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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Articles containing the keyword 'wood measurement'

Category : Article

article id 4806, category Article
Esko Leinonen, Pentti Rikkonen. (1969). Puutavaran kuorma- ja kuormaotantamittaus. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 4 article id 4806.
English title: Load and load sampling measurement of timber.
Original keywords: puutavara; puunkuljetus; puutavaranmittaus; kuormamittaus; otos
English keywords: timber scaling; load sampling; timber transportation; wood measurement; load measurement; measurement of roundwood
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Measurement of timber in a vehicle load or in a bundle is best performed at the mill where the measuring of large quantities can be mechanized and sampling is possible. Load measurement methods include calculation of the number of units, measurement of pile volume, weight scaling and determination of solid content in accordance with Archimedes principle by immersion in water. For some timber assortments, load measurement is sufficiently accurate and suitable unit of measure. The accuracy of load measurement can be increased or the result can be converted by sampling to a more appropriate unit of measure.

In load sampling measurement, a sample is taken from the population, and the desired more accurate measurement is made from the sample. The basic measurement for the whole population can be converted into the more accurate measuring unit by means of the ratio between it and the basic measure. Unit, pile and weight sampling can be used. The aim for pulpwood is to calculate the dry matter content without bark, which means that the amount of bark and the dry weight of wood must be determined by sampling.

The size of the sample depends on size of the population, variation of the ratio between the loads, and the accuracy required. As the quantity of wood to be measured decreases, sampling measurement will reduce the measuring costs by up to 80%. In addition, there is saving in costs by rationalization.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Leinonen, E-mail: el@mm.unknown (email)
  • Rikkonen, E-mail: pr@mm.unknown

Category : Article

article id 7430, category Article
Veijo Heiskanen. (1954). Paperipuurankojen mittauksen tarkkuudesta Perä-Pohjolassa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 18 article id 7430.
English title: On the accuracy of measurements of pulpwood boles in Northern Finland.
Original keywords: kuitupuu; tilavuus; paperipuu; mittaus; kuutioimistaulukot; tyvi-latvamittaus
English keywords: pulpwood; volume; wood measurement; volume tables; top measurement
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The study examines the accuracy of volume tables for top measurement of pulpwood boles, and that of top measurement in general in Northern Finland. In this method only top diameter and length of the boles are measured, and the volume is obtained from volume tables. The boles have previously been measured in the middle of the bole, but the method is very time consuming in practice.

The result indicates that the form of both Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) varies greatly. A pulpwood parcel, however, contains both rapidly and gently tapering logs, and the average form differences are much smaller. The difference between the real volume and the volume obtained from the volume tables is generally less than 12% and for more than third of the stock less than 4%.

Pine boles from private forests have been somewhat more and spruce boles less rapidly tapering than boles cut from state forests. The significance of the differences is not clear. Also, the boles in the northern part of the investigation area taper more sharply than those in the southern part.
It is concluded that the accuracy of the top measurement should be improved, but this is only theoretically possible by means of special tables and correction coefficients.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.
The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heiskanen, E-mail: vh@mm.unknown (email)

Category : Research article

article id 7830, category Research article
Jari Lindblad, Johanna Routa, Johanna Ruotsalainen, Marja Kolström, Ari Isokangas, Lauri Sikanen. (2018). Weather based moisture content modelling of harvesting residues in the stand. Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 2 article id 7830.
Keywords: logging residues; harvesting residues; energy wood measurement; conversion factor
Highlights: Weather data used for estimating the moisture content of energy wood; The validation of the weather based models performed based on the field data.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Harvesting residues collected from the final cuttings of boreal forests are an important source of solid biofuel for energy production in Finland and Sweden. In the Finnish supply chain, the measurement of residues is performed by scales integrated in forwarders. The mass of residues is converted to volume by conversion factors. In this study, weather based models for defining the moisture content of residues were developed and validated. Models were also compared with the currently used fixed tables of conversion factors. The change of the moisture content of residues is complex, and an exact estimation was challenging. However, the model predicting moisture change for three hour periods was found to be the most accurate. The main improvement compared to fixed tables was the lack of a systematic error. It can be assumed that weather based models will give more reliable estimates for the moisture in varying climate conditions and the further development of models should be focused on obtaining more appropriate data from varying drying conditions in different geographical and microclimatological locations.

  • Lindblad, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Production systems, Yliopistokatu 6, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland E-mail: (email)
  • Routa, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Production systems, Yliopistokatu 6, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland E-mail:
  • Ruotsalainen, Finnish Meteorological Institute, Aviation and Military Weather Services, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio, Finland E-mail:
  • Kolström, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail:
  • Isokangas, University of Oulu, Control Engineering, P.O. Box 8000, FI-90014 University of Oulu, Finland E-mail:
  • Sikanen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Production systems, Yliopistokatu 6, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland E-mail:

Category : Review article

article id 22018, category Review article
Felipe de Miguel-Díez, Thomas Purfürst, Mauricio Acuna, Eduardo Tolosana-Esteban, Tobias Cremer. (2023). Estimation of conversion factors for wood stacks in landings and their influencing parameters: a comprehensive literature review for America and Europe. Silva Fennica vol. 57 no. 1 article id 22018.
Keywords: log properties; roundwood measurement; roundwood purchase; stack properties; wood supply chain
Highlights: Midpoint diameter, stacking quality, crookedness, log length, delimbing quality and bark thickness strongly influence the conversion factors; In Europe and America, a total of 48 methods were developed to estimate the conversion factors of wood stacks; The conversion factors should be estimated for each wood assortment and tree species.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info
In commercial transaction of stacked roundwood, the estimation of the stack net volume plays a key role. One generalized method to determine the net volume is using conversion factors that relate the gross and net volumes. In this literature review the developed methods to estimate the conversion factors as well as their influencing parameters were analyzed based on 153 references from America and Europe. According to the results, 48 different methods (including their variants) for estimating the conversion factors were developed. The newest methods enabled their accurate determination inexpensively, e.g., photo-optical methods or 3D simulation models. The analyzed references revealed that 30 parameters influence the conversion factors. Based on this comprehensive review, each stakeholder involved in the roundwood supply chain can know which method is used for estimating the conversion factors in the analyzed territories and which influencing parameters should be considered when purchasing roundwood in order to accurately assess the solid wood content in the stacks.
  • de Miguel-Díez, Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development, Department of Forest Utilization and Timber Markets, Eberswalde, Germany; University of Freiburg, Chair of Forest Operations, Freiburg, Germany ORCID E-mail: (email)
  • Purfürst, University of Freiburg, Chair of Forest Operations, Freiburg, Germany ORCID E-mail:
  • Acuna, University of the Sunshine Coast, Forest Research Institute, Sunshine Coast, Queensland, Australia E-mail:
  • Tolosana-Esteban, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, E.T.S.I. Montes, Forestal y del Medio Natural, Madrid, Spain ORCID E-mail:
  • Cremer, Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development, Department of Forest Utilization and Timber Markets, Eberswalde, Germany ORCID E-mail:

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