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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles containing the keyword 'forest management'

Category: Article

article id 5637, category Article
Janne Uuttera, Harri Hyppänen. (1997). Relationship between forest management planning units and spatial distribution of forest habitat components in Koli National Park. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 4 article id 5637. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8539
Keywords: Finland; forest management planning; forest habitat distribution; Geographic Information Systems; kriging-interpolation; Koli National park
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This study examined the relationships between forest management planning units and patches formed by forest habitat components. The test area used was a part of Koli National Park in North Karelia, eastern Finland. Forest management planning units (i.e. forest compartments) were defined by using a traditional method of Finnish forestry which applies aerial photographs and compartment-wise field inventory. Patches of forest habitat components were divided according to subjective rules by using a chosen set of variables depicting the edaphic features and vegetation of a forest habitat. The spatial distribution of the habitat components was estimated with the kriging-interpolation based on systematically located sample plots. The comparisons of the two patch mosaics were made by using the standard tools of GIS. The results of the study show that forest compartment division does not correlate very strongly with the forest habitat pattern. On average, the mean patch size of the forest habitat components is greater and the number of these patches lower compared to forest compartment division. However, if the forest habitat component distribution had been considered, the number of the forest compartments would have at least doubled after intersection.

  • Uuttera, E-mail: ju@mm.unknown (email)
  • Hyppänen, E-mail: hh@mm.unknown
article id 5613, category Article
Mikko Peltonen, Kari Heliövaara, Rauno Väisänen. (1997). Forest insects and environmental variation in stand edges. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 2 article id 5613. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8514
Keywords: forest management; bark beetles; biodiversity; distribution; edge effect; forest ecology; occurrence
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Distribution and occurrence of bark beetles and other forest insects in relation to environmental variation were analysed by multivariate methods. Eight different forest edges were studied using 10 x 10 m sample plots that formed 200 m linear transects perpendicular to the forest edge. Forest edge affected the distribution of insect species only in the edges between mature, non-managed spruce stands and clear cuts or young seedling stands, but not in the pine stands. The occurrence of the selected forest insects mainly depended on variables associated with the amount and quality of suitable woody material. The most significant environmental variables were forest site type, crown canopy coverage, tree species, number of stumps, number of dead spruce trunks and amount of logging waste at site. Quantitative classification of species and sample plots showed that some specialized species (Xylechinus pilosus, Cryphalus saltuarius, Polygraphus poligraphus and P. subopacus) adapted to mature spruce forests, tended to withdraw from the forest edge to interior stand sites. By contrast many generalized species (Pityogenes chalcographus, P. quadridens, Pissodes spp., Hylurgops palliatus, Tomicus piniperda, Dryocoetes spp. and Trypodendron lineatum) benefitted from cuttings and spread over stand borders into mature forest.

  • Peltonen, E-mail: mp@mm.unknown (email)
  • Heliövaara, E-mail: kh@mm.unknown
  • Väisänen, E-mail: rv@mm.unknown
article id 5569, category Article
Esa-Jussi Viitala. (1996). Assessing the effectiveness of non-profit forestry organisations: An ultimate goal approach. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 4 article id 5569. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8504
Keywords: forest management; forest policy; Finland; forest owners; evaluation; forestry management associations
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This paper is an assessment of what in Finland are referred to as local forest management associations (LFMAs); the local units of a non-profit, forestry-promotion institution. First, the concept of organisational effectiveness is explored and an attempt is made to define it with respect to the LFMAs. The study then seeks to identify the environmental constraints, organisational characteristics and managerial practices differentiating the most effective and least effective associations. Discriminant analysis revealed four determinants of effectiveness: agrarian prosperity in the given area, activeness in marketing services to forest owners, the board of governors' role, and goal setting practices. The results thus indicate that the comparison of managerial policies and practices among LFMAs can provide useful information for improving their effectiveness.

  • Viitala, E-mail: ev@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5603, category Article
Jari Parviainen. (1996). Tasks of forest biodiversity management and monitoring deriving from international agreements. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 2–3 article id 5603. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9248
Keywords: forest management; biodiversity; forest protection; sustainable forestry; international agreements; criteria of sustainability; Helsinki process; Montreal process
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Four governmental efforts are underway to reach consensus on indicators of sustainable forestry. Through the Helsinki process, European countries have developed and reached a pan-European, binding consensus, The Montreal process includes non-European Temperate and boreal forest countries, the International Tropical Timber Organization (lTTO) have developed guidelines for the sustainable management of natural tropical forests, and the countries around the Amazon basis have developed a joint initiative for creating guidelines of sustainable forest management of the Amazonian tropical rain forests. It is estimated that as many as 15–20 distinct processes are under way in the private sector by non-profit organizations and for-profit companies, some domestic and other international in scope. Perhaps the most wide-ranging definition work of non-governmental organizations is the undertake by the Forest Stewardship Council, FSC. The paper discusses the Helsinki and Montreal processes and the tasks for research.

  • Parviainen, E-mail: jp@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5602, category Article
Anatoly Pisarenko, Valentin Strakhov. (1996). Development and utilization of Russian forest resources. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 2–3 article id 5602. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9247
Keywords: forest management; wild berries; forest resources; forest products; natural products; Russian Federation
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A presentation based on the historical development of Russia is given in the form of an overview of the development of Russian forest resources, of the wood, non-wood, and biological aspects of the forest ecosystem. The list of non-wood forest resources includes resin, saps, oils, berries, wild nuts, mushrooms, hay harvesting, game animals, etc. The dynamics of the system are presented in the light of the data of the Forest State Account (FSA) of Russia for the period 1956–1993. The most significant changes in the dynamics of Russia's forest resources are related to concentrated, large-scale wood harvesting operations. The dynamics of non-wood resources follow the process of the economic recession in all parts of the forest sector of Russia, the said recession having begun in the mid-1980s. The forests of Russia are considered to be of immense social and cultural value and a globally significant factor contributing to the sustainable development of forest resources.

  • Pisarenko, E-mail: ap@mm.unknown (email)
  • Strakhov, E-mail: vs@mm.unknown
article id 5575, category Article
Gintautas Mozgeris. (1996). Dynamic stratification for estimating pointwise forest characteristics. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 1 article id 5575. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9220
Keywords: stand characteristics; forest mensuration; SMI forest management planning system; dynamic stratification; static stratification
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This paper deals with the testing of dynamic stratification for estimating stand level forest characteristics (basal areas, mean diameter, mean height and mean age) for a 117 ha study areas in Finland. The results do not show possibilities to achieve more accurate estimates using only Landsat TM principal components as auxiliary data opposed to static stratification. It was found that in dynamic stratification non-measured observations should be assigned the mean characteristics of the measured observations that belong to the same cube (class) instead of stratification variable classes until a certain limit. If only one principal component is used the number of classes has, however, little influence. Low field values are overestimated and high values underestimated.

The only successful results were obtained using two variables of different origin – the qualitative development stage class and the quantitative 1st principal component. The lowest root mean square error in estimating basal area was 6.40 m2/ha, mean diameter 3.34 cm, mean height 2.65 m and mean age 14.06 years. This increase of stratification accuracy is mainly resulted by the use of development stage class as an auxiliary variable.

  • Mozgeris, E-mail: gm@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5574, category Article
Jouni Vettenranta. (1996). Effect of species composition on economic return in a mixed stand of Norway spruce and Scots pine. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 1 article id 5574. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9219
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Picea abies; net present value; mixed forests; growth models; tree species composition; forest management practices; felling methods; valuation; soil expectation value; treatment programme
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The effect of species mixture was studied in a mixed stand of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) by simulating around 100 different treatment schedules during the rotation in a naturally regenerated even-aged stand located on a site of medium fertility in North Karelia, Finland. Both thinning from below and thinning from above were applied. Optimum rotations were determined by maximising the net present value calculated to infinity and different treatment schedules were compared with the net present value over one rotation as per rotation applied. In the optimum treatment programme, the proportion of pines was decreased by half of the basal area in the first thinning stage and by the end of the rotation to about one third. In thinning from above, the proportion of pines can be maintained at a slightly higher level. It is economically profitable to maintain the growing stock capital at approximately the level recommended by Forest Centre Tapio, a semi-governmental forestry authority. With non-optimum species composition, the loss in net present value over one rotation can be about 10 % in thinning from below and about 20 % in thinning from above.

  • Vettenranta, E-mail: jv@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5401, category Article
Akmal S. Hyder, Lars Lönnstedt, Markku Penttinen. (1994). Outline of accounting for non-industrial private woodlots. Silva Fennica vol. 28 no. 2 article id 5401. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9167
Keywords: non-industrial private forestry; financial accounting; net profit of the enterprise; calculated profit of the property; cost accounting; forest management strategies
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

For non-industrial private forest (NIPF) owners land with its timber production is an example of a capital asset. Developments in the asset’s value and yield depend not only on forest management but also on other factors that the owner cannot control, for example timber prices and the production circumstances, such as soil and climate. One important basis for decision making related to management strategy and, in the short run, to cutting and silvicultural activities is economic analysis and accounting. The owner has to decide whether to invest more in his property (planting, cleaning, building of forest roads) or disinvest (sell timber or the holding). He has to find ways to increase revenue and cut costs.

However, generally accepted accounting practices for NIPF owners are lacking. Applying business economic accounting principles and forestry accounting traditions, we outline a proposal for a profit and loss accounting and balance sheet for NIPF holdings with a view towards increasing economic awareness among private owners. Key concepts are net profit of the enterprise and calculated profit of the property. Other profit measurements that are used are gross margin, forestry margin, operating margin and operating profit. Calculated profit is based on adjusted net profit. The main concern, however, is to consider the change in the holding’s market value caused by changes in stock volume, quality and price. The contents of the accounting framework development here are applied to three management strategies. The return on investment (ROI) of forestry is compared with other investment alternatives.

  • Hyder, E-mail: ah@mm.unknown (email)
  • Lönnstedt, E-mail: ll@mm.unknown
  • Penttinen, E-mail: mp@mm.unknown
article id 5519, category Article
Jyrki Kangas, Jari Karsikko, Laura Laasonen, Timo Pukkala. (1993). A method for estimating the suitability function of wildlife habitat for forest planning on the basis of expertise. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 4 article id 5519. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15680
Keywords: forest management; models; wildlife management; black grouse; production functions; multiple use; Lururus tetrix
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In the method presented in this study, a group of experts evaluate, in a pairwise manner, a set of forest areas with respect to the game species considered. On the basis of these comparisons, relative priorities of forest areas are estimated using the eigenvalue technique. Using regression analysis, a habitat suitability function is estimated in which the priority is predicted by measures already familiar in forest planning. As a case study, a habitat suitability function was estimated for black grouse (Tetrao tetrix, Lururus tetrix L.). The function is applicable in forestry planning carried out using modern planning techniques.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Kangas, E-mail: jk@mm.unknown (email)
  • Karsikko, E-mail: jk@mm.unknown
  • Laasonen, E-mail: ll@mm.unknown
  • Pukkala, E-mail: tp@mm.unknown
article id 5517, category Article
Tuomo Kotimäki. (1993). Ristipaineet valtion metsien käytön valintatilanteissa. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 3 article id 5517. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15678
English title: Contradictory targets in the use of state forests of Finland.
Original keywords: valtionmetsät; Metsähallitus; metsänhoito; metsien monikäyttö; aluepolitiikka; maankäyttö; kestävä metsätalous
English keywords: forest management; Finland; forest management planning; Forest Service; state forests; multiple use of forests; conflicting targets; land use; regional planning
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper discusses the principles of forest management in the state forests of Finland, and the contradictions in choosing between the different land uses. These principles of the forest management are sustainable use of natural resources, economic and effective management, and taking in account nature conservation, protection of environment, recreation services and employment issues in all activities of the Forest Service. Even regional policy affects the management planning in the state forests.

  • Kotimäki, E-mail: tk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5516, category Article
Veli-Pekka Järveläinen. (1993). Yksityismetsätalous ja arvojen muutos. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 3 article id 5516. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15677
English title: Private forestry and the changing values.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; yksityismetsätalous; metsänomistajat; arvot
English keywords: forest management; forestry; values; Finland; forest owners; private forests
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Forests have been economically important for Finnish private forest owners at all times, but the use of forests has changed markedly since 1920s, when forests were mainly used for collecting household timber, and the cuttings were often exploitative because of the farmer’s need for money. The present situation is totally different. Need for household timber is marginally small, and private forestry produces mainly timber for sale. The sales of timber have increased, but due to better forest management the growing stock in the private forests has increased. The article discusses how the changes in values of forest owners has and will affect the stage of private forestry.

  • Järveläinen, E-mail: vj@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5515, category Article
Seppo Vehkamäki. (1993). Metsien käytön muutospaineet. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 3 article id 5515. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15676
English title: Pressures for changes in the use of forests.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; metsätalous; metsien monikäyttö; kestävyys; tuottavuus; tehokkuus
English keywords: forest management; productivity; sustainability; forestry; multiple use of forests; effectiveness
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper discusses how the general trend towards increasing growth and productivity in the European societies is expressed also in forestry. It is reflected, for instance, in the increasing production and productivity of forest industries. Technological progress and call for economic growth require great flexibility from all resources. These pressures for effectiveness and production also concern Finnish forestry and forest management. Industrialization, urbanization and development of forestry have increased the pressure to use forests in recreation, preserving human environment and nature conservation in addition to production of timber. Through the development the definition of sustainability has become wider.

