereas the effects of light thinnings were inconsistent. These results support the findings of earlier studies indicating that spiral grain formation is under considerable genetic control, while its expression can be changed by silvicultural methods which affect growth rate.
  • Pape, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Yield Research, P.O. Box 7061, S-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden E-mail: (email)

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