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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Articles containing the keyword 'root growth'

Category: Article

article id 5529, category Article
Jukka Lippu. (1994). Patterns of dry matter partitioning and 14C-photosynthate allocation in 1.5-year-old Scots pine seedlings. Silva Fennica vol. 28 no. 3 article id 5529.
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; carbon; photosynthesis; root growth; allocation; shoot growth; 14C-incorporation; dry matter partitioning
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Change in dry matter partitioning, 14C-incorporation, and sink 14C-activity of 1.5-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings grown in growth chamber conditions were studied during a 91-day experiment. On five sampling dates, seedlings were labelled with 14CO2 and whole-plant allocation patterns were determined. Intensively growing shoots modified the dry matter partitioning: during shoot growth the proportion of roots decreased but after that it increased. Based on their large proportion of dry matter, the needles (excluding current needles) were the strongest sink of carbon containing 40% of the incorporated 14C. Despite their small initial sink size, the elongating shoots (current main shoot + current branch) and their needles were the second strongest sink (30–40% of the total 14C) which reflects their high physiological activity. The proportion of 14C in the current year’s main shoot increased during shoot growth but decreased as the growth began to decline after 70 days. 10–20% of the total assimilated 14C was translocated to the roots. Laterals above 2nd order were the strongest sink in the root system, containing twice as much 14C as the other roots together. Alternation between shoot and root growth can be seen clearly: carbon allocation to roots was relatively high before and after the period of intensive shoot growth. Changes in root sink strength resulted primarily from changes in root sink activity rather than sink size.

  • Lippu, E-mail: jl@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5409, category Article
Jukka Lippu, Pasi Puttonen. (1990). Istutustaimen juuriston alkukehitys kasvupaikalla. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 1 article id 5409.
English title: The early development of seedling roots at the planting site: A literature review.
Original keywords: menetelmät; maan kosteus; maan lämpötila; juuriston kehitys; fotosynteesituote; fysiologinen sopeutuminen; istutustaimet
English keywords: planting; soil temperature; root growth; soil moisture; photosynthates; acclimatization; methodology
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The structure and functional responses of roots in planted seedlings when acclimatizing at the planting site are reviewed. A wide range of methods for classifying roots has been employed, and the terminology used is not uniform. Roots can be classified by their morphology, origin, and function. The temporal and spatial variation of soil temperature, moisture, structure, and concentration of nutrients are among the most important properties to which root systems acclimatize. In order to reliably describe the function of the root system, several parameters usually have to be measured. Studies on the root-soil interface have indicated that roots are not necessarily in continuous contact with soil. The control mechanism of root growth is inadequately known and theoretically formulated. Generally, only the mass needed for water and nutrient uptake has been allocated to the roots. However, the amount of photosynthates allocated to the roots is high. Acclimatization of seedlings out at the planting site is a complicated process which is influenced by the growing conditions at both the nursery and at the site. The function, distribution and structure of roots are controlled by the environment in a way similar to the shoot, but the control mechanism is imperfectly known.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Lippu, E-mail: jl@mm.unknown (email)
  • Puttonen, E-mail: pp@mm.unknown
article id 5384, category Article
Raija-Liisa Petäistö. (1989). Syyskoulinnan ajankohdan vaikutus männyn taimien kuiva-ainepitoisuuteen, neulasten pitolujuuteen ja juurten uudistumiskykyyn. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 3 article id 5384.
English title: The influence of autumn transplanting date on the dry matter content, needle retention values and root regeneration of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) seedlings.
Original keywords: mänty; taimitarhat; koulinta; kuiva-ainepitoisuus; juurten kasvu
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; root growth; nurseries; transplanting; dry matter content
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The experiment was performed in 1982–85 at the forest tree nursery in Suonenjoki, Central Finland. There were four to five transplanting dates ranging from the beginning of August to the end of September. The dry matter content, root regeneration and needle retention value of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings were examined. Development of the needle retention value in autumn was followed in nurseries at Suonenjoki, Rantasalmi, Mäntyharju and Taavetti in 1982.