  • Vehkamäki, E-mail: sv@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5492, category Article
Ismo Nousiainen, Timo Pukkala. (1992). Use of computer graphics for predicting the amenity of forest trails. Silva Fennica vol. 26 no. 4 article id 5492. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15653
Keywords: forest management; forest planning; simulation; landscape; recreation; amenity value of forests
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Ten trails, one kilometre each, were evaluated by 15 persons for scenic beauty, recreational value and variety. All trails passed through commercially managed forests dominated by conifers. The trails were first evaluated by viewing computer simulations based on a series of graphical illustrations of forest landscapes, then from a slide show, and finally in the field. In the computer simulation and slide show, landscape pictures along the trail at an interval of 35–40 m were presented for 3–4 seconds. The ranks between slide show and field were slightly more similar than those between simulation and field. The mean correlation of 12 persons between the field ranking and assessment of either computer simulations or slide shows or graphics than scenic beauty or recreational value. Spearman’s rank correlations computed from median scores of a group of 12 peers were clearly better than the average of individual persons varying from 0.6 to 0.9.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish

  • Nousiainen, E-mail: in@mm.unknown (email)
  • Pukkala, E-mail: tp@mm.unknown
article id 5489, category Article
Markku Penttinen, Matti Kinnunen. (1992). Profitability of forestry in jointly-owned forests of Northeastern Finland and Lapland. Silva Fennica vol. 26 no. 4 article id 5489. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15650
Keywords: forest management; forestry; northern Finland; profitability; co-ownership; jointly owned forest holdings
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The profitability of jointly owned forest holdings in the two northernmost forest board districts of Finland was studied by means of ratio analysis. A time series of profit and loss statements and balance sheets from 33 holdings covering the fiscal years ending 1981–1990 served as the database. The studied area was 348,038 ha, the allowable cut 304,300 m3 per year and the average turnover, deflated by the wholesale price index, FIM 57.6 million per year. The key result obtained was that the average annual profit was FIM 107 per hectare and FIM 110 per m3. The time series showed that the ratios had increased significantly over the calculation period.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Penttinen, E-mail: mp@mm.unknown (email)
  • Kinnunen, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown
article id 5484, category Article
Jyrki Kangas, Timo Pukkala. (1992). A decision theoretic approach applied to goal programming of forest management. Silva Fennica vol. 26 no. 3 article id 5484. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15645
Keywords: forest management; models; forest planning; decision analysis; goal programming; optimization methods
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

An alternative approach to formulating a forestry goal programming problem is presented. First, single objective optima levels are solved. The Analytical Hierarchy Process is applied in the estimation of a priori weights of deviations from the goal target levels. The ratios of the weights can be interpreted as relative importance of the goals, respectively. The sum of the weighted deviations from all single optima levels associated with the management goals is minimized. Instead of absolute deviations, relative ones are used. A case study problem of forest management planning with several objectives, measured in different units, is analysed.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Kangas, E-mail: jk@mm.unknown (email)
  • Pukkala, E-mail: tp@mm.unknown
article id 5479, category Article
Douglas K. Loh, Hannu Saarenmaa. (1992). Design of integrated forest resource information systems. Silva Fennica vol. 26 no. 2 article id 5479. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15640
Keywords: forest management; databases; information systems; X Window System
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Managing forests and other natural resources requires merging of data and knowledge from many fields. Research efforts in many countries have simultaneously aimed at computer applications to help managing the large amounts of data involved and the complexities of decision making. This has invariably led to large integrated systems. An integrated system is software that consists of modules for various tasks in natural resource management, spatial analysis, simulation and optimization, diagnostic reasoning, levels, and communicating with the user.

The paper presents an overview of the need, levels and historical development of integrated systems. Newly emerged technologies, especially object-oriented programming and the X Window System with its associated environment have given new flexibility and transparency to the designs. The client-server architecture is found out as an ideal model for integrated systems. The paper describes an implementation of these ideas, the INFORMS system that supports the information needs of district level forest management planning.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Loh, E-mail: dl@mm.unknown (email)
  • Saarenmaa, E-mail: hs@mm.unknown
article id 5478, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki, Marja Kolström. (1992). Computations on the management of seedling stands of Scots pine under the influence of changing climate in southern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 26 no. 2 article id 5478. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15639
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; forest management; models; Betula pendula; Scots pine; silver birch; simulation; climatic change; seedling stands
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Model computations on the management of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) at the seedling stage showed that a rising temperature due to the suggested climate change could increase the competition capacity of birch species (Betula pendula) more than Scots pine, whose growth could even decline during the course of a rise in temperature. A temperature rise could, thus, bring the time of removal of birches forward when aiming at Scots pine timber stands composed of these tree species. The increasing proportion of birches makes the removal of birches even more urgent and emphasizes the need for careful management of Scots pine stands under rising temperatures. The first thinning of Scots pine is generally brought forward; this is particularly the case when wide spacing is applied in planting. A furthrer rise in temperature magnifies the above patterns by reducing further the competitive capacity of Scots pine in relation to birches.
The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown (email)
  • Kolström, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown
article id 5394, category Article
Pekka Kilkki. (1989). Kestävä metsätalous. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 4 article id 5394. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15552
English title: Sustainable forest management.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; metsäekonomia; kestävä metsätalous
English keywords: forestry; sustainable forest management; forest economics
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This paper is a review on the development of sustainable forest management and what has been meant with the term in different times. The article summarises the birth of sustainable use of forests in the world and in Finland, and discusses sustainability in forest management, for instance from the point of view of one forest holding, large clearcuttings performed in Lapland, biological sustainability, business economics and overall planning.

  • Kilkki, E-mail: pk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5370, category Article
Harri Rantonen, Juhani Päivänen. (1989). Kasvatusmetsien metsänhoidollinen tila ojitusalueilla puunkorjuun jälkeen. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 1 article id 5370. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15529
English title: Silvicultural condition of tree stands after thinning on drained peatlands.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; harvennushakkuu; puunkorjuu; turvemaat; ojitetut suot; harvennusvoimakkuus
English keywords: forest management; harvesting; forest drainage; silviculture; drained peatland; thinning intensity
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The area of stands studied by line plot survey was 594 ha. On the basis of the length of the inventory line the estimated proportion of harvesting strips was 14% and that of ditch openings 6% of the area. The calculated strip road spacing was 29 m. The option of the minimum diameter made it difficult to use the number of stems as criterion for thinning intensity. Thinning intensity evaluated according to the basal area had been stronger than recommended with low values of dominant height and milder with high values. The estimated removal according to stumps was 38 m3/ha on the average between the strips. The real removal has, however, been larger than that, as the strip road openings are made in connection with the first thinning.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Rantonen, E-mail: hr@mm.unknown (email)
  • Päivänen, E-mail: jp@mm.unknown
article id 5346, category Article
Timo Pukkala. (1988). Methods to incorporate the amenity of landscape into forest management planning. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 2 article id 5346. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15503
Keywords: forest management; landscape management; multipurpose forestry; multiobjective planning; computer simulation; mathematical optimization; management plan
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The study presents methods that incorporate the amenity of a forest area into the management planning. The management plan is based on treatment schedules simulated for each compartment over the 20-year planning period. The best combination of treatment schedules is selected by multi-objective optimization. The amenity is divided into two parts: (1) within-stand amenity and (2) the amenity of landscape when viewed afar (distant scene). The within-stand amenity is expressed in terms of adjective sum which is estimated from stand characteristics. The adjective sum of the whole area in a selected year can be taken as an objective or constraining variable of optimization. The assessment of the distant scene is based on computer illustrations which show the predicted temporal change of landscape according to a particular management plan.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Pukkala, E-mail: tp@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5315, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki, Matti Seppälä. (1987). Simulations on the effects of timber harvesting and forest management on the nutrient cycle and productivity of Scots pine stands. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 2 article id 5315. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15472
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; forest management; productivity; fertilization; nitrogen; simulation; rotation; timber harvest; nitrogen cycle
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Effects of varying rotation, thinning, fertilization and harvest intensity on the productivity and nitrogen cycle of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand were studied on the basis of computer simulation. The increasing intensity of management increased the loss of nitrogen in the cycle. Short rotation, associated with early thinning by means of the whole tree harvest, proved to be especially detrimental regarding the productivity of the forest ecosystem. Fertilization associated with thinnings is of great importance in maintaining the productivity of a forest ecosystem during an intensive timber harvest.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown (email)
  • Seppälä, E-mail: ms@mm.unknown
article id 5299, category Article
Shigeru Shimotori. (1986). Private and municipal forests and the forestry planning system in Japan - trends and problems after World War II. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 4 article id 5299. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a27755
Keywords: forest management; forest owners; forest resources; private forestry; Japan; forestry policy; forestry planning system
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In this paper, the author explains the characteristics of the Japanese forestry planning system and points out some of the problems found therein from the viewpoint of the management of privately-owned forests relating to the economic background and governmental policy.

The forestry planning system is a centralizes type of planning, the planning begins at the top and flows downward and outward the periphery. In order to make this planning system an effective instrument, the district forestry planning founded under the system must approach the problem of how to combine the resources of the forest with the district’s inhabitants and the forest owners; and further, the extent of the effective union of the district and the local timber manufacturing must be examined.

  • Shimotori, E-mail: ss@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5298, category Article
Frederick W. Cubbage, Donald G. Hodges. (1986). Public and private technical assistance programs for non-industrial private forest landowners in the southern United States. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 4 article id 5298. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a27754
Keywords: forest management; forest policy; private forestry; United States; forest extension; forest advisory services; forest consulting; forest management plans; supervision
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Non-industrial private landowners hold about two-thirds of the forest land in the southern United States. The types of public (state) and private (consulting and industrial) assistance offered to these owners is reviewed. In total, about 1,600 foresters in the South provide management assistance to non-industrial private forest owners. They assist at least 72,000 owners annually, including provision of management plans for about 10 million acres and supervision of over 4 million acres of leased lands.

  • Cubbage, E-mail: fc@mm.unknown (email)
  • Hodges, E-mail: dh@mm.unknown
article id 5296, category Article
Russell K. Henly, Paus V. Ellefson. (1986). Cost and effectiveness of legal mandates for the practice of forestry on private land. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 4 article id 5296. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a27752
Keywords: forest management; forest policy; forest legislation; private forestry; United States; forest laws; regulation of forest practices; protection of forest resources
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Comprehensive state laws regulating the practice of forest management on private lands are in effect in seven of the United States. Established to protect a wide range of non-timber forest resources and to ensure reforestation after harvest, these laws may impose significant administrative costs on states and significant compliance costs on landowners and timber operators. Total state administration costs for 1984 are estimated at $10.1 and total private sector compliance costs are estimated at $120.5 million, for a total regulation cost of $130.6 million.

The resource protection effectiveness of state forest practice regulation is difficult to quantify. However, agreement is strong that regulation has led to significant improvements in forest resource conditions and has helped to increase reforestation.

  • Henly, E-mail: rh@mm.unknown (email)
  • Ellefson, E-mail: pe@mm.unknown
article id 5293, category Article
Claude Gendreau. (1986). Historical considerations and evolution of the forest policies for small woodlot owners of Quebec. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 4 article id 5293. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a27749
Keywords: forest management; forest policy; Canada; non-industrial forest owners; private forestry; forest programs; timber marketing; small-woodlot forestry
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In order to understand the present forest policies for the small woodlot of Quebec, it is essential to understand the history of settlement of Quebec. Following this brief description, the author introduces the various forest policies (programs) which have been initiated in Quebec by various levels of governments in order to deal with the management of these lands.

  • Gendreau, E-mail: cg@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5260, category Article
The Forest 2000 Programme sub-commitee. (1986). The Forest 2000 Programme in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 1 article id 5260. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15439
Keywords: forest management; forest policy; Finland; timber production; forest industries; annual cut; forestry development; cutting target
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The Forest 2000 Programme is a long-term programme for forestry and the forest industries in Finland. It attempts to obtain a better integration of timber production and other forms of forest use. The total annual cut is to be increased by 15 million m3 by the year 2010. This is almost one third greater than the level during the first few years of the 1980’s. In order to achieve the cutting targets, the cut area will have to be increased by almost one third by the turn of the century. The area of thinnings will experience the greatest increase. Considerable changes are proposed in silvicultural and basic improvement work. According to the programme, the growth of the raw-material base and the consumption of the wood-based products will permit an annual increase of about 3% in the production of the forest industries as a whole until the end of the century. This would be the same as the target growth rate of the GNP.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • The Forest 2000 Programme sub-commitee, E-mail:
article id 5233, category Article
Leo Heikurainen. (1985). Verhopuuston vaikutus kuusitaimikon kehitykseen. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 1 article id 5233. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15412
English title: The influence of birch nurse crop (Betula pubescens) on the growth of Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedling stands on drained peatlands.
Original keywords: kuusi; metsänhoito; kasvu; ojitetut suot; suojapuusto; pakkasvauriot; hieskoivu; verhopuusto; verhopuuston tiheys; verhopuuston poisto
English keywords: forest management; Norway spruce; Picea abies; Betula pubescens; tree growth; frost damages; nurse stand
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Young Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) are susceptible to early summer frost damage. Birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) naturally colonize rich or fairly rich drained peatlands after clear cutting, and can provide protection for developing seedlings. The report describes the development of spruce stands after various types of handing of the birch nurse crops.

Different proportions of birch and spruces did not have any influence on the spruce stand production. In cases where the nurse crop stand is removed when the spruce stand age was 20 years and height 4 m the spruce suffered badly but recovered with time, reaching the spruce stand growing under a nurse stand within the next 20 years. The height growth of spruce depends on the density of the nurse stand, especially on fertile sites. The development of diameter growth also depends on the density of the nurse trees. Removal of the nurse stand in spruce stands on the sites concerned should be done when the spruce stand is 20 years old and at the height of 4 m.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heikurainen, E-mail: lh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5223, category Article
Eino Mälkönen, Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1984). Metsäntutkimus metsätalouden tietopohjana. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 4 article id 5223. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15402
English title: The role of forestry research in providing a scientific basis for practical forestry.
Original keywords: metsätieteet; metsäntutkimus; metsätalous; Suomi
English keywords: forest management; forestry; Finland; forest research; forest sciences
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The Society of Forestry in Finland (now the Finnish Society of Forest Science) arranged on 26th April 1984 a Forestry Science Day centred on the theme ”The role of Forestry Research in Providing a Scientific Basis for Practical Forestry”. Specialists in forestry and forest policy reviewed the role, present situation and future tasks of forest research from different points of view, in their papers. This article includes the talks given in the event in Finnish and an English summary.

