Current issue: 57(2)
Under compilation: 57(3)
The wages of logging and haulage has been dependent on the decisions of foremen. The aim of this study was to provide better insight on how working conditions in a logging site affect productivity of the work. Six working sites operated by Forest Service, Veitsiluoto Oy and Kemi Oy in the communes of Salla, Muonio and Kolari in Lapland were studied. The forests in the area were mostly Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.).
The effect of average volume of the stems, the average daily haulage over distances of various lengths, density of the stand and shape of the stem on effectivity was calculated. The size of the team was of considerable importance to the felling and haulage result in the Northern Finland where the feller assists in loading of the logs. One of the aims of the study was to find out what size of team is most advantageous for each haulage distance. The results show the optimum distance of haulage for teams of different sizes.
The article includes a summary in English.
Silva Fennica Issue 69 includes presentations held in 1948-1950 in the fourth professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.
This presentation describes the history and present stage of forest drainage in Northern Finland. The first peatlands were drained in the area in 1909. About 6% of the 600,000 hectares of peatlands suitable for drainage was drained at the time in Perä-Pohjola. The areas to be drained are characteristically very large.
Silva Fennica Issue 64 includes presentations held in 1947 in the third professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. Two of the presentations were published in other publications than Silva Fennica.
This presentation describes the forests and their silvicultural state in the areas of Perä-Pohjola and Lapland in the Northern Finland. Forest management work needed to improve the silvicultural state of the forests is suggested.
The fellings of small timber have been expanded from seasonal to full-year operation in many areas. A time and motion study was conducted on the felling of pulpwood in different times of the year in seven felling sites in the northernmost Finland. The work was payed per one pulpwood bolt. The output of a one-man teams was larger than 2-6-man teams. Teams of even numbers were more effective than teams of uneven numbers. One-man teams were more popular during summer. The output was largest during the summer. In the late summer the results decrease, because barking of trees becomes more difficult. Shortening of daylight hours begin to shorten the workdays in the autumn. In December, the average working days are about 6 hours. Snow and low temperatures make logging and barking more difficult during the winter. The output was lowest in January, despite that work days are 1 ½ hours longer than in December. It is concluded that pulpwood fellings should be avoided from December to March 15. If the fellings are necessary, the wage system should be changed more flexible than at present. The size of cutter’s lots should be adjusted so, that work periods are not too short. Sufficiently big lots save time spent on travelling between the sites and villages.
The PDF includes a summary in German.
There is little knowledge about the value increment of the stands that are about to become mature for felling. Sample plots were measured in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) stands in the most common forest site types in Rovaniemi, in northernmost Finland. Sample trees were chosen from dominant and codominant trees of the stand.
The value increments for the stands were generally very low. The average rotation of the studied stands would be 160 years. In the better forest site type, the increments of basal-area, volume and form height decrease slowly as the diameter of the tree increases. The value increment can give valuable information for intermediate fellings. They should be targeted mainly to large codominant trees and partly also in dominant trees that do not yet give logs, because their value increment is low.
The PDF includes a summary in German.
The study includes a detailed survey of 154 farms in the area. Part of the results are presented in the second and third part of the article series about agriculture in Perä-Pohjola and Lapland. The typical breed of cattle in the area was the white Northern Finnish landrace (pohjoissuomenkarja). The size of herds in the farms varied from one to 25, but exceeded seldom 10 cows. Summer pastures were mostly forest pastures. For the winter hay and leaf fodder was gathered. The article includes a detailed description of cattle-keeping in the area. In addition, the farms often had horses and sheep. Keeping pigs or poultry was rare.
The PDF includes a summary in English. This is a fourth part of four-article series about the natural resources in the area of Perä-Pohjola and Lappi.
Only 0.1% of the land area of Perä-Pohjola and Lapland is arable land. The study includes a detailed survey of 154 farms in the area. Part of the results are presented in the second part of the article series about Perä-Pohjola and Lapland (Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 18). The farms had in average 1.87 hectares of arable land and 16.1 hectares of meadows. Cattle-manure was the most important dressing. The main crops were barley, hay, potatoes and rye. The article includes a detailed description about the cultivation methods.
The PDF includes a summary in English. This is a third part of four-article series on the natural resources in the area of Perä-Pohjola and Lappi. The article includes a detailed survey of the farms in the area.