Current issue: 56(2)
Under compilation: 56(3)
In this paper the connection between seed weight and amount and duration of growth are studied at the progeny level within stands or climatically uniform areas, and at the provenance level within larger geographic areas. The material consists of materials of several experiments in the nursery of Maisala in Southern Finland in 1971–76. The origins of the plant material used in the different experiments ranged from progenies of individual Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) or Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) trees to provenance selections covering almost the whole natural range of these species.
The effect of seed weight on plant height is strongest immediately after germination and subsequently decreases steadily, when the genetic growth properties of the plants themselves become effective. The effect is usually visible at least until the end of the 1st growing season. This relationship varies considerably depending on the material studied. The connections between the duration and the amount of height growth also proved to differ according to the nature of genetic variation. In wide selection of provenances, which show clear genetic differentiation in annual growth rhythm. The variation in the duration of growth accounts for most of the differences in total height growth. At the individual and family level or between provenances of a limited area, there seems to be no clear connection between the duration and the amount of growth. It seems that the duration of the annual growing period is a genetic property, which is not affected by seed weight.
The total height alone in 1-year old test material grown in a greenhouse had hardly any value in the forecasting of growth capacity. The growth differences were caused mainly by the variation in seed size and growth rate differences during the growing period.
The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.
A quantitative method for determining the annual growth level of plant species has been presented. In particular, attention was paid to the dependence of the growth level on the amount of light available for photosynthesis. A mathematical model for the dependence of structural matter production on photosynthetic production has been presented for some plant species.
The study is based on the assumption that the total amount of annual net photosynthesis plays a role of primary importance in determining the relationship between photosynthetic production and structural matter production. The basic environmental factors determining the photosynthetic rate are light and temperature, if the water and nutrient supply is adequate. The dependence of photosynthetic rate on light and temperature was determined by monitoring the CO2 uptake rate of natural plant populations between the photosynthetic levels of different plant populations with an infrared gas analyser.
The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.
This lecture discusses the problem of the annual variation in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.), and its significance. A newly constructed instrument for field measurements of diameter growth is described, also the latest of the Royal College of Forestry’s series of machines for annual ring measurement. The method of constructing an annual ring index is also mentioned.
Examination of material from undisturbed stands in Northern Sweden has shown that the annual ring index series for pine are characterised by a relatively marked autocorrelation, which increases with latitude, implying that the annual ring index for a given calendar year is positively correlated with that for the year immediately preceding it. However, this seems not to be so in spruce, in which the annual ring index series is marked by the effect of the changes in cone production from the year to year. The annual ring index for spruce may be expressed in the form of climatic functions, according to which the index can be approximately calculated or known values of the meteorological variables contained in the function, in association with numerical expressions for the cone production. By means of a number of examples illustrating annual ring series from thinned stands. It is shown finally how the response to thinning can be presented in a more essential form from the variation in the annual rings, and how climatically corrected increment can be determined.
The PDF includes a summary in English.