  • Mälkönen, E-mail:
  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, E-mail:
article id 5222, category Article
Matti Leikola, Aune Koponen. (1984). Metsätalouden harjoittaminen ja metsien hoito. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 4 article id 5222. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15401
English title: Forestry in Finland. Studia Forestalia 1983.
Original keywords: metsäntutkimus; metsänhoito; metsätalous; luentosarja
English keywords: forest management; forestry; Finland; forest research; course of lectures
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

1983 was the so-called ”Year o the Forest” in Finland. To mark the occasion, the Society of Forestry in Finland (now the Finnish Society of Forest Science) arranged a series of Studia Forestalia lectures which covered, in general form, a wide range of subjects. 12 of the 14 lectures given in this series are included in this edition.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Leikola, E-mail:
  • Koponen, E-mail:
article id 5221, category Article
Aleksandr P. Jevdokimov. (1984). Visakoivun kasvatus Neuvostoliiton luoteisosissa. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 3 article id 5221. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15400
English title: Experiences of curly birch growing in north-western Russia.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; Neuvostoliitto; visakoivu; Neuvosto-Karjala; Leningrad
English keywords: forest management; Soviet Union; Betula pendula var. carelica; curly birch; Soviet Karelia; Leningrad region
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Curly birch (Betula pendula var. carelica (Merklin) Hejtmanek) is widely distributed over north-western part or Russia, including the Baltic Soviet Republics and Belorussia. Experiences of growing this decorative species in Soviet Karelia and Leningrad region are presented. Commonly used classifications of the species are described, and recommendations for management of curly birch cultures and production of planting stock in greenhouses are given.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Jevdokimov, E-mail: aj@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5220, category Article
Peitsa Mikola. (1984). Harsintametsätalous. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 3 article id 5220. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15399
English title: Selection system in timber harvesting in Finland.
Original keywords: kuusi; metsänhoito; harsinta; eri-ikäiskasvatus; eri-ikäisrakenteinen metsä; tasaikäiskasvatus; tasa-ikäinen metsä
English keywords: forest management; Norway spruce; Picea abies; yield; Finland; selection system; even-aged stands; selection cuttings; uneven-aged stands
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This article reviews experiments and practical experience of forest management by the selection system in Finland. In an experiment of 25-year duration the annual growth of uneven-aged Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) stands was only about 50% of the average annual yield of even-aged stands in normal rotation on the same site.

In Finland the selection system is applicable under exceptional conditions only, viz. In intensively managed park stands and, on the other hand, on very marginal sites, e.g. on peat bogs and mountains near the tree-line. Even normal silviculture, however, may include cuttings which somewhat resemble selection system, e.g. removal of standards or restoration of mismanaged forests.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Mikola, E-mail: pm@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5206, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1984). Miten koivuun tulisi suhtautua metsätaloudessa? Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 1 article id 5206. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15385
English title: The proper attitude towards birch in forestry.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; metsätalous; kannattavuus; koivu
English keywords: forest management; Betula; forestry; profitability
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A literature survey based on Nordic literature deals with the biology, use, harvesting and economy of birch (Betula sp.). According to the results, the easily quantified hard facts are against cultivation of birch: lower growth, poorer production of valuable assortments, lower price of pulp, higher planting costs, and higher harvesting and transport costs than for conifers. The soft facts, which may be true, are not easily measured or their importance evaluated: the possible improvement of soil, decreasing risk of insect and fungi attacks, shelter against frost etc. Due to the differences in the nature of the facts the discussion of cultivation of birch will probably continue.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5093, category Article
Ismo Karhu, Seppo Kellomäki. (1980). Väestön mielipiteet metsänhoidon vaikutuksesta maisemakuvaan Puolangan kunnassa. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 4 article id 5093. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15034
English title: Effects of silvicultural practises on the forest landscape. A study on attitudes among inhabitants of Puolanka, north-eastern Finland.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; mielipidetutkimus; metsien virkistyskäyttö; metsämaisema; maiseman arvostus; Puolanka
English keywords: forest management; Finland; recreation; forest landscape; scenic values; attractiveness
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The landscape preferences and attitudes of inhabitants of Puolanka, north-eastern Finland, to the effects of silvicultural practice on the forest landscape were studied by a postal inquiry. The effect of silvicultural practice on the forest landscape was mainly negative. Birch (Betula sp.) stands and mixed coniferous and deciduous tree species were the most preferred by the Puolanka inhabitants. The landscape preferences were related to socio-economic background of the inhabitants. The quality of the living environment also influenced the preferences, since uncommon features in the living environment were favoured most.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Karhu, E-mail: ik@mm.unknown (email)
  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown
article id 5044, category Article
Kullervo Kuusela. (1979). Forest balance on the national level. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 3 article id 5044. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14901
Keywords: forestry; forest management planning; forest balance; utilization of forests
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Forest balance is a comparison between the growing stock volume at the beginning and end of a balance period and the gross increment and drain during that period. The forest balance of Finland during that period 1967-1973 and the increment and drain balance during the period 1953-1977 are used as examples in the paper. Forest balance is a check of the accuracy of basic estimates. If the discrepancy between the calculated growing stock at the end of the balance period and the growing stock estimated by an inventory is great, it calls for improvements in forest inventory methods and timber utilization statistics.

Balance may reveal possibilities for improving the utilization of forest resources. If natural losses are great, increased thinnings and regeneration cuttings of mature and over-mature tree stands increase the supply of timber. If logging losses are great, the efficiency of harvesting should be improved. An overcutting situation calls forth efforts to increase timber production or to decrease the uses of timber in order to avoid overexploitation. If gross increment is greater than the drain there are possibilities to increase harvesting, forest industrial expansion etc.

Forest balance is a way to check and improve the basic estimates of forestry production, to increase the effective use of timber grown in the forest, to commerce policies and measures concerning increment and to control timber utilization on the basis of sustained yield.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kuusela, E-mail: kk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5013, category Article
Matti Leikola. (1979). Tutkimustoiminta Lapin metsien hoidon ja käytön suuntaajana. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 1A article id 5013. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14867
English title: The role of forestry in guiding forest policy and management in Finnish Lapland.
Original keywords: metsäntutkimus; metsänhoito; metsätalous; historia; Lappi
English keywords: forest management; forest policy; forestry; Finland; Lapland; history; forestry research
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The part played by research work in guiding the management and utilization of Lapland’s forests is examined in this publication. The review has been written to mark the 70th anniversary of the Finnish Forestry Society (now the Finnish Society of Forest Science).

The climate in Lapland is very severe and, owing to the lack of experience abroad, forestry has been forced to follow the guidelines set by domestic research activity in Finland. Research work was very active in Lapland the 1910’s, 1920’s and 1950’s, and the main outlines for forestry utilisation were soon established. In the 1950’s, there was a strong trend prevailing to develop forestry, with the result that a change took place in favour of clear-cutting. The cool climate period in the 1960’s caused considerable damage to young plantations. In order to find means to rectifying the situation and to devise new guidelines for forest management, The Finnish Forest Research Institute established a number of research stations in Lapland.

Research activity has had a pronounced effect on the management and utilization of forests in Lapland. Present-day problems have been caused more by the international situation than by difficulties in the management of forests in Lapland.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Leikola, E-mail:
article id 4984, category Article
Jyrki Raulo. (1978). Forestation chain for birch (Betula pendula Roth) in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 1 article id 4984. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14838
Keywords: forest management; Betula pendula; regeneration; silver birch; Finland
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

During the 1970’s an average of 4 million Betula pendula (Roth) seedlings have been planted annually in Finland. The activities connected with the planting of this tree species, the selection of forestation sites, site preparation, planting out the seedlings and follow-up work on the forestation sites are briefly reviewed in the article. The manuscript is based on the studies into the breeding, seedling production and planting techniques of B. pendula started by the Finnish Forest Research Institute already in 1960’s, as well as on practical observations made at the planting sites. A list of some of the Finnish studies concerning B. pendula which have been published in English and studies with a summary in English is included.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Raulo, E-mail: jr@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4982, category Article
Olli Järvinen, Kullervo Kuusela, Risto A. Väisänen. (1977). Metsien rakenteen muutoksen vaikutus pesimälinnustoomme viimeisten 30 vuoden aikana. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 4 article id 4982. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14836
English title: Effects of modern forestry on the numbers of breeding birds in Finland.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; metsätalous; linnusto; lintulajit; luonnonmetsät
English keywords: forest management; natural forests; bird populations; commercial forestry
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Pair numbers of breeding land birds were estimated from line transects data collected in Finland in 1936–76. The changes observed in the bird populations are in this paper compared with data obtained in the Finnish forest inventories, particularly made in 1951–53 and 1971–76. It is concluded that modern forestry has considerable impact on the breeding bird fauna. In general, more species have increased than decreased due to changes in the forests. Areas affected by forestry are more favourable habitats for many species than natural forests, but, on the other hand, there are certain species which are greatly harmed by the effects of modern forestry.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Järvinen, E-mail: oj@mm.unknown (email)
  • Kuusela, E-mail: kk@mm.unknown
  • Väisänen, E-mail: rv@mm.unknown
article id 4961, category Article
Helmut Schmidt-Vogt. (1977). Keski-Euroopan metsänhoidon kehityssuuntia. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 1 article id 4961. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14812
English title: Trends in the forest management in Central Europe.
Original keywords: metsänkäyttö; metsänhoito; virkistyskäyttö; metsien monikäyttö; Keski-Eurooppa; ympäristönsuojelu
English keywords: forest management; forestry; forest management planning; forest utilization; recreation; Germany; Central Europe; Bavaria; environmental management
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In the densely populated Central Europe, forestry has always had different functions than in Scandinavia or Canada. Today the increasing pressures on the environment and more numerous demands of the people have put emphasis on environmental management and the demands of recreation in forest management practiced in the area. This paper outlines the trends in the utilization of forests in Central Europe, and especially in the Federal Republic of Germany, due to these changing targets. The regulations concerning forestry in Baden-Würtenber, and the forest plan of the Bavarian state forests are used as an example to clarify the principals of forest management and planning.

  • Schmidt-Vogt, E-mail: hs@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4945, category Article
Olli Saastamoinen, Jan Heino. (1976). Metsien moninaiskäytön tutkimusaiheita. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 3 article id 4945. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14791
English title: Research topics of multiple-use forestry.
Original keywords: metsäntutkimus; metsänhoito; metsien monikäyttö; metsien talouskäyttö
English keywords: forest management; forest research; multiple use of forests; commercial use of forests
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The purpose of this study was to gain an insight into research problems and themes in multiple use of forests from a practical viewpoint. An inquiry concerning multiple use problems was sent to 597 organizations whose work related to multiple use of forests. Replies yielded 1,857 suggested research themes which were divided between different uses of forests. About half of the suggestions concerned the relations between timber production and the other uses of forests. The many propositions are due to the fact that timber production in its intensity has strong influence on the other uses of forests. The results of the study have been used in the planning of research in the multiple use of forests.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saastamoinen, E-mail: os@mm.unknown (email)
  • Heino, E-mail: jh@mm.unknown
article id 4914, category Article
Antero Piha. (1975). Metsänhoitoyhdistyslain syntyvaiheet. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 1 article id 4914. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14758
English title: The creation of the Act on Forest Owners’ Associations passed in 1950.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; historia; lainsäädäntö; metsänhoitoyhdistykset; yksityismetsänomistajat
English keywords: forest management; legislation; forest organizations; forest owners' associations; private forest owners
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper, which was written already at the turn of the year 1950–51, gives a quite detailed description of the early history of the Act on Forest Owners’ Associations, which was passed on 17 November 1950 and is still in force, of the long-lasting and multifarious preparations involved with it, and of its consideration in the parliament. In most parties there were both supporters and opponents; only the social democrats voted harmoniously for the act and the people’s democrats against it.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Piha, E-mail: ap@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4906, category Article
Lasse Lovén. (1974). Maisemanhoitomallien käyttö metsätalouden maan aluevaraussuunnittelussa. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 3 article id 4906. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14750
English title: Regional landscape planning of forest areas.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; metsänhoitajat; maisemanhoito; asennetutkimus; metsien monikäyttö; puuntuotanto; metsämaisema
English keywords: forest management; Finland; landscape planning; timber production; landscape management; multiple use of forests; forest landscape; attitude studies
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The study deals with economic significance of forest landscape planning models used in regional planning in Finland. The »judge»-method is used among professional foresters working on private forestry boards in Southern Finland to define their view of what would be moderate level of costs of landscape management for private forest owners. A sample of 154 forest professionals working in district forestry boards in Southern Finland was sent a sociological questionnaire.

It was possible to form three hierarchical moderation classes by statistical grouping of judgement distributions. Prolongations in rotation ages and restrictions concerning ditching of forested bogs, forest read building and clear-cutting were considered the most immoderate models. Rather or wholly insignificant were evaluated such management models, which mean restrictions in »old fashioned» methods or which are already used in practice.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lovén, E-mail: ll@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4801, category Article
Rihko Haarlaa. (1969). Puunkorjuun suunnittelu ja metsätaloussuunnitelmat. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 3 article id 4801. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14589
English title: The role of logging in forest management plans.
Original keywords: hakkuu; puunkuljetus; metsäsuunnittelu; puunkorjuu; metsäsuunnitelmat; metsätaloussuunnitelmat
English keywords: logging; timber harvesting; felling; transportation; forest management plan; forest working plan
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The purpose of this study was to answer questions concerning the basic information in planning of timber harvesting, how this information has to be handled, and how the planning of logging has to be combined with other forest management planning.

A deductive research method was used. By analysing a logging plan, prepared for a certain forest area, general conclusions were reached. To prepare the logging plan in connection with the forest management plan, the following information was found to be necessary: boundaries of the area, extent and ownership of the planned area, maps including information of the location of the timber and the conditions for transportation, road network and a reliable picture of the difficulty of the forest terrain.

