Current issue: 57(2)

Under compilation: 57(3)

Scopus CiteScore 2021: 2.8
Scopus ranking of open access forestry journals: 8th
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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Articles containing the keyword 'groundwater level'

Category: Article

article id 7376, category Article
O. J. Lukkala. (1942). Sateen mittauksia erilaisissa metsiköissä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 23 article id 7376.
English title: Measurements of rainfall in different kinds of forests in Finland.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; koivu; sadanta; haihdunta; pohjavesi; latvuspeittävyys; pohjaveden taso
English keywords: Norway spruce; birch; Picea abies; Scots pine; rainfall; Iinterception of precipitation; groundwater level
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The tree canopy adsorbs part of the rainfall falling on a forest, therefore only part of it reaches the soil. This report presents results concerning interception of precipitation and groundwater level in forests of varying canopy cover. The study belongs to a larger survey on afforestation of drained treeless bogs. The rainfall was measured daily in the open fields and in the adjacent forests. The forests, mainly Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) dominated, were divided by the canopy cover into five classes from over dense to sparsely stocked.

The results show that in a dense, tall Norway spruce stand, light rainfall can almost entirely be adsorbed by the canopy. The heavier the rainfall, the larger proportion of it reaches the ground. Only 30% of a 5 mm rainfall reaches the ground, while 80% of a 20 mm rainfall reaches the ground. Interception of precipitation decreases gradually when the density of the forest decreases. Canopy of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and birch (Betula sp.) stands of corresponding density adsorb less rainfall than Norway spruce canopy. Groundwater level was higher in treeless areas than in areas covered with forest. Widescale clear cuttings should, therefore, be considered carefully in forest areas that are prone to become peaty.

  • Lukkala, E-mail: ol@mm.unknown (email)

Category: Research article

article id 10752, category Research article
Oiva Hiltunen, Ville Hallikainen, Teijo Palander. (2023). Analysing the groundwater level and its determinants in a drained peatland forest: a case study in South Lapland, Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 57 no. 1 article id 10752.
Keywords: peatland; groundwater level; load-bearing capacity; subsoil
Highlights: Mineral subsoils under a peat layer (less than 1 m) affect the groundwater level; During average precipitation, silty subsoil often makes groundwater level remain too high for timber haulage; If the subsoil is sandy and the peat layer is thin, the groundwater level gets lower; The amount of stand evapotranspiration alone is not enough to keep the groundwater level low enough.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In southern Lapland, 70% of drained peatland forests have a peat layer thickness of less than one metre. On these sites, the question is how the subsoil under the peat affects groundwater level and thus timber harvesting. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the peat layer (<1 m) and subsoil on the groundwater level and its variation during the growing season (non-frost) by modelling the factors affecting water level. In sandy soils, the groundwater level rose by 20 cm when the peat layer thickness increased from 20 to 70 cm. In silty soils the effect of the peat thickness on groundwater remained minor. When the subsoil was sand or coarser, the groundwater level was usually deeper than when it was silty or finer. The effect of stand volume (m–3 ha–1) on the groundwater level was rather weak albeit significant. The model explained a significant part of the groundwater surface variation, with a marginal coefficient of determination (R2) of 68%. It seems that the rutting of roads could be avoided in late summer if the precipitation is remarkably lower during that period, or if the subsoil is sandy with thin peat layer on top of it. Because the groundwater level affects the load-bearing capacity of timber-harvesting machinery, it is important to study this issue in more detail in the future.

  • Hiltunen, Lapland University of Applied Sciences, Jokiväylä 11, FI-96300 Rovaniemi, Finland E-mail: (email)
  • Hallikainen, Natural Resources Institute Finland, Ounasjoentie 6, FI-96300 Rovaniemi, Finland E-mail:
  • Palander, The University of Eastern Finland, Faculty of Science, Forestry and Technology, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID E-mail:

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