Root regeneration was usually the worse, the later the seedlings were transplanted in the autumn. The dry matter content was generally lowest in the seedlings transplanted later in the autumn, and also to some extent in the seedlings transplanted at the beginning of August. The needle retention value increased as autumn advanced. Early transplanting in autumn had an adverse effect on the development of needle retention, and the values were highest in the seedlings transplanted later in the autumn.

The PDF includes an abstract English.

  • Petäistö, E-mail: rp@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5360, category Article
Risto Rikala, Pasi Puttonen. (1988). Maan lämpötilan vaikutus kuivuusrasitukseen perustuvassa taimien laatutestissä. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 4 article id 5360.
English title: Effect of soil temperature in drought exposure-based test of seedling quality.
Keywords: Scots pine; soil temperature; root growth; seedling growth; shoot growth; drought; planting shock; desiccation
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The effect of root exposure on the shoot and root development of Pinus sylvestris (L.) seedlings was studied at two soil temperatures. Roots of bare-rooted three-year-old seedlings were exposed to the temperature of 32°C at relative humidity of 50–40% for 85, 155 and 270 minutes which corresponds to accumulated water pressure deficit of 24, 47 and 91 mbar·h, respectively. Thereafter, seedlings were grown for 65 days at the soil temperatures of 12 and 23°C. Drought exposures inhibited new root initiation, delayed shoot elongation, and reduced shoot and needle growth. The stronger the exposure the larger the proportion of needles from the lower part of current shoot that remained undeveloped. Low soil temperature increased the effect of exposures so that needle elongation and initiation of new root tips of seedlings in cold soil with the longest exposure were inhibited totally. Root growth assessments made in warm soil may overestimate the acclimation potential of planted seedlings.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Rikala, E-mail: rr@mm.unknown (email)
  • Puttonen, E-mail: pp@mm.unknown
article id 5137, category Article
V. C. Runeckles, K. T. Palmer, H. Trabelsi. (1981). Effects of field exposures to SO2 on Douglas fir, Agropyron spicatum and Lolium perenne. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 4 article id 5137.
Keywords: root growth; shoot growth; air pollution; Douglas fir; Pseudotsuga mentziesii; Lolium perenne; Agropyron spicatum; sulphur dioxide
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Grasses Agropyron spicatum Pursh, Lolium perenne L. (S23) and 2-year old Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) were exposed to low SO2 concentrations under field conditions for approximately eleven weeks. SO2 was released continuously via manifold delivery systems, and provided treatment mean concentrations of 0.007 (ambient air), 0.042, 0.106 and 0.198 ppm. The concentrations in each treatment were approximately log-normally distributed, with standard geometric deviations ranging from 2.58 to 3.24. In both grass species, 0.198 ppm SO2 caused substantial reduction of total growth. In L. perenne, this was largely the result of impaired root growth, whereas both shoot and root growth of A. spicatum were reduced. 0.106 ppm SO2 had no significant effect on A. spicatum growth, but reduced root growth of L. perenne. Growth of Douglas fir was reduced in each of the tree highest concentrations, with root growth being markedly diminished, particularly on trees which showed chlorotic and necrotic injury. However, in these trees the shoot and total leaf weights tended to increase at the highest SO2 concentrations, suggesting that in these plants injury to leaves stimulated further shoot growth at the expense of root development.

  • Runeckles, E-mail: vr@mm.unknown (email)
  • Palmer, E-mail: kp@mm.unknown
  • Trabelsi, E-mail: ht@mm.unknown

Category: Article

article id 7086, category Article
P. Kokkonen. (1923). Observations on the root system of pine on marshy soils. Silva Fennica vol. 25 no. 11 article id 7086.
Keywords: pine; peatlands; root growth; root system
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The data has been collected during 1919 and 1920 in different region of Finland. The studied peatlands varied from fuscum pine swamps to pine swamps and partly to better sedge pine swamps.