Based on the material of the present timber harvesting methods it will be possible to predict the logging methods which will be applicable in the near future. The object to be planned has to be divided to operation areas. The amount of manpower and equipment needed can be estimated for each phase of the timber harvesting chain on the basis of the information calculated in this manner. Investments to machines and basic improvement works have to be planned before the effect of planning can be calculated in the logging costs, which are to be minimized. Due to the rapid development of the field, the handling of the material in connection with a forest management plan has to be left partly unfinished since the development of future logging methods cannot be reliably predicted.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Haarlaa, E-mail: rh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4800, category Article
Veli-Pekka Järveläinen. (1969). Metsänhoidolliset mielipiteet ja metsänhoidollinen toiminta maatilametsätaloudessa. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 3 article id 4800. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14588
English title: Opinions about silviculture in farm forestry in Finland, and practical steps taken.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; maatilametsätalous; Suomi; metsänomistajat; asenteet; asennetutkimus; Jämsä; Karstula; metsäneuvonta; mielipidetutkimus
English keywords: forest management; silviculture; Finland; forest owners; farm forestry; attitudes; opinion poll; opinions
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The purpose of this study was to find out about the forest owner’s views on silviculture and any forest management work he had carried out. The data is based on interviews of 289 forest owners in municipalities of Jämsä and Karstula in Central Finland in 1966. The forest owners were a random sample of all males in the municipalities, who alone or together with their wives were in the possession of at least 2 ha of cultivated land and 10 ha of forests.

The forest owners’ attitudes towards silviculture were generally favourable. A common opinion was that money spent on silviculture is a paying proposition (88%), that forest management is better today than it used to be (87%), that cultivation of forests is an economic proposition (81%), and that few owners manage their forests properly unless forced by the law (79%). The need for planning silvicultural measures was also generally accepted (78%).

However, few agreed that the legally imposed silvicultural fee is necessary, that the new silvicultural methods were practicable, or that money he invested in silviculture is profitable to the forest owner. Only 45% agreed that forestry experts have sufficient understanding of the owner’s needs. One third of the forest owners had carried out the following silvicultural tasks: forest cultivation, forest drainage or forest fertilization, on a minimum area of five hectares. Forest cultivation had been carried out by 63%, forest drainage by 44% and forest fertilization by 16% of the respondents. Vast majority (90%) had employed forest experts and a many nearly every year, mainly for marking the trees to be felled.

In the more rural municipality of Karstula, the forest owners’ views towards forestry was more favourable than in the semi-industrialized Jämsä.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Järveläinen, E-mail: vj@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4774, category Article
Pekka Kilkki. (1968). Some economic aspects of growing forest stands. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 4 article id 4774. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14559
Keywords: forest management; fellings; growing shedule; rotation; current gross soil rent; value growth; rent of the growing stock
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of this paper was that of studying the optimum growing schedules of forest stands, with the classic Faustmann formula as starting point. The study is mainly theoretical in nature. The study shows that the net present-value of the future revenues from a forest stand can be calculated, not only by means of the harvesting revenues, but also by a more theoretical concept, here termed the current gross soil rent. The current gross soil rent represents the difference between the current value growth and the rent of the growing stock.

By use of the concepts described here, it is theoretically possible to find the growing schedule for the stand which maximizes the net present-value of the stand. To make the formulae simpler, a one-year period has been adopted for discussion of the concepts involved in determination of the optimum structure and density of the growing stock, and the financial maturity. However, these concepts can be extended to cover periods of any length.

The method for determination of the optimum growing schedule for a forest stand can be summarized as follows: Thin the stand as the internal rate of return on the marginal increase in ’timber capital’ falls below the guiding rate of interest. Clear-cut and regenerate the stand as the internal rate of return on the sum of the ’timber and soil capital’ falls below the guiding rate of interest.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kilkki, E-mail: pk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4733, category Article
Mikko Ilvessalo, Yrjö Ilvessalo. (1966). Suomen pienmetsätalouden tutkimuksessa v. 1930 inventoitujen pienmetsälöiden kehityksestä vuodesta 1930 vuosiin 1963-64. Silva Fennica vol. no. 119 article id 4733. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14291
English title: Development of small forest holdings between 1930 and 1963–64 in Finland.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; yksityismetsät; metsävarat; pientilat; Suomi; pienmetsätalous
English keywords: forest management; Finland; forest resources; private forests; small holdings
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In the 1930s studies showed that state of the standing crop and forests of small private forest holdings in Finland was weak. In 1960s it was regarded necessary to study the possible change in the silvicultural state of these forests. Therefore, sample stands of the small holdings surveyed in 1930 by Osara were surveyed anew in the areas of Karelia and Savo, and in Central Finland in 1963–1964. A line plot survey was combined with ocular estimation as in 1930, but in 1963–1964 the lines and sample plots were placed denser than in 1930 to reach similar number of sample plots.

In 1930 the state of the forests of the small holdings was in average very weak, but according to Osara, the age classes younger than 50 years had similar stand volume than in the all the forests of the southern half of the country. The results of this survey show that the volume, structure, growth and development class structure of the forests in average have improved since 1930. In many respects the forests have reached the average state of forests in the southern half of Finland. The most serious problem is the large proportion of broadleaved trees. Thus, the silvicultural state of the forests should be further improved.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Ilvessalo, E-mail: mi@mm.unknown (email)
  • Ilvessalo, E-mail: yi@mm.unknown
article id 4724, category Article
Seppo Ervasti, Lauri Heikinheimo, Viljo Holopainen, Kullervo Kuusela, Gustaf Sirén. (1965). The development of Finland's forests in 1964-2000. Silva Fennica vol. no. 117 article id 4724. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14282
Original keywords: hakkuut; metsänhoito; metsätalous; puunkäyttö; metsäteollisuus; metsävarat; Suomi; ennusteet; puuntarve
English keywords: forest management; Finland; forest resources; allowable cut; wood utilization; 1964-2000; forecast; removal
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The Economic Council asked Heikinheimo, Holopainen and Kuusela to prepare a report on the development of Finland’s forest resources up to the beginning of the next century. The expansion of forest industry beyond the level foreseen in earlier forecasts, the large-scale removal and neglect of the basic improvements required have weakened the condition of the wood production to such an extent that extensive measures are needed to ensure the continuity of the supply of wood. The results of the calculations are formed in three separately analysed alternatives.

Alternative I: Realisation of the Teho programme and the removal corresponding to it. The development of the growing stock according to the programme would only permit a cut amounting to an annual drain of ca. 51 million m3 up to the year 2000. After that it would be possible gradually to increase the removal. This drain would not itself to utilise fully the already existing production capacity of the industry.

Alternative II: Consequences of the predicted removal if the Teho programme is realised as such. The wood utilization forecast based on the premises given to the team show that the annual drain will grow in 1964–1975 from 52 to 58 million m3, and thereafter by 0.5% annually. This would lead to over-cutting, and exhaust the present growing stock by the turn of the century. If annual total drain of ca. 58 million m3 would after 1975 be sufficient, exhaustion of the growing stock would be postponed for 4–5 years.

Alternative III. Teho programme expanded in conformity with the removal forecast. A new programme is proposed, which includes, among others, large scale fertilization of fully grown firm forest land at about the rate of 100,000 ha/year, intensified artificial regeneration, assurance of the supply of planting stock and seed, increase of forest drainage from the present 155,000 to 250,000 ha/year by 1970, site preparation of the cutting areas for artificial regeneration, increase of tending or seeding stands to 300,000 ha/year, replacement of fuelwood by other fuels, increase of wood import and new forest roads.

  • Ervasti, E-mail: se@mm.unknown (email)
  • Heikinheimo, E-mail: lh@mm.unknown
  • Holopainen, E-mail: vh@mm.unknown
  • Kuusela, E-mail: kk@mm.unknown
  • Sirén, E-mail: gs@mm.unknown
article id 4720, category Article
Veijo Heiskanen. (1964). Aikatutkimuksia koivun karsimisesta. Silva Fennica vol. no. 115 article id 4720. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14279
English title: Time studies in the pruning of birch.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; metsätyö; työntutkimus; aikatutkimus; karsinta
English keywords: forest management; pruning; time studies; forest work; work studies
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

On the basis of time studies on pruning, one thousand stems in four stands was pruned, carried out in 1962. The work was done in two phases with Olli pruning saw, first attached to a shaft about 1.8 metres long and the to a shaft about 4 metres long.

The total time of moving from one stem to another when pruning the stem varied from 0,28 to 0.31 min per stem in the different working sites. The resting time was 19–20% of the effective working time, which included actual pruning time and the moving time. In average, 7.5% of the actual pruning time was unproductive. The actual pruning took in average 0.75–1.1 min/stem in the different sites. The time depended on size of the tree, the DBH, and on the length of the part to be pruned. The total working site time for the pruning was in average 1.34–1.98 min/stem. The output of the work per 7 hours’ working day varied from 226 to 280 stems, and the costs from 10 to 14 pennies per stem.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heiskanen, E-mail: vh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4719, category Article
H. K. Seip. (1964). Methods and possibilities of long-term forecasts in forest management planning. Silva Fennica vol. no. 115 article id 4719. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14278
Original keywords: metsänhoito; metsätalous; metsäsuunnittelu; ennusteet
English keywords: forest management; forest planning; forest management planning; forecasts
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This paper describes different methods of long-term forecasts in forest management planning with a special attention on intention forecasts for a total forest property or district. Methods for calculating the sustained yield on the basis of the actual increment or the yearly area cut are discussed. It is concluded that a better estimate of the sustained yield is obtainable by the application of a long-term forecast technique. Forecasts for 100 years should not be viewed as plans, but as a background for making short-term decisions. Some of the long-term-type programmes, such as the programme of maximum profit, sustained yield in volume and in money are discussed briefly.

It is pointed out that there is often present a conflict between the various elements of the policy formulated by a forest owner. This leads to the conclusion that the calculations of the profitability of single projects may be misleading.

The precision of a long-term forecast is discussed, and how under certain assumptions the error of the allowable cut is influenced by errors in area, volume, age etc. It is shown that the precision in area and volume is more important in this connection than, say, the precision in increment. In conclusion, existing knowledge, methods and equipment for calculations constitute a basis for long-term forecasts which make them an important instrument in forest management planning.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Seip, E-mail: hs@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4717, category Article
Aarne Laitakari. (1964). Suomen metsien tila 1730-luvulla ruotsalaisen geologin ja vuorimiehen, Daniel Tilas’in kuvaamana. Silva Fennica vol. no. 115 article id 4717. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14275
English title: The condition in Finland’s forests in the 1730s as described by Daniel Tilas, a Swedish geologist and mineralogist.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; metsätalous; historia; Suomi; 1730-luku
English keywords: forest management; forestry; Finland; history; 1730s
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The present article reviews a geological report given by Daniel Tilas, a Swedish mining manufacturer, towards the end of the 1730s as the report regards information on the Finnish forests. His report gives at hand that forests in several localities southwest of the region demarcated by the towns of Loviisa, Äänekoskei and Kristiina were seriously diminished or burdened by tar burning and shifting cultivation. Larger saw log stands were found mainly in the scaterly populated parishes of Central Finland. Thus, in the chain of ridges between Orivesi and Ruovesi, covering an area of about 4,000 km2, there was a heavily stocked Scots pine forest, as reported by Tilas.

The report given by Tilas is kept in the files of the Geological Research Institute in Helsinki.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Laitakari, E-mail: al@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4715, category Article
Lauri Heikinheimo, Leo Heikurainen, Viljo Holopainen, Matti Keltikangas, Kullervo Kuusela, Tatu Möttölä. (1963). Metsätalouden parannusten työllisyys- ja tulovaikutukset. Silva Fennica vol. no. 114 article id 4715. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14273
English title: Effects of forest improvement on employment and income.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; metsätalous; metsäpolitiikka; komiteanmietinnöt; metsätyö; työllisyys
English keywords: forest management; forest policy; forestry; Finland; employment; forest work
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The agricultural committee appointed by the Finnish Government in 1958 pointed out a problem that the rural population needed to be ensured employment and earnings from forestry. A forestry study group was called to investigate the effects of forest improvement on employment and income, on four fields: a) forest drainage, b) afforestation, c) thinning of young stands, and d) construction of forest roads. Items a, b and c increase output, and d creates outlets for timber and increases stumpage value.

The study outlined three alternative silvicultural programmes. The Basic Programme corresponds average forest management in Finland in 1953–1959. The Medium Programme can be seen conditional to the realization of the felling plan worked out in a study group Heikurainen-Kuusela-Linnamies-Nyysönen in 1961 in a committee report of Forestry Planning Committee. Finally, according to an Intensive Programme to which forest management, especially afforestation and forest drainage, will be raised to the highest possible level.

The costs of different silvicultural measures of the three programmes were estimated. The allowable cuts were calculated corresponding to the silvicultural programmes for the period 1961–1970 and 2001–2010. After calculating labour input and costs, could the increase in employment and income be estimated for the whole economy, and separately in forestry, communications and industry. When calculating the labour input required for the forest management work and road construction, the probable rise in productivity following mechanization and rationalization has been taken into account.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heikinheimo, E-mail: lh@mm.unknown (email)
  • Heikurainen, E-mail: lh@mm.unknown
  • Holopainen, E-mail: vh@mm.unknown
  • Keltikangas, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown
  • Kuusela, E-mail: kk@mm.unknown
  • Möttölä, E-mail: tm@mm.unknown
article id 4697, category Article
Metsätalouden suunnittelukomitea. (1961). Metsätalouden suunnittelukomitean mietintö. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 110 article id 4697. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14228
English title: Report of the forest planning committee.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; metsätalous; metsäpolitiikka; komiteanmietinnöt
English keywords: forest management; forest policy; forestry; Finland
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The present publication concerns the report of the committee appointed by the Finnish Government to draft a programme or the development of Finnish forestry and increase of its production.

