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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Articles containing the keyword 'nutrient concentration'

Category: Article

article id 5482, category Article
Heljä-Sisko Helmisaari. (1992). Spatial and age-related variation in nutrient concentrations of Pinus sylvestris needles. Silva Fennica vol. 26 no. 3 article id 5482.
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; spatial variation; nutrients; sampling; nutrient concentration; conifer needles
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Spatial and age-related variation in nutrient concentrations of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles was studied during 1984–86 in three stands of different stages of development. The dry weight of current needles was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the tree top than in a composite sample representing the whole crown. However, there were no significant differences in the concentrations of nutrients in needles between upper and lower crown levels. The concentrations of mobile nutrients N, P, K and Mg decreased with increasing needle age whereas the concentrations of poorly mobile nutrients Ca, Mn and Fe increased during needle ageing. The coefficient of variation for nutrient concentrations varied irregularly when only a few trees were sampled but stabilized when tree number was ten or more.
The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Helmisaari, E-mail: hh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5345, category Article
Leo Koutaniemi, Raimo Koponen, Kyösti Rajanen. (1988). Podzolization as studied from terraces of various ages in two river valleys, Northern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 2 article id 5345.
Keywords: boreal forest; Finland; Lapland; nutrient concentration; podzol; podzolization; taiga
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The study was made in the Ivalojoki and Oulankajoki valleys, consisting of terraces of well sorted sandy material aged 9500–300 B.P. The vegetation is characterized by dry and moderately dry forest types with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) as the dominant tree species. The study included: forest types, particle size and sorting of mineral horizons, thickness of horizons, amount of organic material, pH, electrical conductivity, and NH4OAc (pH 4.56) extractable Fe, Al, P, K, Mg, Mn and Zn concentrations. The principal aim was to study the interrelationships between all these properties with special reference to the age of the soil.

The results allowed a distinction to be made between the following categories: (1) features typical of podsolization (e.g. increase in leaching of Fe and Al with age of soil from the A2), (2) certain factors showing higher values in the north (Ivalo) than in the south (Oulanka), principally Fe and Mg, (3) declining trends in P, Mg, Mn and Zn concentrations with age, which may partly be due to the geological history, and (4) declining trends in amount of organic material and electrical conductivity with age, these both being factors arising from the geological history rather than from podzolization.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Koutaniemi, E-mail: lk@mm.unknown (email)
  • Koponen, E-mail: rk@mm.unknown
  • Rajanen, E-mail: kr@mm.unknown
article id 5268, category Article
Kaarina Niska. (1986). Kivennäismaan ravinnemäärien ilmaisutapa. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 2 article id 5268.
English title: Expressing the nutrient concentrations of mineral soils.
Original keywords: ravinnepitoisuus; maa-analyysi; maalajit; ravinneanalyysi; määrätilavuus; raekoostumus
English keywords: soil chemistry; bulk density; nutrient concentration; soil texture; soil analysis
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Gravimetrically expressed nutrient concentrations of soil analysis were converted to volumetric values using dry bulk densities measured in the natural state and in the laboratory after air-drying and sieving the samples. The aim was to examine, using volumetric samples representing different soil classes, exactly how the converted nutrient values calculated by this laboratory method describe volumetric nutrient contents in undisturbed soil. In the fine soil classes undisturbed bulk density was higher than laboratory bulk density and converted nutrient concentrations were too small. In coarser soil classes the reverse was true, and the values were too high.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Niska, E-mail: kn@mm.unknown (email)