The study presents five different forms of root systems. The root growth of pine on peatlands seems to vary strongly from the root form on mineral soils. On the peatlands, where the ground water near to soil cover is, can the roots grow only near the soil surface where the conditions are suitable. For the pine typical tap root is in most cases absent or grows along the soil surface. Also the frost heaving, snow and characteristics of peat affect the root system.   

  • Kokkonen, E-mail: pk@mm.unknown (email)

Category: Research article

article id 7813, category Research article
Jaana Luoranen. (2018). Autumn versus spring planting: the initiation of root growth and subsequent field performance of Scots pine and Norway spruce seedlings. Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 2 article id 7813.
Keywords: bud burst; planting date; root growth; shoot growth
Highlights: Conifer seedlings planted after mid-September generally have poor rooting, which causes poor root egress during the following spring; Although Scots pine and Norway spruce seedlings planted in late autumn may have a slightly reduced growth, it is possible to plant them if weather conditions are favorable in late-autumn, without increased mortality.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

There is a need to extend the planting season of conifer regeneration into periods where the soil remains unfrozen due to a lack of available labor and the mechanization of planting. This study investigated how the summer- (August) and autumn-, especially late autumn (mid-September to mid-October) plantings affect the field performance of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) container seedlings. This study examined the timing of root growth just after planting, shoot flush and the start of root growth the following spring, and subsequent field performance. Seedlings of both species were planted in a nursery field trial, and in a clearcut reforestation site from August to October and the following May. The root growth of planted seedlings declined in September and ceased after mid-September. In the following spring, seedlings which were planted in early-autumn started their root growth faster than late-autumn-planted seedlings in both species. There was no difference in the timing of shoot flush for various planting dates. During the initial two years after planting, the shoot growth of spring-planted seedlings was lower, compared to autumn-planted seedlings. In conclusion, it is possible to plant conifer seedlings in the boreal forest zone up to October under non-limiting field conditions.

