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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Articles containing the keyword 'seed quality'

Category: Article

article id 5442, category Article
Erkki Annila, Kari Heliövaara. (1991). Chemical control of cone pests in a Norway spruce seed orchard. Silva Fennica vol. 25 no. 2 article id 5442.
Keywords: Norway spruce; Picea abies; seed orchards; seed quality; pollen; chemical control; pesticides; cone pests; cone rust; pest control
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The effect of three pesticides containing either dimethoate (0.5% a.i.), permitrin (0.5%) or triadimephon (0.5%) on the cone pests and flowering biology of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) was tested in a seed orchard in mid-May or in the beginning of June. The pesticide treatments significantly reduced infestation by Laspeyresia strobiella and Kaltenbachiella strobi only. Variation in the number of cones infested by both insects and cone rusts was high between the spruce clones. Generally, the pesticides did not affect flower viability, seed quality or seed germination, but reduced drastically the germination capacity of pollen in vitro. In practice, sufficient control cannot be achieved with concentrations or methods used in the present study.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Annila, E-mail: ea@mm.unknown (email)
  • Heliövaara, E-mail: kh@mm.unknown
article id 5364, category Article
Urban Bergsten. (1988). Invigoration and IDS-sedimentation of Pinus sylvestris seeds from northern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 4 article id 5364.
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; germination; Scots pine; northern Finland; seed quality; elimination of non-productive seeds; invigoration of seeds
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In Northern Finland as well as in Northern Sweden there is a shortage of high-quality Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seeds, mostly due to unsuitable temperatures during the development and maturation of cones and seeds. Methods have been developed for elimination of non-productive seeds and for invigoration of seeds. In the present work, these methods were tested on poorly developed seed lot from Rovaniemi, Northern Finland (66°15’–66°30’; 180 m a.s.l.). The seeds were conditioned using the following treatments:

1. PREVAC method (5 min, 97 kPa below atmospheric pressures) for removal of mechanically damaged seeds (7%)

2. Invigoration using incubation at controlled moisture content (30% f.w) and continuous air supply, for 14 days at 5°C.

3. Additional water supply for 16 hours at 5°C.

4. Drying in dehumidified air until a near maximum difference in density between viable and dead seeds was obtained

5. Separation in a sedimentation flume to achieve a gradient of fractions of different germination rate and capacity.

The treatments resulted in an improvement of germination percentage from 33 to about 95% and a reduction in mean germination time from 8.8 days to 6 days if the control and the best fractions (32% seeds) were compared.

  • Bergsten, E-mail: ub@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4744, category Article
Pekka Tiililä. (1967). Tutkimuksia eräiden ulkomaisten puulajien siemensadon laadusta Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 1 no. 2 article id 4744.
English title: Studies on the quality of seed yields in some foreign tree species in Finland.
Original keywords: siementuotanto; ulkomaiset puulajit; siementen laatu; siemensato; tuleentuminen
English keywords: exotic tree species; seed production; seed quality; foreign tree species; ripening
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of this present study was to elucidate the quality of seed of foreign tree species grown in Finland, and the factors which have affected the quality of the seed yields. Due to the smallness of the material, however, no far-fetching conclusions can be drawn. The bulk of the seeds were collected in the fall of 1964. The samples of seeds were X-rayed and their classification to empty seeds and full seeds of four quality classes was done on the basis of the anatomical structures. The species studied (a total of 34 species) belonged to the following genera: Abies, Chamaecyparis, Larix, Picea, Pinus, Pseudotsuga, Thuja and Tsuga.

The percentage of empty seeds was throughout quite high. The reasons for the generation of empty seeds probably originate from the special nature of the stands from which the seeds were collected. As a rule, the stands were young and small in area, which may have caused weak pollination and self-pollination leading to embryo mortality. Also, insect damages were observed.

Seeds with albumen still discernible, although the embryo had died, occurred to some extent. In some Larix species, even the bulk of the seeds recorded as full belonged in this group.

The ripening of seeds with embryos was quite successful in spite of the fact that the temperature sum of the year of ripening was slightly below the average in Finland. For instance, all Abies species ripened almost completely.

According to the results, it can be expected that the tree species examined in this study are able to produce rich yields of good-quality seed in Finland, provided that the ovules are well pollinated and self-pollination does not take place to a large extent.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Tiililä, E-mail: pt@mm.unknown (email)

Category: Research article

article id 1340, category Research article
Mostafa Farhadi, Mulualem Tigabu, Per Christer Odén. (2015). Near Infrared Spectroscopy as non-destructive method for sorting viable, petrified and empty seeds of Larix sibirica. Silva Fennica vol. 49 no. 5 article id 1340.
Keywords: larch; NIRS; OPLS; precision sowing; seed sorting; seed quality
Highlights: Near Infrared spectroscopy discriminates filled-viable, empty and petrified seeds of Larix sibirica with 98%, 82% and 87% accuracy, respectively based on spectral differences attributed to moisture and storage reserves; The classification accuracy reached 100% when sorting seeds into viable and non-viable class; The results demonstrate that NIR spectroscopy has great potential as non-destructive sorting technique to upgrade seed lot quality.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Larix sibirica Ledeb. is one of the promising timber species for planting in the boreal ecosystem; but poor seed lot quality is the major hurdle for production of sufficient quantity of planting stocks. Here, we evaluated the potential of Near Infrared (NIR) Spectroscopy for sorting viable and non-viable seeds, as the conventional sorting technique is inefficient. NIR reflectance spectra were collected from single seeds, and discriminant models were developed with Orthogonal Projections to Latent Structure – Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA). The computed model predicted the class membership of filled-viable, empty and petrified seeds in the test set with 98%, 82% and 87% accuracy, respectively. When two-class OPLS-DA model was fitted to discriminate viable and non-viable (empty and petrified seeds combined), the predicted class membership of test set samples was 100% for both classes. The origins of spectral differences between non-viable (petrified and empty) and viable seeds were attributed to differences in seed moisture content and storage reserves. In conclusion, the result provides evidence that NIR spectroscopy is a powerful non-destructive method for sorting non-viable seeds of Larix sibirica; thus efforts should be made to develop on-line sorting system for large-scale seed handling.

  • Farhadi, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, P.O. Box 49, SE-230 53 Alnarp, Sweden E-mail:
  • Tigabu, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, P.O. Box 49, SE-230 53 Alnarp, Sweden E-mail: (email)
  • Odén, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, P.O. Box 49, SE-230 53 Alnarp, Sweden E-mail:

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