Current issue: 57(1)
The aim of this present study was to elucidate the quality of seed of foreign tree species grown in Finland, and the factors which have affected the quality of the seed yields. Due to the smallness of the material, however, no far-fetching conclusions can be drawn. The bulk of the seeds were collected in the fall of 1964. The samples of seeds were X-rayed and their classification to empty seeds and full seeds of four quality classes was done on the basis of the anatomical structures. The species studied (a total of 34 species) belonged to the following genera: Abies, Chamaecyparis, Larix, Picea, Pinus, Pseudotsuga, Thuja and Tsuga.
The percentage of empty seeds was throughout quite high. The reasons for the generation of empty seeds probably originate from the special nature of the stands from which the seeds were collected. As a rule, the stands were young and small in area, which may have caused weak pollination and self-pollination leading to embryo mortality. Also, insect damages were observed.
Seeds with albumen still discernible, although the embryo had died, occurred to some extent. In some Larix species, even the bulk of the seeds recorded as full belonged in this group.
The ripening of seeds with embryos was quite successful in spite of the fact that the temperature sum of the year of ripening was slightly below the average in Finland. For instance, all Abies species ripened almost completely.
According to the results, it can be expected that the tree species examined in this study are able to produce rich yields of good-quality seed in Finland, provided that the ovules are well pollinated and self-pollination does not take place to a large extent.
The PDF includes a summary in English.
Successful cultivation of a tree species outside its natural area of distribution involves that the original climate is similar to that of the area where it will be cultivated. Seeds should be procured from an area, where the climate is most similar to the area of cultivation. In addition, the site requirements should be met. To be worth of cultivation, the exotic tree species should offer advantages over the native species, such as wood quality, higher productivity, modest site requirement, greater endurance against spring frosts and cold in the winter, valuable by-products, resistance against grazing, insects or fungi, or improvement of soil.
In Finland, successful examples are Larix europaea Lam. & A. DC. and Larix sibirica Lebed, which both give better yield than the native species, and have better resistance against decay. In Central Europe, Pseudotsuga mentziesii (Mirb.) Fnanko, Pinus strobus L. and Pinus sitchensis (Bong.) Carriére have proved to be good forest trees. In Hungary, Robinia pseudoacacia L. has become economically important. Eucalyptus spp. have been cultivated in the Mediterranean countries, South America and California.
A summary in Finnish is included in the PDF.
The article describes experiences in exotic tree and shrub species in Mustila arboretum in 1901-1921, situated in Southern Finland. Mustila is the first arboretum of the country, established in 1901. The tree species have mostly been planted as small stands or groups of trees. The objective has been to find species that suit the Finnish climate. The article describes experiences of cultivation trials of coniferous tree species from the genus of Taxus, Tsuga, Pseudotsuga, Abies, Picea, Larix, Pinus, Thyopsis, Thuya, Chamaecyparis and Juniperus, in total 100 different species. The climate of Finland ranges from maritime to semi-maritime and semi-continental, becoming more continental towards the eastern parts of the country. According to the experiments, in Mustila area most promising are the Western American species from regions that are suitable distance from the Pacific Ocean. The exact origin of the seeds in the America is important for the survival of the species in Finland.
The PDF includes a summary in English.
The article includes a dendrological review on the effect of climate to the success of cultivation of exotic tree species, based on literature and analysis of the existing Finnish field tests. The cultivation of an exotic tree species succeeds only if the seed has been procured from an area, which climate is similar to the place of cultivation. Climate is even more important than site quality.
Finnish climate is boreal and continental, and thus tree species of similar climate suit here best. In favorable site conditions it is possible to grow also species from boreal marine, and temperate climates. Finnish summers are not warm enough for species from temperate continental climate to get prepared for the winter, and the shoots can get frost damages. This may be compensated with a warm and sheltered site. If the species tolerates shading, it can be planted under sheltering trees. For species from maritime boreal climate, the Finnish summer tends to be too short, and the winters too cold. A suitable site is rich, warm and sheltered, and has preferably a protective sparse tree cover. Species from southern maritime climate cannot be grown in Finland. The provenance of the seeds is also very important. An important source of seeds are the successful plantations in Finland.
The PDF includes a summary in German.
Use of fast-growing tree plantations on dedicated areas is proposed as a means of reconciling fibre production with conservation objectives. Success of this approach however requires fine-tuning silvicultural scenarios so that survival and growth are optimized while management and environmental costs are minimized. This is particularly challenging for hybrid larch (Larix × marschlinsii Coaz), a shade-intolerant species planted on fertile sites in Quebec (Canada) where legislation prevents the use of chemical herbicides. In this context, multiple motor-manual release treatments are often required, with high impacts on costs and social issues related to the scarcity of a qualified workforce. We established a split-split-plot design on a recently harvested site to assess the main and interaction effects of mechanical site preparation (MSP) intensity (five modalities of trenching or mounding), motor-manual release scenario (one or two treatments) and planting depth (0–3 cm or 3–10 cm) on hybrid larch seedling growth and survival six years after planting. Mechanical site preparation intensity and planting depth did not influence seedling growth after 6 years. The lack of significant interaction between MSP and release scenarios indicates that these operations should be planned independently. A more intensive MSP treatment cannot replace a second motor-manual release on fertile sites, as proposed to reduce costs. Our results also show the significant advantage of performing two motor-manual release treatments two years apart (the first one early in the scenario), over performing a single treatment. Our study provides silvicultural guidelines for the establishment of high-yield exotic larch plantations.