Current issue: 56(4)
Under compilation: 57(1)
The Forest Research Institute of Finland has established permanent sample plots to survey the effect of thinnings on the stands. This study compares the development of tended and natural Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands growing on three different forest types: Oxalis-Myrtillus, Vaccinium and Calluna site type. The effect of heavy thinning from below (Oxalis-Myrtillus and Vaccinium site types) and increment felling (Calluna site type) was assessed by dividing the trees of the stands in tree classification classes according to their crown storey and defects.
The results show that thinning from below and increment thinning increase the proportion of trees in the 1st crown storey, which is already large in the natural stands. Also the diameter distribution is more even and the mean diameter higher after the thinnings.
In Scots pine stands in natural state, volume increment per stem is highest in the 1st crown storey and diminishes strongly towards the lower crown storeys. Thinnings increased the increment. The study indicates that many of the objectives of the intermediate cuttings, including promoting the growth of the best trees and improving the quality of the stand, have in general been achieved. Consequently, the thinnings give means to achieve the most valuable yield in the stand.
The article includes a summary in English.
The study is based on observations in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand on a dry upland forest site in Karhumäki, where a 10-15-year old seedling stand grew under a hold-overs of larger trees that had been left in the site in a previous felling. The root systems of 80-120 cm tall seedlings growing around single mother trees were unearthed. Root maps were drawn of the root systems of 120 seedlings.
No seedlings grew around old, large hold-overs. It seems that seedlings could not compete with their root system. If the hold-overs were stunted in their growth, seedlings grew also under the canopy of the mother tree. 90% of the seedlings had a tap root. Rest of the roots grew horisontally in the topsoil. Around a vigorous mother tree, the seedlings grew their roots away from the mother tree. Hold-overs that had belonged originally to the lower canopy layer of the old forest did not have similar effect on the root orientation of the seedlings. Their roots had been previously affected by trees of higher canopy layer, later removed in the felling.
The PDF includes a summary in German.
Doctor Lauri Ilvessalo modified tree classification developed by professor Gunnar Schotte to develop a tree classification and thinning system that suited Finnish conditions. His system was first applied when the Finnish Forest Research Institute began thinning experiments in a large scale in 1924. The system distinguishes four crown storeys: the predominating crown storey, dominated crown storey, emergent trees and undergrowth. Into the predominating storeys belong dominant trees and co-dominant trees, and into the dominated storeys the intermediate and ground trees. The trees in all the storeys can be divided in to normal trees with well-formed crown and stem, trees with defectively developed crown, trees with defective stem, and injured and diseased trees. The article describes different thinning methods (cleaning thinning, selective thinning from below, selective thinning from above, increment felling, freeing felling) using the tree-classification.
The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. The PDF includes a summary in English.
Crown class is useful tool both in forest management and forest mensuration. The study presents a detailed crown classification for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). It was used to classify the sample trees prior detailed measurements of the crown and stem form. The stem form of a tree was dependent on which canopy layer it belonged. This relation was detected on both Vaccinium and Calluna site type forests. In addition, the stem tapers faster in poorer forest site types compared to better sites. The shorter the self-pruned part of the stem is, the faster the stem tapers. According to the study, the stems of stunted trees taper faster than trees of other crown classes. Also the age group affects stem form.
The PDF includes a summary in German.