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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Articles containing the keyword 'regression analysis'

Category : Article

article id 5528, category Article
Pekka Tamminen, Michael Starr. (1994). Bulk density of forested mineral soils. Silva Fennica vol. 28 no. 1 article id 5528.
Keywords: regression analysis; bulk density; soil physical properties; organic matter
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Relationships between bulk density and organic matter (OM) content, textural properties and depth are described for forested mineral soils from Central and Northern Finland. Core samples were taken of 0–5, 30–35 and 60–65 cm layers at 75 plots. Three measures of bulk density were calculated: the bulk density of the < 20 mm fraction (BD20), the bulk density of the < 2 mm fraction (BD2), and laboratory bulk density (BDl). BDl was determined from the mass of a fixed volume of < 2 mm soil taken in the laboratory. All three measures of bulk densities were strongly correlated with organic matter content (r ≥ -0.63). Depth and gravel (2–20 mm) content (in the case of BD2) were also important variables. BDl was sensitive to clay contents > 7% but did significantly improve the prediction of both BD2 and BD20 in coarse soils (clay contents ≤ 7%). Predictive models were derived for coarse soils.

  • Tamminen, E-mail: pt@mm.unknown (email)
  • Starr, E-mail: ms@mm.unknown

Category : Article

article id 7138, category Article
Kullervo Kuusela, Pekka Kilkki. (1963). Multiple regression of increment percentage on other characteristics in Scots pine stands. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 75 no. 4 article id 7138.
Keywords: regression analysis; methods; growth studies; yield studies; increment functions
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The objective of this study has been to discover some of the basic principles on which an increment for a large forest area might be forecast. Because the stands in a large forest area vary considerably in density and are subject to different kinds of treatment, the main interest falls on the stand characteristics which determine the increment percentage in such forest conditions as these. The material used in the study has been published earlier, it consisted of sample plots of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands (Nyyssönen 1954).

Increment functions are of great importance in the increment forecast for cutting budget. Because 60-80% of the variation in the increment percentage can be explained by stand characteristics in circumstances where the age of the stand is 40-130 years and the volume vary with a coefficient of variation 0.6-0.7, regression equations for increment percentage may be based on a number of sample plots smaller than in a growing stock inventory in the same conditions. It is possible to get accurate results with relatively small number of sample plots. Furthermore, the smaller amount of increment sample plots makes it possible to develop measurement techniques.

The increment functions enable study of increment as a biological process. However, conclusions about biological process on the basis of regression equations should be made with caution. Still, regression analysis is a powerful tool in yield studies.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kuusela, E-mail: kk@mm.unknown (email)
  • Kilkki, E-mail: pk@mm.unknown
article id 7675, category Article
Erkki Tomppo. (1992). Satellite image aided forest site fertility estimation for forest income taxation. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 229 article id 7675.
Keywords: site quality; discriminant analysis; forest taxation; satellite images; segmentation; logistic regression analysis; Markov random field
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Two operative forest site class estimation methods utilizing satellite images have been developed for forest income taxation purposes. For this, two pixelwise classification methods and two post-processing methods for estimating forest site fertility are compared using different input data. The pixelwise methods are discriminant analysis, based on generalized squared distances, and logistic regression analysis. The results of pixelwise classifications are improved either with mode filtering within forest stands or assuming a Markov random field type dependence between pixels. The stand delineation is obtained by using ordinary segmentation techniques. Optionally, known stand boundaries given by the interpreter can be applied. The spectral values of images are corrected using a digital elevation model of the terrain. Some textural features are preliminary tested in classification. All methods are justified by using independent test data.

A test of the practical methods was carried out and a cost-benefit analysis computed. The estimated cost saving in site quality classification varies from 14% to 35% depending on the distribution of the site classes of the area. This means a saving of about 2.0–4.5 million FMK per year in site fertility classification for income taxation purposes. The cost savings would rise even to 60% if that version of the method were chosen where field checking is totally omitted. The classification accuracy at the forest holding level would still be similar to that of traditional method.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Tomppo, E-mail: et@mm.unknown (email)

Category : Research article

article id 1567, category Research article
Eetu Kotivuori, Lauri Korhonen, Petteri Packalen. (2016). Nationwide airborne laser scanning based models for volume, biomass and dominant height in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 4 article id 1567.
Keywords: forest inventory; LIDAR; regression analysis; remote sensing; calibration; area-based approach; mixed-effect models
Highlights: Pooled data from nine inventory projects in Finland were used to create nationwide laser-based regression models for dominant height, volume and biomass; Volume and biomass models provided regionally different means than real means, but for dominant height the mean difference was small; The accuracy of general volume predictions was nevertheless comparable to relascope-based field inventory by compartments.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of this study was to examine how well stem volume, above-ground biomass and dominant height can be predicted using nationwide airborne laser scanning (ALS) based regression models. The study material consisted of nine practical ALS inventory projects taken from different parts of Finland. We used field sample plots and airborne laser scanning data to create nationwide and regional models for each response variable. The final models had one or two ALS predictors, which were chosen based on the root mean square error (RMSE), and cross-validated. Finally, we tested how much predictions would improve if the nationwide models were calibrated with a small number of regional sample plots. Although forest structures differ among different parts of Finland, the nationwide volume and biomass models performed quite well (leave-inventory-area-out RMSE 22.3% to 33.8%, mean difference [MD] –13.8% to 18.7%) compared with regional models (leave-plot-out RMSE 20.2% to 26.8%). However, the nationwide dominant height model (RMSE 5.4% to 7.7%, MD –2.0% to 2.8%, with the exception of the Tornio region – RMSE 11.4%, MD –9.1%) performed nearly as well as the regional models (RMSE 5.2% to 6.7%). The results show that the nationwide volume and biomass models provided different means than real means at regional level, because forest structure and ALS device have a considerable effect on the predictions. Large MDs appeared especially in northern Finland. Local calibration decreased the MD and RMSE of volume and biomass models. However, the nationwide dominant height model did not benefit much from calibration.

  • Kotivuori, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail: (email)
  • Korhonen, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail:
  • Packalen, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail:
article id 244, category Research article
Georg E. Kindermann, Ian McCallum, Steffen Fritz, Michael Obersteiner. (2008). A global forest growing stock, biomass and carbon map based on FAO statistics. Silva Fennica vol. 42 no. 3 article id 244.
Keywords: biomass map; downscaling; regression analysis
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Currently, information on forest biomass is available from a mixture of sources, including in-situ measurements, national forest inventories, administrative-level statistics, model outputs and regional satellite products. These data tend to be regional or national, based on different methodologies and not easily accessible. One of the few maps available is the Global Forest Resources Assessment (FRA) produced by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO 2005) which contains aggregated country-level information about the growing stock, biomass and carbon stock in forests for 229 countries and territories. This paper presents a technique to downscale the aggregated results of the FRA2005 from the country level to a half degree global spatial dataset containing forest growing stock; above/below-ground biomass, dead wood and total forest biomass; and above-ground, below-ground, dead wood, litter and soil carbon. In all cases, the number of countries providing data is incomplete. For those countries with missing data, values were estimated using regression equations based on a downscaling model. The downscaling method is derived using a relationship between net primary productivity (NPP) and biomass and the relationship between human impact and biomass assuming a decrease in biomass with an increased level of human activity. The results, presented here, represent one of the first attempts to produce a consistent global spatial database at half degree resolution containing forest growing stock, biomass and carbon stock values. All results from the methodology described in this paper are available online at
  • Kindermann, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria E-mail: (email)
  • McCallum, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria E-mail:
  • Fritz, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria E-mail:
  • Obersteiner, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria E-mail:

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