Part I of the paper reviews the development of forestry and forest policy in Finland. After the World War II – following the land settlement – ca. 1.5 million hectares of land, mostly owned by the state, was transferred to private ownership. The committee states that because the division of small farms and land settlement policy private forests have tended increasingly to become small forests. The decrease in size of forest units has interfered development of forestry. In part II, the forest utilization programme for the period 1963–1972 is outlined. In the country, logging in 1953–1958 was carried out on a fairly sustained yield basis. The regional picture is, however, not as good, and in Southern Finland there has been over-cutting.

A long-term logging plan was prepared on the request of the committee. The allowable cut following this plan would suffice the calculated wood requirement for the years 1963–1972. In the part III, the committee introduces a silvicultural program for the years 1963–1972 to increase the yield of wood. The targets of logging, sowing and planting, and silvicultural work are considerably greater than what was achieved in the 1950s. To speed up the realisation of the silvicultural programme, working plans should be prepared on a large scale for forest enterprises, afforestation and forest drainage should be increased, and a national seed storage should be established.

Part IV discusses the forest work situation from the stand point of the realisation of the forest utilisation programme and silvicultural programme. Part V introduces a host of recommendations concerning forest policy and economic policy.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Metsätalouden suunnittelukomitea, E-mail:
article id 4681, category Article
A. G. Blomqvist. (1959). The itineraries of G.A. Blomqvist in 1867-1869. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 100 article id 4681. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14124
Keywords: forest management; forestry; travelogue; travel literature
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The founder of forest management in Finland, A.G. Blomqvist, travelled widely around the country when he was collecting data for growth and yield tables. He wrote detailed itineraries of his travels. He describes in his notes the forests and forest management practices, such as shifting cultivation, tar burning, felling methods and forest regeneration. The notes were a part of his assignment for the Forest Service in addition to the growth and yield tables, and helped to understand the state of the forests at the time.

The Finnish Society of Forest Sciences acknowledges the value of A.G. Blomqvist’s itineraries and decided to publishes them in this issue of Silva Fennica to prevent the texts to be forgotten.

  • Blomqvist, E-mail: ab@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4685, category Article
Metsänhoitoyhdistyslain tarkistamiskomitea. (1959). Metsänhoitoyhdistyslain tarkistamiskomitean mietintö. Silva Fennica vol. no. 98 article id 4685. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9126
English title: Report of the committee set out to revise the Law on Forest Management Associations.
Original keywords: komiteanmietinnöt; lainsäädäntö; metsänhoitomaksu; metsänhoitoyhdistykset; Metsänhoitoyhdistyslaki
English keywords: legislation; Forest Management Associations; committees; forestry fee; Forest Management Association Act
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The Law on Forest Management Associations was passed in 1950. According to the law, forest owners have to pay a forestry fee, which is used to finance local forest management associatons. The effect of the law on Finnish private forestry is considered to be significant.
The number of consulting forest officers has increased by 95% and the labour input by 107% since the law came into effect. Thus, the guidance available for forest owners has increased markedly. 85% of timber cut from private forests are marked by professional foresters, while the share was earlier less than 30%. The amount of forest management work, such as clearing of felling sites, sowing and care of plantations, has also increased.
On the other hand, experience has pointed out a need for revising some points of the law. To this aim, the Government of Finland appointed a committee to outline the ammendments. The present article contains the report of the committee.
The committee suggests that the forestry fee, that according to the present law is 2-6% of the net yield computed for communal income tax, will be changed to 2-5%. Further, forest holding in which the annual increment is less than 20 cu.m. are at the moment exempt from the fee. It is suggested that holdings with an annual increment of less than 30 cu.m. pay half a fee. In addition, the committee suggests some clarifying provisions to be adopted.

The article includes a summary in English.

  • Metsänhoitoyhdistyslain tarkistamiskomitea, E-mail:
article id 4678, category Article
W. Wittich. (1958). Kasvupaikkaopin kehitys ja merkitys metsänhoidolle Saksassa. (Helsingin yliopistossa 26.4.1958 pidetty esitelmä, suomentanut Peitsa Mikola). Silva Fennica vol. no. 96 article id 4678. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9124
English title: Development and significance of the knowledge of site factors and site types in forestry in Germany.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; maaperä; kasvupaikka; kasvupaikkaoppi; Saksa
English keywords: forest management; site type; soil; forest type; site factors; soil science; Germany
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The article is a summary of a presentation by W. Wittich, held in the University of Helsinki in 26.4.1958.
The significance of fertility of the site in tree growh was known already for over 100 years ago in Germany, but after the First World War the view was abandoned in forestry. According to the Dauerwald system of managing forests that was introduced at the time, the type of site was considered relatively insignificant in forest management. Therefore, similar practices were used in all kinds of sites. The opposition against the use of this method resulted in new research on the site factors.
Knowledge of the relation of the site types and vegetation makes it possible to improve productivity: in regional planning the production that is considered to be necessary is assigned to the sites that have best conditions for it. For instance, in Niedersachsen county about 6% of the forest lands are reserved for cultivation of oak.
Another line of soil science studies the root causes behind the hands-on experiences of forest management. The aim is to abandon rigid approaches in forestry. Studying the effects of forest management practices on soil has been targeted, for instance, on effects of clear cutting on decomposition and vegetation, how the soil affects choice of tree species, and decomposition of litter from different tree species. Knowledge of soil and the trees’s demand of nutrients helps to mend disturbancies, such as nutrient deficiensies. Consequently, fertilization has become a new tool to improve productivity in forestry.
The article includes a German summary.

  • Wittich, E-mail: ww@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4658, category Article
Olavi Hyttinen. (1957). Asutustilojen arvopuukysymyksestä. Silva Fennica vol. no. 92 article id 4658. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14059
English title: Valuable timber trees on settlement farms.
Original keywords: hakkuut; metsänhoito; metsäopetus; jatkokoulutus; kotitarvepuu; asutustilat; arvopuu
English keywords: forest management; valuable timber; fellings; forest education; household timber; settlement farms
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silva Fennica Issue 92 includes presentations held in 1956 in the 8th professional development courses, arranged for forest officers working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

When resettlement plots have been established in Finland, a so-called household wood principle used to be used: in addition to fields, the new farm has been given forest land enough to supply it household timber. Trees larger than needed for construction of the farm were considered unnecessary, and the valuable timber trees over certain diameter could be harvested by the surrenderer of the land. This has led to fellings at minimum diameter in contrary to rational forest management. The presentation describes new legislation and directions that aim at correcting the situation.

  • Hyttinen, E-mail: oh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4653, category Article
Metsähallitus. (1957). Metsänhoitajien jatkokurssit : 1956. 8. Silva Fennica vol. no. 92 article id 4653. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13981
English title: Professional development courses for the state forest officers in 1956.
Original keywords: valtionmetsät; Metsähallitus; metsänhoito; metsäopetus; asutustoiminta; metsänhoitajat; jatkokoulutus
English keywords: forest management; Forest Service; forest education; state forests; foresters; forest officers; settlement work
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silva Fennica Issue 92 includes presentations held in 1956 in the 8th professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

 

The issue includes the following presentations; the individual presentations can be found in separate PDFs:

 

Marjanen, T.  Establishment of holdings and supplementary land lots on state land

Lifländer, A. Centralized fellings in North Finland and the settlement question

Väisänen, P.O. Establishment of farms and their profitability with particular reference to agriculture in Northern Finland

Lilja, V. Forestry on settlement farms

Hyttinen, O. Valuable timber trees on settlement farms

Piepponen, P.  Marking of construction and other valuable timber in the forests of settlement farms

Kotiaho, A. Arability research, its execution and information on the result

Karisto, U. Economic viewpoints in the establishment of a farm or a supplementary land lot

Linnamies, O. Calculation of yield value of forest land

Johansson, E. Viewpoints on evaluating settlement farms

Klemetti, V-K. Evaluation of growing stock in the pricing of settlement farms and composition of the total price of a farm

Leino, P.K. Special offices for settlement boards, their employees and the organization of field work

Nieminen, E. Charging for travel, daily allowances and fees in settlement work

 

The issue includes short English summaries of the presentations.

  • Metsähallitus, E-mail:
article id 4652, category Article
Kullervo Kuusela. (1956). Hakkuilla käsiteltyjen koivikoiden rakenteesta ja kasvusta. Silva Fennica vol. no. 90 article id 4652. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9115
English title: On the structure and growth of birch stands treated with cutting.
Original keywords: hakkuut; metsänhoito; metsänarviointi; kasvu; koivu; metsikön rakenne; kasvututkimus
English keywords: forest management; Betula pendula; Betula; Betula pubescens; silver birch; fellings; increment; Betula verrucosa; growth and yield studies
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The study is continuation of the earlier structure and growth studies of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) in Forest Research Institute. The material represents birch stands (Betula verrucosa, now B. pendula, and B. Pubescens L.) in Southern Finland. The stands were treated with different fellings, and in regard to their silvicultural condition classified as good, satisfactory and unsatisfactory. Height of the trees, height of living crown, volume, increment and volume increment and development of stem diameter series was measured.

The most characteristic difference between the silviculturally good and poor stands was that the the annual increment of the good stands concentrated into large size trees, and the increment of unsatisfactory stands into small and inferior trees.

It is concluded that if the aim of stand treatment is to produce large and high quality volume increment, the most favourable stand volume of  birch stands, compared with naturally normal stand volume, seems to be 90-85% at the age of 41-55 years, and 80-70% at the age of 56-65 years. If growth of large size trees is aimed at, the maximum number of the dominant trees per hectares cannot be more than 400 at the age of 50-60 years.

The article includes a summary in English.

  • Kuusela, E-mail: kk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4646, category Article
Paavo Yli-Vakkuri. (1955). Tutkimuksia metsänhoitolautakuntien ja -yhdistysten leimaustoiminnan kehityksestä. Silva Fennica vol. no. 87 article id 4646. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9108
English title: Studies on crop marking of District Forestry Boards and Forest Management Associations.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; yksityismetsät; puukauppa; tukkipuu; leimaus; metsälautakunnat; metsänhoitoyhdistykset; pinotavara
English keywords: logs; silviculture; private forests; timber sales; marking of timber; stacked wood; District Forestry Boards; Forest Management Associations
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Wood demand and practices in the marking of trees for cutting have affected the silvicultural state of the forests of Finland in the early 1900s. The aim of the study was to study the development of timber sales and the marking of trees for logging, with a special emphasis on variation in the volume of the sales and assortment range. The study is based on statistics of the District Forestry Boards and Forest Management Associations about timber marked for cutting in 1931-1953.

The professionals in the District Forestry Boards and Forest Management Associations have marked annually in average 9 million stems of heavy timber and about 7 million m3 of stacked wood for sales. The volume  follows business cycles, the changes in the volume of stacked wood being larger than of heavy timber. When demand was high, the number of professional workers limited the supply of wood. There were large differences in the volumes marked within the country. The share of small diameter stacked wood has increased since 1930s compared to heavy timber.

The article includes a summary in German.

  • Yli-Vakkuri, E-mail: py@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4641, category Article
Metsänhoitolakikomitea. (1953). Metsänhoitolakikomitean mietintö. Silva Fennica vol. no. 83 article id 4641. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9104
English title: Report of the Forest Management Law Committee.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; komiteanmietinnöt; lainsäädäntö; metsän hävittäminen; metsänhoitolaki
English keywords: forest management; legislation; forest devastation; Forest Management Law
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A Committee was appointed in 1946 by the government of Finland to draw a draft to substitute the 1928 Law on Private Forests. The article is a report of the committee, and gives a suggestion to a new Forest Management Law and Forest Management Decree.

The aim of the 1928 law was to prevent devastating fellings. The committee introduces a new concept, duty to tend forests in accord with the principle of progressive forestry. This principle is drafted in the first paragraph of the law: Forest should be so tended, protected and used that, as far as possible, the productive capacity of the soil will be fully utilized and economically profitable, and increasing yield secured.

The proposal also includes measures to prevent devastation, the concept of which has been changed from the previous law. For instance, a cutting which is in disproportion to the growing stock of the forestry holding is considered devastation. Responsibility for the measures to secure regeneration after felling rests with the forest owner if the felling has been carried out in line with sound silvicultural practice. The district forestry boards are suggested to be the organizations that supervise the observance of the law.

The article includes a summary in English.

  • Metsänhoitolakikomitea, E-mail:
article id 4635, category Article
Paavo B. Mansner. (1953). Suometsien hoito. Silva Fennica vol. no. 80 article id 4635. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14051
English title: Forest management of peatland forests.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; metsäopetus; metsäojitus; jatkokoulutus; suometsät
English keywords: forest management; peatlands; forest education; draining of peatlands
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silva Fennica Issue 80 includes presentations held in 1952 in the 7th professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes the factors that limit growth of trees in peatlands, and principles of draining of peatlands.

  • Mansner, E-mail: pm@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4634, category Article
V. K. Ahola. (1953). Valtion metsien nykyiset metsänhoitotyöt. Silva Fennica vol. no. 80 article id 4634. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14049
English title: Forest management in state forests of Finland.
Original keywords: valtionmetsät; Metsähallitus; metsänhoito; hakkuutavat; metsäopetus; jatkokoulutus
English keywords: forest management; Forest Service; forest education; state forests; felling methods
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silva Fennica Issue 80 includes presentations held in 1952 in the 7th professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes history of wood harvesting and logging methods used in the state forests in Finland. The article discusses  the problems caused by, for instance, of light sellection fellings to the silvicultural state of the forests. The silvicultural state of the forest could be improved by introducing silvicultural logging methods, and selection of seed trees to improve the genetic quality of seeds used in regeneration.

  • Ahola, E-mail: va@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4633, category Article
Erkki K. Kalela. (1953). Syrjäisten metsien hoito-ongelmia. Silva Fennica vol. no. 80 article id 4633. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14048
English title: Forest management of remote forest areas.
Original keywords: valtionmetsät; Metsähallitus; metsänhoito; metsäopetus; jatkokoulutus; syrjäseudut
English keywords: forest management; Forest Service; forest education; state forests; remote areas
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silva Fennica Issue 80 includes presentations held in 1952 in the 7th professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes problems specific to forest management of remote forests areas. The growth of the forests in these areas are often low due to, for instance, northern location.