Category: Research article

article id 962, category Research article
Paul A. Klockow, Anthony W. D'Amato, John B. Bradford, Shawn Fraver. (2014). Nutrient concentrations in coarse and fine woody debris of Populus tremuloides Michx.-dominated forests, northern Minnesota, USA. Silva Fennica vol. 48 no. 1 article id 962.
Keywords: coarse woody debris; fine woody debris; Populus tremuloides; nutrient concentrations; bioenergy feedstock harvesting; Great Lakes
Highlights: We examine effects of size, species, and decay on woody debris nutrient concentrations; Results indicate wide variation in nutrient concentrations across the factors examined; Fine woody debris nutrient concentrations were greater than in coarse woody debris; Coarse woody debris nutrient concentrations generally increased as decay progressed; Results suggest high fine woody debris stocks can represent an important nutrient source.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Contemporary forest harvesting practices, specifically harvesting woody biomass as a source of bioenergy feedstock, may remove more woody debris from a site than conventional harvesting. Woody debris, particularly smaller diameter woody debris, plays a key role in maintaining ecosystem nutrient stores following disturbance. Understanding nutrient concentrations within woody debris is necessary for assessing the long-term nutrient balance consequences of altered woody debris retention, particularly in forests slated for use as bioenergy feedstocks. Nutrient concentrations in downed woody debris of various sizes, decay classes, and species were characterized within one such forest type, Populus tremuloides Michx.-dominated forests of northern Minnesota, USA. Nutrient concentrations differed significantly between size and decay classes and generally increased as decay progressed. Fine woody debris (≤ 7.5 cm diameter) had higher nutrient concentrations than coarse woody debris (> 7.5 cm diameter) for all nutrients examined except Na and Mn, and nutrient concentrations varied among species. Concentrations of N, Mn, Al, Fe, and Zn in coarse woody debris increased between one and three orders of magnitude, while K decreased by an order of magnitude with progressing decay. The variations in nutrient concentrations observed here underscore the complexity of woody debris nutrient stores in forested ecosystems and suggest that retaining fine woody debris at harvest may provide a potentially important source of nutrients following intensive removals of bioenergy feedstocks.
  • Klockow, Department of Forest Resources, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA E-mail: (email)
  • D'Amato, Department of Forest Resources, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA E-mail:
  • Bradford, US Geological Survey, Southwest Biological Science Center, Flagstaff, AZ 86001, USA E-mail:
  • Fraver, School of Forest Resources, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469, USA E-mail:
article id 491, category Research article
Lars Rytter, Lars-Göran Stener. (2003). Clonal variation in nutrient content in woody biomass of hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L. x P. tremuloides Michx.). Silva Fennica vol. 37 no. 3 article id 491.
Keywords: growth; branches; genetic correlations; heritability; nutrient concentration; nutrient removal; stems
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Differences in the nutrient concentrations and nutrient amounts of stems and branches amongst clones of hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L. x P. tremuloides Michx.) were investigated. Seven clones with superior and seven with medium growth rates were selected from a test of 119 clones in southern Sweden. Four trees per clone were randomly identified and harvested in dormant conditions. Sample discs from the stems and branches were collected and analysed for N, K, P, Ca, Mg, and S concentrations, as well as wood density. The analyses revealed significant genetic differences in wood density, K, P, and Mg concentrations in the stems. There were weak (non-significant) and negative genetic correlations between stem volume and concentrations of all the nutrients, except potassium, suggesting that nutrient-efficient clones could be selected without significantly sacrificing genetic gain for growth. In the branches K, Ca, and Mg concentrations differed significantly among clones. After selecting more nutrient efficient clones, the potential savings of nutrients compared with current hybrid aspen material was estimated to be around 5%, which seems fairly low, at least in a short-term perspective. However, the use of clones with different nutrient storage strategies may be regarded as a possible way in the long run to save nutrients in hybrid aspen ecosystems, or of removing them when sludge is applied.
  • Rytter, Forestry Research Institute of Sweden, Skogforsk, Ekebo 2250, SE-26890, Svalöv, Sweden E-mail: (email)
  • Stener, Forestry Research Institute of Sweden, Skogforsk, Ekebo 2250, SE-26890, Svalöv, Sweden E-mail:
article id 661, category Research article
Eira-Maija Savonen, Anna Saarsalmi. (1999). Effects of clone and fertilization on the seed and foliar chemical composition of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) grafts. Silva Fennica vol. 33 no. 2 article id 661.
Keywords: needles; Scots pine; nutrient concentration; seeds; seed orchards
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Effects of clone and fertilization on the seed and foliar nutrient concentrations of Scots pine grafts were investigated in a seed orchard in southern Finland. The seed and foliar samples for chemical analyses were collected during winters 1985–86 and 1988–89 from 39 grafts per clone fertilized in spring 1986. There were 6 clones and 13 treatments for each clone with three replications. The treatments consisted of N, P, K in various combinations, micronutrients, wood ash and grass control. Macro- (N, P, K, Ca, Mg) and micronutrients (Cu, Zn, B) were analysed. There were statistically significant differences between the clones in seed nutrient concentrations. The variation of the K, Mg, Ca, Zn and Cu concentrations between the two study years was considerably larger in the seeds than in the needles. The concentrations of these elements in the seeds were low in the year of an abundant seed crop in spite of fertilization. This had, however, no negative effects on germination of seeds. The proportions of crude fat and crude protein were high in both years (34% and 35% in 1985 ; 33% and 38% in 1988). Fertilization had only minor or no effect at all on the seed chemical composition in the orchard with a satisfactory nutrient status of the soil. Also on the foliar nutrient concentrations the effect of the clone was stronger than that of fertilization. Grafts with large needles produced heavy seeds, which had more storage proteins than the lighter seeds.
  • Savonen, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Parkano Research Station, Kaironiementie 54, FIN-39700 Parkano, Finland E-mail: (email)
  • Saarsalmi, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, P.O. Box 18, FIN-01301 Vantaa, Finland E-mail:

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