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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Articles containing the keyword 'hydrology'

Category: Article

article id 5234, category Article
Eino Mälkönen, Eero Paavilainen. (1985). Hydrological amelioration and forest practice on drained peatlands. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 2 article id 5234.
Keywords: drainage; peatlands; peatland forestry; hydrology; forest research; bibligraphies
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This bibliography consists of monographs, papers published in periodicals and journals and collections of scientific papers from research and educational institutes, and transactions from scientific congresses, seminars, symposia and meetings.

The publications have been divided into three basic sections. In each section the publications are listed in alphabetical order by the author(s) or title. The total number of the titles in this bibliography is 465.

  • Mälkönen, E-mail:
  • Paavilainen, E-mail:
article id 5212, category Article
Heikki Kurimo. (1984). Simultaneous groundwater table fluctuation in different parts of virgin pine mires. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 2 article id 5212.
Keywords: peatlands; hydrology; groundwater table; pine bogs; groundwater table fluctuations; pine swamp
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The study discusses the amplitude of the simultaneous groundwater table fluctuations in different parts of pine mires, and factors influencing it. The assumption generally used in hydrological computations that the simultaneous vertical fluctuation in the groundwater table in different parts of mires are equal does not hold good in detail. Numerous cases were detected where the fluctuation at one place did not correspond to that at another site to a statistically significant degree. The main reason for the unequal fluctuation at the different sites seems to be the difference in the microtopography and in the hydraulic conductivity between the sites.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kurimo, E-mail: hk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5173, category Article
Heikki Kurimo. (1983). Surface fluctuation in three virgin pine mires in eastern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 1 article id 5173.
Keywords: peatlands; hydrology; eastern Finland; mires; groundwater table; surface fluctuations; pine mire
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Altitude fluctuation of mire surface proportional to that of the groundwater table is presented for three virgin pine mires in Eastern Finland during the growing season 1982. The average amplitude of the surface fluctuation was found to be dependent on the period representing a certain type of weather, being limited to a certain maximum. The average amplitude of the surface fluctuation ranged from 18 to 45 mm; each of the mires followed a fluctuation scale of its own.

The daily fluctuation rates were low, generally 0.5–1 mm. No sudden fluctuation peaks occurred. Regularities in the surface fluctuation were caused by the duration of the period representing continuous sinking or rise of the groundwater table, and magnitude of it. The daily rate of the surface fluctuation related to that of the groundwater table was smaller in the beginning of such period than at the end of the same period. The one-directional rise or sinking of the altitude of the mire surface according to the groundwater table fluctuation is responsible for the autocorrelation of the long-term regression data.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kurimo, E-mail: hk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5172, category Article
Pekka Hynninen, Pentti Sepponen. (1983). Erään suoalueen ojituksen vaikutus purovesien laatuun Kiiminkijoen vesistöalueella, Pohjois-Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 1 article id 5172.
English title: The effect of drainage on the quality of brook waters in the Kiiminkijoki River basin, Northern Finland.
Original keywords: Pohjois-Suomi; soiden ojitus; hydrologia; veden laatu; purot; joet; liukoiset ravinteet
English keywords: water quality; northern Finland; suspended solids; hydrology; draining of peatlands; brooks; rivers
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The present study deals with the effect of forest drainage on some quality factors of brook waters. Under study were several brooks in the basin of the Kiiminkijoki River as well as its main tributary, the Nuorittajoki River. These are located in Northern Finland and belong to the international water program Project Aqua.