  • Kalela, E-mail: ek@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4629, category Article
Metsähallitus. (1953). Metsänhoitajien jatkokurssit : 1952. 7. Silva Fennica vol. no. 80 article id 4629. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13980
English title: Professional development courses for the state forest officers in 1952.
Original keywords: valtionmetsät; Metsähallitus; metsänhoito; metsäopetus; metsänhoitajat; jatkokoulutus
English keywords: forest management; Forest Service; forest education; state forests; foresters; forest officers
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silva Fennica Issue 80 includes presentations held in 1952 in the seventh professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

 

The issue includes the following presentations; the individual presentations can be found in separate PDFs:

Effects of business cycles on forestry

Forestry related legal cases for forest officers

Practical training of applicants of forest schools in the districts of Forest Service

Forest management of remote forest areas

Forest management in the state forests

Forest management of peatland forests

Mechanization of ground preparation

Review of field experiments on the fitness of certain chemicals for use at seeding

Review of field experiments on the fitness of certain chemicals for use at seeding

 

The article includes an English summary.

  • Metsähallitus, E-mail:
article id 4602, category Article
M. Lappi-Seppälä. (1951). Avaussanat. Silva Fennica vol. no. 69 article id 4602. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13998
English title: Opening words.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; metsäopetus; metsänhoitajien jatkokurssit; metsänhoitajat; jatkokoulutus
English keywords: forest management; forest education; foresters; forest officers
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silva Fennica Issue 69 includes presentations held in 1948-1950 in the fourth professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation includes the opening words for the course by Dr. M. Lappi-Seppälä

  • Lappi-Seppälä, E-mail: ml@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4601, category Article
Metsähallitus. (1951). Metsänhoitajien jatkokurssit : 1948-50. 6. Silva Fennica vol. no. 69 article id 4601. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13979
English title: Professional development courses for foresters 1948-1950.
Original keywords: valtionmetsät; Metsähallitus; metsänhoito; metsäopetus; metsänhoitajien jatkokurssit; jatkokoulutus
English keywords: forest management; Forest Service; forest education; state forests
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silva Fennica Issue 69 includes presentations held in 1948-1950 in the fourth professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

 

The issue includes the following presentations; the individual presentations can be found in separate PDFs:

 

Opening words of the course

Large scale worksite

Use of machines in construction of roads and floating channels

Floating in northern Finland and its challenges

The role of Forest Service in the reconstruction of Northern Finland

Draining operations in the state forests of Perä-Pohjola in Northen Finland

General qualitative requirements for roundwood

Qualitative classification of saw logs based on the use of sawn wood, sorting and test sawing

Classification of saw logs

Benefits of qualitative classification of saw logs

Value grading of Scots pine saw logs

Accuracy of qualitative classification of saw logs

Modern management of personnel

The present stage of rationalization

Accomplishments in timber transportation

Aerial mapping

Use of aerial photographs in state forestry

Use of statistics in forestry

  • Metsähallitus, E-mail:
article id 4588, category Article
Olli Heikinheimo. (1948). Perä-Pohjolan ja Lapin metsätaloudesta. Silva Fennica vol. no. 64 article id 4588. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13990
English title: Forestry in Perä-Pohjola, North-East Finland, and Lapland.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; metsätalous; metsäopetus; Perä-Pohjola; metsänhoitajien jatkokurssit; jatkokoulutus; Lappi
English keywords: forest management; forestry; Lapland; forest education
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silva Fennica Issue 64 includes presentations held in 1947 in the third professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. Two of the presentations were published in other publications than Silva Fennica.

This presentation describes the forests and their silvicultural state in the areas of Perä-Pohjola and Lapland in the Northern Finland. Forest management work needed to improve the silvicultural state of the forests is suggested.

  • Heikinheimo, E-mail: oh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4587, category Article
V. K. Ahola. (1948). Metsänhoitotyöt sotavuosien hakkuiden jäljillä. Silva Fennica vol. no. 64 article id 4587. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13989
English title: Forest management after loggings during the years of World War II.
Original keywords: valtionmetsät; Metsähallitus; metsänhoito; metsäopetus; metsänhoitajien jatkokurssit; jatkokoulutus; sota-aika; toinen maailmansota
English keywords: forest management; Forest Service; forest education; state forests; world war II
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silva Fennica Issue 64 includes presentations held in 1947 in the third professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. Two of the presentations were published in other publications than Silva Fennica.

This presentation outlines the state of state forests after the World War II. The area of the forests had decreased and the loggings to cover the needs of war years had influenced the silvicultural state of the forests. The article lists the forest management work that needs to be done in the state forests in the coming years.

  • Ahola, E-mail: va@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4585, category Article
Erkki K. Kalela. (1948). Luonnonmukainen metsien käsittely. Silva Fennica vol. no. 64 article id 4585. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13987
English title: Ecological forest management.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; metsäopetus; metsänhoitajien jatkokurssit; sukkessio; jatkokoulutus; luonnonmukainen metsänhoito; metsänkäsittelytavat
English keywords: forest management; succession; silviculture; ecology; forest education
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silva Fennica Issue 64 includes presentations held in 1947 in the third professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. Two of the presentations were published in other publications than Silva Fennica.

This presentation describes how the natural processes of forests and succession could be utilized in forest management and silviculture.

  • Kalela, E-mail: ek@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4584, category Article
Olli Heikinheimo. (1948). Metsätaloudelliset näkökohdat ja keskitetyt hakkuut. Silva Fennica vol. no. 64 article id 4584. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13986
English title: Forest management and centralized loggings.
Original keywords: hakkuut; metsänhoito; metsäopetus; metsätyö; metsänhoitajien jatkokurssit; jatkokoulutus; metsäsuunnittelu; hakkuukierto
English keywords: forest management; forest planning; fellings; forest education; felling cycle
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silva Fennica Issue 64 includes presentations held in 1947 in the third professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. Two of the presentations were published in other publications than Silva Fennica issue 64.

This presentation discusses different ways of organizing felling cycle, forest management practices used in the forests of Finnish forest research institute, and how good practices developed in the institue could be applied in state forests.

  • Heikinheimo, E-mail: oh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4583, category Article
Metsähallitus. (1948). Metsänhoitajien jatkokurssit 1947. 5. Silva Fennica vol. no. 64 article id 4583. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13977
English title: Professional development courses for foresters 1947.
Original keywords: valtionmetsät; Metsähallitus; metsäopetus; metsänhoitajien jatkokurssit; metsänhoitajat; jatkokoulutus
English keywords: forest management; Forest Service; forest education; state forests; foresters; forest officers
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silva Fennica Issue 64 includes presentations held in 1947 in the third professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. Two of the presentations were published in other publications.


The issue includes the following presentations; the individual presentations can be found in separate PDFs:

 

Forest management and centralized loggings

Ecological forest management

Forest tree breeding

Forest management after loggings during the years of World War II

Forestry in Perä-Pohjola, North-East Finland, and Lapland

Aspects of sales at delivered price and stumpage sales made by Forest Service

Organizing delivery loggings locally

Estimation of costs of delivery loggings

Licence sales of timber in state forests

Application of labour legislation in forest work

Forest related issues of land acquisition act

Building of forest lorry roads

Planning of new national parks and nature reserves. The presentation is published as a report of nature conservation commission in the annals of the Finnish Association for Nature Conservation

Long distance transport of wood in the economy of districts. The presentation is included in the article Studies on factors influencing intensity of loggings published as Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 55.


The article includes an abstract in German.

  • Metsähallitus, E-mail:
article id 4573, category Article
Metsäopetuskomitea. (1939). Maalaisväestön metsäopetus. Silva Fennica vol. no. 54 article id 4573. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9078
English title: Forest education of rural population.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; metsäopetus; komiteamietinnöt; koulutus; kurssit; maaseutuväestö; nuorisojärjestö
English keywords: forest management; forest education; committee; education; courses; rural population; youth association
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The article is a proposal of a committee, appointed by the government of Finland, to expand the forest education of landowners, concerning use and management of forests. The proposal also outlines a program for a youth association dedicated to forests. The committee proposes that present organizations are used as a basis for the expanding education. The main forms of education suggested were education in public and agricultural colleges, education in forest colleges, forest clubs, forestry study groups and self-study, courses, excursions, exhibitions, competitions and rising of general awareness. Different age groups would be given education adapted to their needs.

The report includes statistics about rural population of Finland in 1938 and detailed description of how the education would be arranged in different parts of the country.

The article includes an abstract in German.

  • Metsäopetuskomitea, E-mail:
article id 4563, category Article
Paavo Aro. (1939). Hakkaustapatilasto. Silva Fennica vol. no. 52 article id 4563. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13970
English title: Statistics of felling methods.
Original keywords: hakkuut; valtionmetsät; Metsähallitus; metsänhoito; tilastot; metsäopetus; metsänhoitajien jatkokurssit; metsähallinto; jatkokoulutus; hakkuutapa
English keywords: forest management; fellings; forest education; statistics; professional development courses; fellingmethods
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silva Fennica issue 52 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1938. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes the use and purpose of statistics about different felling methods compiled in Forest Service.

  • Aro, E-mail: pa@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4562, category Article
V. K. Ahola. (1939). Hoitoalueen työohjelman laatiminen. Silva Fennica vol. no. 52 article id 4562. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13969
English title: Drafting a work program for a district.
Original keywords: valtionmetsät; Metsähallitus; metsänhoito; metsäopetus; metsänhoitajien jatkokurssit; metsähallinto; jatkokoulutus; hoitoalueet
English keywords: forest management; Forest Service; forest administration; forest education; state forests; professional development courses
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silva Fennica issue 52 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1938. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation presents guidelines for preparing an obligatory work program for a district of state forests.

  • Ahola, E-mail: va@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4560, category Article
L. A. Mäkelä. (1939). Piirteitä Länsi-Suomen piirikunnan metsätaloudesta. Silva Fennica vol. no. 52 article id 4560. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13967
English title: Forestry in conservancy of Western Finland.
Original keywords: valtionmetsät; Metsähallitus; metsänhoito; metsäopetus; metsänhoitajien jatkokurssit; metsähallinto; jatkokoulutus; Länsi-Suomi
English keywords: forest management; Forest Service; forest administration; forest education; state forests; professional development courses; Western Finland
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silva Fennica issue 52 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1938. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes the reform of localized forest administration executed in 1923 and describes in detail forest management in the conservancy of Western Finland.

  • Mäkelä, E-mail: lm@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4559, category Article
A. A. Räsänen. (1939). Metsien uudistamisesta Perä-Pohjolassa. Silva Fennica vol. no. 52 article id 4559. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13966
English title: Forest regeneration in Northern Finland.
Original keywords: hakkuut; metsäopetus; metsänviljely; metsänhoitajien jatkokurssit; jatkokoulutus; maanmuokkaus; metsänuudistaminen; Lappi; yli-ikäiset metsät
English keywords: forest management; Norway spruce; Picea abies; regeneration; fellings; forest education; professional development courses
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silva Fennica issue 52 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1938. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes the state of forests in Northern Finland, and suggests that fellings are targeted at the oldest forests until the over-presented over-aged forest are harvested. The preferred regeneration method is natural regeneration in most forest types.

  • Räsänen, E-mail: ar@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4553, category Article
Viljo Kujala. (1939). Luonnonsuojelusta. Silva Fennica vol. no. 52 article id 4553. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13960
English title: Nature conservation.
Original keywords: metsäopetus; metsänhoitajien jatkokurssit; luonnonsuojelu; luonnonsuojelulaki; rahoitus
English keywords: forest management; forest education; professional development courses; nature conservancy; Nature Consercvation Act
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silva Fennica issue 52 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1938. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes how need to conserve nature has been recognized in Finland, suggest ways how conservation of nature could be regarded in forest management and describes how it is regulated at present.

  • Kujala, E-mail: vk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4552, category Article
V. T. Aaltonen. (1939). Puiden juuristot ja metsänhoito. Silva Fennica vol. no. 52 article id 4552. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13959
English title: Root systems of trees and forest management.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; metsäopetus; metsänhoitajien jatkokurssit; juuristo; kasvupaikkatyypit
English keywords: forest management; forest education; forest site type; professional development courses; root system
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silva Fennica issue 52 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1938. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes growth and form of root systems of different tree species in different sites and how growth of roots affect forest management.

  • Aaltonen, E-mail: va@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4548, category Article
Metsähallitus. (1939). Metsänhoitajien jatkokurssit 1938. 4. Silva Fennica vol. no. 52 article id 4548. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13955
English title: Professional development courses of foresters in 1938.
Original keywords: valtionmetsät; Metsähallitus; metsänhoito; metsäopetus; metsänhoitajien jatkokurssit; metsänhoitajat; jatkokoulutus; hoitoalueet
English keywords: forest management; Forest Service; forest administration; forest education; state forests; professional development courses; foresters; forest officers
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silva Fennica Issue 52 includes presentations held in the third professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the public administration in 1938. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. 

 

The issue includes the following presentations; the individual presentations can be found in separate PDFs: 

 
Greetings by Mauno Pekkala 

National Pensions Act and withholding of salary 

Assessment of forest growth 

Root systems of trees and forest management 

Nature conservation 

Timber measurement legislation 

Car transportation of timber and its significance to forestry in state forests 

Forestry and tourism 

Charcoal burning 

Experiences in forest management of Hylocomnium-Myrtillus site type forests 

Forest regeneration in Perä-Pohjola in northern Finland 

Forestry in the conservancy of Western Finland 

The right to use property belonging to someone else 

Preparation of a works program of a district 

Statistics of felling methods 

Bookkeeping and maintenance of equipment in forest administration 

Reservation of valuable timber-trees in connection to settlement activities 

Views on road and path network 

Maintenance of drainage systems and forest management of forests in drained peatlands 

Regeneration of burned areas 

Forest management of Norway spruce forests 

 

The article includes a German summary. 