  • Luoranen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Production systems, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland E-mail: (email)
article id 105, category Research article
Jaana Luoranen, Risto Rikala. (2011). Nutrient loading of Norway spruce seedlings hastens bud burst and enhances root growth after outplanting. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 3 article id 105.
Keywords: Picea abies; late-season fertilization; nitrogen concentration; root growth capacity
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
We studied the effects of late season nutrient loading (NLOAD) on the timing of bud burst, growth and changes in nitrogen (N) concentrations in the first growing season after seedlings were outplanted. Two-year-old Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedlings with three foliar nitrogen concentration levels (NLOAD levels 11.3, 22.5 and 27.5 g N kg-1 for L, M- and H-seedlings, respectively) were examined in the following three experiments: root growth capacity test (RGC), rooting experiment in the field and soil fertility experiment (‘rich’ or ‘poor’ soil) in the field. Bud burst in RGC was monitored daily and foliar N concentration (field experiments), height and root growth (rooting experiment) at monthly intervals. With respect to the RGC test, no differences in root growth were observed among the three NLOAD levels, but buds of H-seedlings burst 2–6 days earlier than others. In the rooting experiment, nutrient loading increased height and root growth but did not affect the timing of height growth. In the soil fertility experiment, foliar N of H- and M-seedlings decreased rapidly, but the decline was slower in rich soil. Current-year needles had more N in seedlings growing in rich soil and the N concentration declined until height growth ceased whereafter it increased until autumn. Improved growth from nutrient loading seems to last only for the first season after planting and the greatest benefits are enjoyed by seedlings planted in poor soils.
  • Luoranen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Research Unit, Juntintie 154, FI-77600, Suonenjoki, Finland E-mail: (email)
  • Rikala, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Research Unit, Juntintie 154, FI-77600, Suonenjoki, Finland E-mail:
article id 361, category Research article
Jaana Luoranen, Risto Rikala, Kyösti Konttinen, Heikki Smolander. (2005). Extending the planting period of dormant and growing Norway spruce container seedlings to early summer. Silva Fennica vol. 39 no. 4 article id 361.
Keywords: Norway spruce; height growth; survival; planting date; carbohydrate; frozen storage; hot-lifting; root growth
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
In order to make mechanized planting economically viable, the present spring planting period for Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedlings in Scandinavia needs to be extended. To evaluate the possibilities to extend the planting period, six field experiments were established in four years during which frozen-stored, dormant seedlings and actively growing seedlings targeted for spring planting were planted regularly from mid-May to mid-July or the end of August. The survival of actively growing seedlings did not differ between planting dates from mid-May to mid-July. For dormant seedlings, however, the later in summer they were planted the lower was the survival. Oversized seedlings grown in the nursery in containers of too small volume, which were usually planted after mid-June, resulted in reduced growth of seedlings after planting. Root egress (growth of roots from root plugs into the surrounding soil) was most rapid in July and early August and slowest in May and September. Results showed that with dormant seedlings the planting period can be extended from May to mid-June without increasing mortality or reducing growth. The planting period for seedlings stored outdoors and those seedlings that were already growing in June for the purpose of spring plantings can be extended even longer, but it must be kept in mind that the risk of mechanical damage and reduced growth increase due to brittleness of the shoot and increased height. Further research is needed to evaluate the risks in practical scale plantings and with seedlings that are specially targeted for planting after mid-June.
  • Luoranen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Research Unit, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland E-mail: (email)
  • Rikala, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Research Unit, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland E-mail:
  • Konttinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Research Unit, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland E-mail:
  • Smolander, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Research Unit, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland E-mail:
article id 684, category Research article
H. M. McKay. (1998). Root electrolyte leakage and root growth potential as indicators of spruce and larch establishment. Silva Fennica vol. 32 no. 3 article id 684.
Keywords: root growth potential; functional root
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
The relationship between the condition of bare-rooted 2-year-old seedlings of Sitka spruce and larch at the time of planting and their survival and growth after 2 years was examined. Data were analysed for 2 experiments using seedlings lifted and stored at +1 °C throughout the winter for planting in April and also for 2 experiments using seedlings planted directly on different dates without cold storage. Electrolyte leakage from the fine roots of spruce was closely correlated to survival following direct planting at different times from September to April and fine root leakage was a more accurate indicator of spruce performance than root growth potential. However the pattern of larch survival of directly planted stock was more closely related to root growth potential than to root leakage. When seedlings were cold-stored, root electrolyte leakage and root growth potential were modified during storage and following cold storage, the performance of both species was more closely related to root electrolyte leakage than root growth potential. These results are interpreted as meaning that successful establishment of bare-rooted seedlings requires a functional nursery root system that is capable of both supplying adequate water for a limited period immediately after transplanting and of producing roots to meet the seedling’s increased water demand later in the growing season.
  • McKay, Forest Commission Research Agency, Northern Research Station, Roslin, Midlothian, EH25 9SY, Scotland E-mail: (email)
article id 696, category Research article
Jukka Lippu. (1998). Redistribution of 14C-labelled reserve carbon in Pinus sylvestris seedlings during shoot elongation. Silva Fennica vol. 32 no. 1 article id 696.
Keywords: Scots pine; root growth; carbon storage; 14C labelling; photosynthates; shoot growth
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
This study examined the later use of 14C reserves formed in previous autumn in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings. The seedlings were allowed to photosynthesise 14CO2 in early September when shoot and needle growth was over. The following spring the seedlings were harvested in five samplings during the shoot growth period. The distribution and concentration of 14C were determined and the results were compared with the growth data. It was observed that reserves were not used markedly for the new growth. Most of the 14C was found in one-year-old needles (30–40%) and in the root system (40–50%) which was due to both their high activity as a storage sink and their large sink size. The high initial 14C-activity in the finest roots decreased indicating respiration of reserves. Only a small percent of the reserve carbon was found in the new shoots which indicated that reserves are of minor importance in building a new shoot. An allocation of about 15% of the autumn storage to the stem suggested that in seedlings the stem is of minor importance as a storage organ.
  • Lippu, Department of Forest Ecology, P.O. Box 24 (Unioninkatu 40 B), FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland E-mail: (email)

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