The following values were determined for the water samples: pH, electric conductivity, colour, concentration of suspended solids., NO2, NO3, and NH4 nitrogen concentrations, dissolved and total phosphorus, and Ca, Mg, K and Fe concentrations. Water quality in the brooks was monitored prior to and after ditching. A statistically significant change was noted in colour, in the concentration of suspended solids, in the NH4 concentration and in some brooks also in the pH value and in the total phosphorus, K, and Fe concentrations.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hynninen, E-mail: ph@mm.unknown (email)
  • Sepponen, E-mail: ps@mm.unknown
article id 5124, category Article
Leo Heikurainen, Samuli Joensuu. (1981). Metsäojituksen hydrologiset seurausvaikutukset. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 3 article id 5124.
English title: The hydrological effects of forest drainage.
Original keywords: ojitus; ojitetut suot; hydrologia; vesistövaikutukset
English keywords: drained peatlands; water quality; drainage; hydrology; discharge
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The present paper deals with the most important factors of peatland hydrology and the influence of forest drainage on the hydrology of peatland itself and its surroundings. It is compiled of six seminar papers written by students in the Department of Peatland Forestry in the University of Helsinki. Special attention is paid to the hydrological consequenses of the maintenance of drained areas. Also ways and measures to minimize the negative environmental effects of these treatments are discusses.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heikurainen, E-mail: lh@mm.unknown (email)
  • Joensuu, E-mail: sj@mm.unknown

Category: Article

article id 7538, category Article
Leo Heikurainen. (1970). The effect of thinning, clear cutting, and fertilization on the hydrology of peatland drained for forestry. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 104 article id 7538.
Keywords: fertilization; thinning; drained peatlands; throughfall; clear-cutting; hydrology; ground water table; snow cover; runoff
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of this study was to assess the effect of cutting of different intensities on the hydrology of drained peatland. The study concerned with measuring changes in the ground water level, throughfall, and snow cover, and specially runoff. This study focused on the phenomena that occur during the growing season. Seven sample plots were measured in an area in Central Finland which had been drained about 50 years earlier and had Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand of uniform age.

To survey the hydrological effects of cuttings, 20%, 40% and 60% of the stand volume was removed in thinnings. In addition, one sample plot was clear-cut. During the first two years after cutting the interception diminished, and throughfall increased by 7% for the 20% thinning, by 8% for the 40% thinning and by 12% for the 60% thinning. Clear cutting increased the throughfall by 29%. The thinnings increased the depth of the snow cover the more the heavier the thinning.

Even the lightest thinning raised the ground water table, but the difference between 20% and 40% thinning was not marked. Cuttings increased runoff the greater the heavier the cutting. The hydrological changes of fellings were detrimental for the site. However, there was a marked change only between the 40% and 60% thinnings. Fertilization had a favourable effect on the hydrology of the peatland by increasing the depth of ground water table, and decreasing the throughfall.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Heikurainen, E-mail: lh@mm.unknown (email)

Category: Research article

article id 1354, category Research article
Johannes Edvardsson, Anton Hansson. (2015). Multiannual hydrological responses in Scots pine radial growth within raised bogs in southern Sweden. Silva Fennica vol. 49 no. 4 article id 1354.
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; peatland; dendrochronology; precipitation; hydrology; river discharge
Highlights: Annual growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) at Boreal raised bogs was found to reflect a synthesis of climate controlled moisture variability over the preceding one to four year period; Excessive soil moisture is a growth limiting factor for trees at raised bogs; River discharge data reflect hydrological conditions in peat bogs better than precipitation data.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

To explore interactions between climate and peatland hydrology, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing at four raised bogs in southern Sweden were subject to a dendroclimatological study. Radial tree growth reflecting climate and water table fluctuations over multiannual periods was detected as significant negative correlations between tree-ring width (TRW) chronologies and the preceding one to four years total precipitation or river discharge. Systematically stronger negative correlations were obtained when river discharge instead of precipitation was compared to radial tree growth. This indicates that river discharge reflect moisture variability of peat bogs better than what precipitation data does. Meanwhile, monthly precipitation and radial tree growth did not show any clear correlation, whereas spring and early summer temperatures had a positive influence on the tree growth. Our study shows that growth variability of bog pines in the Boreal zone reflect hydrological responses related to a synthesis of climate controlled moisture variability over several year periods.

  • Edvardsson,, Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Bern, Baltzerstrasse 1+3, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland & Quaternary Sciences, Department of Geology, Lund University, Sölvegatan 12, SE-223 62 Lund, Sweden ORCID E-mail: (email)
  • Hansson, Quaternary Sciences, Department of Geology, Lund University, Sölvegatan 12, SE-223 62 Lund, Sweden E-mail:

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