  • Metsähallitus, E-mail:
article id 4541, category Article
Toivo J. Komsi. (1938). Rikoslaki ja metsä. Silva Fennica vol. no. 46 article id 4541. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13950
English title: Criminal law and forests.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; metsäopetus; metsänhoitajien jatkokurssit; lainsäädäntö; metsälaki; rikoslaki
English keywords: forest management; Forest Act; legislation; forest education; professional development courses; criminal law
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silva Fennica issue 46 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1937. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. 

This presentation describes how criminal law affects the use of forests.

  • Komsi, E-mail: tk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4538, category Article
V. Huuhtanen. (1938). Piirteitä Itä-Suomen piirikunnan metsätaloudesta. Silva Fennica vol. no. 46 article id 4538. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13947
English title: Forestry in the county of eastern Finland.
Original keywords: valtionmetsät; Metsähallitus; metsänhoito; metsätalous; metsäteollisuus; metsäopetus; metsänhoitajien jatkokurssit; Itä-Suomi
English keywords: forest management; forestry; forest industry; Forest Service; forest education; state forests; professional development courses; eastern Finland
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silva Fennica issue 46 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1937. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. 

This presentation describes forest management in the state forests in the county of Eastern Finland.

  • Huuhtanen, E-mail: vh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4537, category Article
M. Lappi-Seppälä. (1938). Sekametsien kasvatuksesta. Silva Fennica vol. no. 46 article id 4537. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13946
English title: Management of mixed forests.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; metsäopetus; metsänhoitajien jatkokurssit; sekametsä
English keywords: forest management; mixed forests; forest education; professional development courses
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silva Fennica issue 46 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1937. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. 

This presentation describes management of mixed forests.

  • Lappi-Seppälä, E-mail: ml@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4535, category Article
A. A. Räsänen. (1938). Aluehallinnon töiden järjestelystä. Silva Fennica vol. no. 46 article id 4535. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13944
English title: Organization of work in regional administration.
Original keywords: valtionmetsät; Metsähallitus; metsänhoito; metsäopetus; metsänhoitajien jatkokurssit; metsänhoitajat; hoitoalueet; metsäsuunnittelu
English keywords: forest management; Forest Service; forest administration; forest education; state forests; professional development courses; foresters; forest officers; districts
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silva Fennica issue 46 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1937. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. 

This presentation describes planning and organization of work in regional administration.

  • Räsänen, E-mail: ar@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4533, category Article
Olli Heikinheimo. (1938). Harvennushakkauksista. Silva Fennica vol. no. 46 article id 4533. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13942
English title: Thinning of forest stands.
Original keywords: hakkuut; metsänhoito; metsäopetus; metsänhoitajien jatkokurssit; harvennushakkuu
English keywords: forest management; thinnings; fellings; forest education; professional development courses
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silva Fennica issue 46 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1937. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. 

This presentation describes principles of thinning of forest stands. 

  • Heikinheimo, E-mail: oh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4527, category Article
R. Tuhti. (1938). Suomen valtion toiminta maa- ja metsätalouden edistämiseksi. Silva Fennica vol. no. 46 article id 4527. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13936
English title: Promotion of agriculture and forestry in Finland.
Original keywords: valtionmetsät; metsänhoito; metsätalous; metsäopetus; maatalous; metsänhoitajien jatkokurssit; metsänhoitajat; valtionavut; valtiontuki
English keywords: forest management; forestry; subsidies; Forest Service; forest administration; forest education; agriculture; professional educational courses; public-sector funding
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silva Fennica issue 46 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1937. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. 

 
This presentation discusses the means Finland has used to promote agriculture and forestry in the country. 

  • Tuhti, E-mail: rt@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4526, category Article
Mauno Pekkala. (1938). Tervehdyssanat. Silva Fennica vol. no. 46 article id 4526. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13935
English title: Greetings by Mauno Pekkala.
Original keywords: valtionmetsät; Metsähallitus; metsäopetus; metsänhoitajien jatkokurssit; metsänhoitajat; jatkokoulutus
English keywords: forest management; Forest Service; forest education; state forests; professional development courses; foresters; forest officers
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silva Fennica issue 46 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1937. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. 

This presentation includes the greetings of Mauno Pekkala for the courses.

  • Pekkala, E-mail: mp@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4525, category Article
Metsähallitus. (1938). Metsänhoitajien jatkokurssit 1937. Silva Fennica vol. no. 46 article id 4525. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13934
English title: Professional development courses of foresters in 1937.
Original keywords: valtionmetsät; Metsähallitus; metsänhoito; metsäopetus; metsänhoitajat; jatkokoulutus
English keywords: forest management; Forest Service; forest administration; forest education; professional development courses; foresters; forest officers
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silva Fennica Issue 46 includes presentations held in the third professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the public administration in 1937. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

The issue includes the following presentations; the individual presentations can be found in separate PDFs:

Greetings by Mauno Pekkala

Promotion of agriculture and forestry in Finland

Calculating the annual financial performance of a forest district and a county

Forest regeneration and soil

Afforestation of drained peatlands

Settlement in compliance to the Land Settlement Act in the state lands and role of a forest officer in management of the settlement work

Economy of a regional district and road network

Thinning of forest stands

Clearing of a felling area

Organization of regional administration

Inspection of forest regeneration of mineral soil forest types and drained peatlands, and inspection of ditches

Management of mixed forests

Forestry in the county of eastern Finland

Wildlife management

Fish farming and management of fishing grounds

Criminal law and forests

Factors to consider in forest regeneration

Forest regeneration in poor forest sites

Production of forest tree seedlings

  • Metsähallitus, E-mail:
article id 4545, category Article
Metsänhoidon edistämiskomitea. (1938). Yksityismetsätalouden edistäminen. Silva Fennica vol. no. 45 article id 4545. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9070
English title: Promotion of private forestry in Finland.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; yksityismetsätalous; metsälaki; metsänhoitolautakunta; metsänhoitomaksu; metsänhoitoyhdistys
English keywords: forest management; forest taxation; legislation; private forests; forest owners’ association; forestry board
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The government of Finland appointed a commission to study how the work of forest owners’ associations could be promoted. In 1936 there was 232 forest owners’ associations in Finland. They had 20,632 members, who owned 1,841,304 hectares of forests. The owners of large forest holdings were overpresented among the members. The associations together with forestry boards were important actors in increasing the productivity of the private forests.

The commission concluded that rational forest management should be extended to all private forests, which could be best achieved through the forest owners’ associations. It suggested that the membership should remain voluntary, and that the financing of the associations would be arranged by self-taxation of the forest owners. The so called forest management tax should be devoted to the local forest owners’ associations. Also the state should continue to support the associations. Both state and the smallest forest holdings would be released from the forest management tax. The companies, estates and other large forest owners that employ their own forest management staff would pay a quarter of the tax. The tax could be based on the area of the forest, income of the timber sold or a combination of these. The commission suggested a forest management law, which would deal with the forest management tax and the forest owners’ associations.
The PDF includes a summary in Swedish and English.

  • Metsänhoidon edistämiskomitea, E-mail: mhek@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4520, category Article
V. K. Ahola. (1937). Valtionmetsien metsänhoitotöistä. Silva Fennica vol. no. 42 article id 4520. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14098
English title: Forest management in state forests.
Original keywords: valtionmetsät; Metsähallitus; metsänhoito; metsätalous; metsäopetus; metsänhoitajien jatkokurssit
English keywords: forest management; forestry; forest education; state forests; professional development courses; forest districts
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silva Fennica issue 42 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1936. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service

This presentation describes forest management in state forests in Finland.

  • Ahola, E-mail: va@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4513, category Article
Martti Tertti. (1937). Kuusimetsien uudistushakkauksista. Silva Fennica vol. no. 42 article id 4513. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14091
English title: Regeneration felling of Norway spruce stands.
Original keywords: kuusi; metsänhoito; metsäopetus; metsänhoitajien jatkokurssit; kasvatushakkuu; kuusikko; päätehakkuu
English keywords: forest management; Norway spruce; Picea abies; fellings; forest education; professional development courses; intermediate felling
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silva Fennica issue 42 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1936. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service

This presentation describes the principles of reneneration felling in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst) stands.

  • Tertti, E-mail: mt@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4510, category Article
O. J. Lakari. (1937). Hoitoaluehallinnon tehostamisesta. Silva Fennica vol. no. 42 article id 4510. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14088
English title: Improving efficiency of the administration of state forests in Finland.
Original keywords: valtionmetsät; Metsähallitus; metsänhoito; metsäopetus; metsänhoitajien jatkokurssit; hoitoalue
English keywords: forest management; Forest Service; forest education; state forests; professional development courses
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silva Fennica issue 42 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1936. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service

This presentation describes the productivity of forestry and administration in different districts of state forests in Finland, and how the efficiency of the administration could be improved.

  • Lakari, E-mail: ol@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4504, category Article
Metsähallitus. (1937). Metsänhoitajien jatkokurssit 1936. 2. Silva Fennica vol. no. 42 article id 4504. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14082
English title: Professional development courses for foresters in 1936, 2nd course.
Original keywords: metsäopetus; metsänhoitajien jatkokurssit; metsänhoitaja
English keywords: forest management; forest administration; forest education; professional development courses; foresters; forest officers
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silva Fennica Issue 42 includes presentations held in the second professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the public administration in 1936. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

The issue includes the following presentations; the individual presentations can be found in separate PDFs:

Greetings of A.K. Cajander

Principles of economic policy

Main points of the new legislation concerning settlement policy and land settlement in the state forests

Administration in the rural municipalities

Interaction of forestry and agriculture in the national economy of Finland

Improving effectivity in the administration of state forests

Implementation of new legislation on parcelling out land in the state lands

Principles of determining stumpage prices

Regeneration fellings of Norway spruce stands

Revenue and expenditure of rural municipalities

Principles of forest taxation

Use of pruning to produce good-quality timber

Effects of forest drainage on water management

Unemployment problem

Personnell maintenance in forest work and floating

Forest management in state forests

  • Metsähallitus, E-mail: mh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4503, category Article
Metsähallitus. (1937). Metsänhoitajien jatkokurssit 1935. Silva Fennica vol. no. 39 article id 4503. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8997
English title: Professional development courses for foresters in 1935.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; metsäopetus; metsänhoitajien jatkokurssit; metsähallinto; metsänhoitaja
English keywords: forest management; forest administration; forest education; foresters; forest officers
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silva Fennica Issue 39 includes presentations held in professional development courses in 1935 that were arranged for foresters working in public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

The issue includes the following presentations; the individual presentations can be found in separate PDFs:

Practical forest inventory methods

Preparation of national budget in forestry administration

Peatlands’ suitability to draining

Statistics of wages in forest work and floating

Forest management planning

Parceling out new farms in state forests

Facilitating natural regeneration

Promoting self-sufficiency in food supply of the farms in the remote areas of Finland

Forest nurseries in Finland

Administration in the forest districts of Forest Service

Building and maintenance of roads

Practices of forest drainage work

Artificial regeneration of forests

Travelling guidelines and travel invoices in forest administration

Forestry statistics

Peatlands suitable for agriculture in state lands, and the factors affecting drainability of the peatlands

Planning of wood harvesting in Forest Service

Road units and right of way in village roads

Quality of coniferous forests and the value of timber

Use and accounting of funds of Metsähallitus (Forest Service)

Production of good quality timber

Planning and renovation of buildings

Observations on forest management work in state forests
  • Metsähallitus, E-mail: mh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4502, category Article
V. K. Ahola. (1937). Havaintoja viimeaikaisista metsänhoitotöistä valtionmetsissä. Silva Fennica vol. no. 39 article id 4502. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13912
English title: Observations on forest management work in state forests.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; metsäopetus; kylvö; valtion metsät; metsätyö; metsänhoitajien jatkokurssit; istutus; kasvatushakkuu; taimikon perkaus; kulotus
English keywords: forest management; silviculture; planting; forest education; state forests; sowing; forest work; professional development courses; cleaning of sapling stand; broadcast burning
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The issue 39 of Silva Fennica includes presentations held in professional development courses in 1935 that were arranged for foresters working in public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level.

This presentation describes the forest management work in the state forests.

  • Ahola, E-mail: va@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4500, category Article
Erkki Laitakari. (1937). Laatupuun kasvattamisesta. Silva Fennica vol. no. 39 article id 4500. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13910
English title: Production of good quality timber.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; metsäopetus; metsänhoitajien jatkokurssit; puun laatu; metsänkasvatus
English keywords: forest management; silviculture; forest education; professional development courses; quality of timber
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The issue 39 of Silva Fennica includes presentations held in professional development courses in 1935 that were arranged for foresters working in public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level.

This presentation describes methods of forest management that lead to production of qood quality timber, needed in the saw industry.

  • Laitakari, E-mail: el@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4484, category Article
O. J. Lakari. (1937). Metsätaloussuunnitelmat. Silva Fennica vol. no. 39 article id 4484. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13894
English title: Forest management planning.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; metsäopetus; metsänhoitajien jatkokurssit; hakkuusuunnitelma
English keywords: forest management; forest education; professional development courses; cutting plan
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silva Fennica Issue 39 includes presentations held in professional development courses in 1935 that were arranged for foresters working in public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes forest management planning in the state forests.

  • Lakari, E-mail: ol@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4471, category Article
V. Lihtonen. (1933). Metsätalouden metsänhoitoteknillinen tarkkailu : pääasiassa yksityismetsätaloutta silmälläpitäen. Silva Fennica vol. no. 30 article id 4471. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9043
English title: Forestry bookkeeping from the point of view of private forestry.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; metsätalous; yksityismetsätalous; metsätalouden kirjapito
English keywords: forest management; private forestry; forestry bookkeeping; financial accounting of forestry
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

As the use and value of forests have increased, forests have been managed more as a business. Financial bookkeeping defines the production costs of wood, costs of forest management work, investments in forest improvement, taxes and administrative costs, income from the sales of forest products etc. Bookkeeping reports the annual costs and income in the forestry, but does not give information of the future profits or appropriate organization of the economy of forestry.

The author introduces a system that he calls “metsänhoitoteknillinen tarkkailu” (silvicultural monitoring), which would give economic information of the forestry, and could also replace a forest management plan in the private forests. The bookkeeping system will list in detail the volumes and areas of fellings and silvicultural measures in different years, and deduce the sustainability of the use of forests and future incomes in forestry.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Lihtonen, E-mail: vl@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4469, category Article
Paperipuun-vientikomitea. (1933). Paperipuukysymys. Silva Fennica vol. no. 28 article id 4469. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9041
English title: The pulpwood question.
Original keywords: kuusi; vienti; kauppapolitiikka; komiteanmietinnöt; kuitupuu; paperiteollisuus; raakapuu
English keywords: forest management; Norway spruce; Picea abies; paper industry; wood consumption; wood export
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A Commission was appointed to examine the significance of pulpwood exports from the political-economic and social point of view. A survey was made of the development of woodworking industry in Finland. The article includes a detailed review on paper industry in Finland and abroad, pulpwood resources in Finland and outlook of the industry. The export of pulpwood was significant in 1925-1927, the most important country being Germany. The commission notes that It would be more profitable to refine the wood into more expensive products. It does, however, not see it necessary to restrict export of pulpwood. If restrictions are considered necessary, prohibition of export is a better way than export duties.

The best way to promote domestic paper industry is to increase the supply of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.). Measures are suggested to increase the productivity of the forests through forest improvement. The annual increment of spruce is calculated to cover the consumption in near future, provided the export of pulpwood does not amount to 600,000 m3, and the local demand of pulpwood does not exceed 7.8 million m3 annually. The Commission proposes that state ownership of forests is increased, forest management is intensified, and restrictions of forest industry to acquire forest land are removed.

It suggests also reliefs in taxation and import duties on fields related to transport, and equipment and raw materials needed by the paper industry.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Paperipuun-vientikomitea, E-mail: pv@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4463, category Article
Erkki K. Cajander. (1932). Tietoja metsänviljelystoiminnasta Suomessa 1923-1930. Silva Fennica vol. no. 22 article id 4463. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9019
English title: Artificial forest regeneration in Finland in 1923-1930.
Original keywords: metsänparannus; metsänhoito; metsänistutus; kylvö; valtion metsät; yksityismetsät
English keywords: forest management; planting; state forests; private forests; forest improvement; sowing
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The article is a review on early forest regeneration and management in Finland. Beginning of the 1900s marks change in attitudes and resources for forest management. The state increased the funding of forest regeneration and improvement in the state forests in 1928. State funding is directed also to forest improvement in the private forests, and organizations established to promote forest management in the private forests are reorganized. For instance, District Forestry Boards were appointed the forest improvement work in private lands, in addition to promotion of private forestry. Sowing increased in the state forests from 772 ha to 1,566 ha, in forests of the forest companies from 3,006 ha to 4,954, and in private forests from 1,417 ha to 1,566 ha in 1923-1926. The figures of private forests are, however, incomplete. The most usual methods are patch sowing and broadcast sowing on snow. Seeds used in sowing increased from 3,357 kg to 14,387 kg, and planting from 413 ha to 1,020 ha in 1923-1930. Almost half of the sown areas were in the state forests, and most of the planted area in the forests of the companies. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was the main tree species in artificial regeneration, and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) was more popular in planting.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Cajander, E-mail: ec@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4454, category Article
C. C. Böcker. (1929). Silviculture in the Northern countries. Silva Fennica vol. no. 13 article id 4454. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8987
Original keywords: metsänhoito; Pohjoismaat; Ruotsi; hakkuutavat; metsäpolitiikka; metsänhoidon historia
English keywords: forest management; forest policy; silviculture; Nordic countries; Sweden; felling methods; history of silviculture
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The article gives a review on the history of forest management in the Northern countries. The article concludes that in the Northern Countries with their immense supplies of forest and small demand, because of sparse population, there was no hurry for developing the study of forest economics, as was the case in Central Europe. It was only when the modern wood using industry had revolutionized the marketing conditions, that the opportunity was provided for forest economics to develop. The paper introduces the book ’Om skogarnas skötsel in Norden’ (Silviculture in the Northern Countries) written by a Finn C.C. Böcker. That paper was compiled in behalf of a request of the king of Sweden, King Carl XIV Johan, who offered a price to a person who would draw a scheme for organizing forestry in Sweden, where Finland at that time belonged to. The prize was divided by Böcker and a swede, af Ström.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish and English and the original text in Swedish.

  • Böcker, E-mail: cb@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4447, category Article
Oiva Johannes Lakari. (1927). Valtion metsätalouden tehostaminen. Silva Fennica vol. no. 6 article id 4447. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8395
English title: Work for greater efficiency in the state forestry.
Original keywords: valtionmetsät; Metsähallitus; metsänhoito; metsätalous; kannattavuus
English keywords: forest management; forestry; profitability; Forest Service; state forests
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The article proposes a plan to improve the efficiency of forest management in the state forests in Finland. The forests are situated mostly in Northern Finland. In 1926 the state forests covered 39.5% of the total land-area of the country, 13,580,611 hectares in total. A proportion of 52.3% of the land was productive forest land, 21.4% forest land of poor growth and 24.8% waste land. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). predominated 56.9%, Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) 30.5% and Betula sp. 11.9% of the productive forest land. The fellings have mainly been selective fellings of sawn timber, because the demand for small timber was small. Due to this, there is lack of seedling and young stands. Metsähallitus (Forest Service) has been able to increase the sales of small timber by increasing delivery loggings over standing sales. The net profit of state forestry was 136 million marks in 1929.

Several factors have had negative impact on profitability of state forestry: Major part of the forests are situated in Northern Finland, they are of poorer quality than the private forests, and they are located unfavorable in terms of wood demand. The means to improve financial result of state forest include expanding transport network, such as railroads and floating channels. The yield of the forests can be substantially increased by draining peatlands, improving the effectivity of forest management and increasing the proportion of delivery loggings. Changing the silvicultural practices alone is estimated to increase the productivity of the forests by 50–100%. However, the costs of the peatland draining and silvicultural work are high, and direct profits can’t be expected until later.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lakari, E-mail: ol@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4439, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1927). Some aspects of forest research work. Silva Fennica vol. no. 4 article id 4439. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8387
Keywords: forest management; forest mensuration; forest site type
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The article highlights the need to classify the forest sites in objective and exact classes. This is important both from a practical and a scientific point of view as well as from a silvicultural point of view, for the forest management varíes for each tree species, and according to the site, even if the species remains the same. It is evident that the same classification of sites according to quality ought to be applicable to silviculture, forest mensuration and statistics. In Finland, a forest site type rating has been created for this purpose.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Cajander, E-mail: ac@mm.unknown (email)

Category: Article

article id 7183, category Article
Kauko Hahtola. (1967). Maatilametsätalouden yhteys taloudelliseen ja sosiaaliseen ympäristöön. Silva Fennica vol. 84 no. 2 article id 7183. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7183
English title: Farm forestry and its socio-economic environment.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; yksityismetsät; maatilat; maatilametsätalous
English keywords: forest management; mechanization; private forests; farms; farm economy; farm forestry
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The purpose of this study is to reveal the links between farm forestry and its economic and social environment. The second-stage factor analysis used was based on factor scores per municipality, representing the dimensions of total farm operation and of its economic and social environment. The population was 17 municipalities or groups of municipalities in the South Karelian Forest Board district.

The conclusions of the results are directly applicable only to the ideal types presented. A socio-economic environment marked by industrialization detrimentally affects both the standard of forest management, as assessed subjectively by field workers, and the productivity of logging, as measured by labour input/m3 of output. This finding holds good even despite the modernization of forest management indicated by the adoption of renewal cuts.

The clearest negative factor for forestry is the irrational distribution of forest holdings. This impedes the rationalization of forest management and the efficiency of loggings. Extensive scattering of forest holdings also delays the mechanization of logging. The spread effects of industrialization relate to a higher level of forest management and labour productivity of logging. Family farming links up closest with features that enhance the importance of the forest to the farmer. Such features include regularity and size of delivery cuts.

Centralized agriculture, mainly village settlement areas, displayed the poorest forest management. Problem farms are typified by small farm units, unemployment and a low degree of forest management.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hahtola, E-mail: kh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7174, category Article
Pentti Alho. (1967). Pohjois-Pohjanmaan rannikkokuntien maanjako-olot metsätalouden kannalta. Silva Fennica vol. 82 no. 1 article id 7174. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7174
English title: Influences of partitioning of land in forestry in the municipalities of northern Ostrobothnia in Finland.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; kannattavuus; yksityismetsätalous; metsämaa; metsätilat; tilakoko; maanjako
English keywords: forest management; profitability; private forests; forest holdings; partitioning of land; size of woodlots
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Farm forestry in northern Ostrobothnia has met different kinds of obstacles that decrease its profitability, some national, some local. One of the later is partitioning of land. The purpose of this investigation was to survey the division of farm land in the coastal municipalities of northern Ostrobothnia in Finland, where the conditions are among the most unfavourable in the country in this respect. The material used in the investigation was collected in a previous study about the structure of the farms in the area. First part of the paper summarises the history of partitioning of land in Finland.

The results show that division of the woodlots of a farm are in the coastal municipalities of northern Ostrobothnia very disadvantageous for forestry. The average distance of a woodlot to the farmhouse is 8.3 km, but there is a great variation between the municipalities, and the distance varies from 30 to 1.9 km. The form of the lots, as the long ribbon-like woodlots in the municipality of Liminka, complicates often practical forestry. In addition, the number of separate woodlots is high, in average 9.2 per farm.

The great distance of the woodlots from the main farms hinders the use of forests and diminishes the financial result of forestry. Unfavourable form of the woodlots posts similar hindrances to harvesting of timber and forest management as the long distances and high number of separate plots. The problem is heightened by the abundance of peatlands in relation to productive forest lands in the area.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Alho, E-mail: pa@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7140, category Article
Päiviö Riihinen. (1963). Metsänhoidon tason vaihtelu Suomen maatilametsälöillä : tutkimus metsänhoitolautakunnittaisten erojen taloudellisista ja sosiaalisista tekijöistä. Silva Fennica vol. 75 no. 6 article id 7140. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7140
Original keywords: metsänhoito; metsäpolitiikka; yksityismetsätalous; alueelliset erot; harsintahakkuut
English keywords: forest management; forest policy; private forestry; regional differences; selection cuttings
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The forest management practices in Finland are closely related to the industrial history in the country. The selection cutting method used previously has now been gradually disappearing, and differences in the quality of forest management can still be observed between different owner groups. The national forest inventories indicate that farm woodlots show the poorest silvicultural state among the ownership categories. This study analyses social and economic causes responsible for variation in the silvicultural state of farm woodlots managed jointly with a cultivated land holding. The study is based on the data of third national forest inventory in Finland, and a factor analysis was calculated using the data.

Although the model developed explains more than a half of the total variance of the level of silviculture, only less than third of this is clearly explained by economic and social factors. The remaining two thirds are explained by the ’nature factor’, which includes both economic and site factors. This affects the effect of different kinds of forest policy measures. Of the variables in the model, the strongest influence in the level of silviculture have income, size of woodlot, size of land area under cultivation and distribution of forest types. The differences in the level of silviculture between different woodlots and different districts, may be explained by the theory of cumulative process. Regional differences in economic phenomena cannot be explained without taking into consideration the social value hierarchy in each region, which determines the range of variation of economic variables.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Riihinen, E-mail: pr@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7496, category Article
Aarne Nyyssönen. (1959). Finnish research in the fields of forest mensuration and management in 1909-1959. Silva Fennica vol. 70 no. 6 article id 7496. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7496
Keywords: forest management; Finland; forest mensuration; forest reseach
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This article is a review of Finnish forest research in the fields of forest mensuration and management during the previous 50 years. Of the studies special attention deserves the development, structure and growth of growing stock and forest survey. The development during the past half century has led to the differentiation of forest mensuration into a few independent fields of knowledge. Fields closely connected with forest mensuration are photogrammetry and statistical methods.

The article is published in Finnish in separate PDF Acta Forestalia Fennica vol 70 no 5.

  • Nyyssönen, E-mail: an@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7495, category Article
Aarne Nyyssönen. (1959). Metsänarvioimistieteellinen tutkimus Suomessa vuosina 1909-1959. Silva Fennica vol. 70 no. 5 article id 7495. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7495
English title: Finnish research in the fields of forest mensuration and management in 1909-1959.
Original keywords: metsäntutkimus; Suomi; metsänarvioimistiede
English keywords: forest management; Finland; forest mensuration; forest research
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This article is a review of Finnish forest research in the fields of forest mensuration and management during the previous 50 years. Of the studies special attention deserves the development, structure and growth of growing stock and forest survey. The development during the past half century has led to the differentiation of forest mensuration into a few independent fields of knowledge. Fields closely connected with forest mensuration are photogrammetry and statistical methods.

The article is published in English in separate PDF Acta Forestalia Fennica vol 70 no 6.

  • Nyyssönen, E-mail: an@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7494, category Article
Peitsa Mikola, Esko Kangas, Leo Heikurainen. (1959). Silvicultural research in Finland from 1909 to 1959. Silva Fennica vol. 70 no. 4 article id 7494. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7494
Keywords: forest management; Finland; forest research
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This paper is a review on the silvicultural research in Finland, researchers and the main subject of the research within the previous 50 years. The task of silvicultural research is to serve forest management work and create a foundation for the practical operations, on one hand, and to answer to the constantly arising questions in the practice of forest management, on the other.

It can be said that the forestry as an independent branch of science began in 1909. At first the research was primarily biological, dealing with both the foundations and practices of silviculture. The main subjects are divided to forest sites and vegetation, biology of trees and stand, and methods of forest management.

The article is published in Finnish in separate PDF Acta Forestalia Fennica vol 70 no 3.

  • Mikola, E-mail: pm@mm.unknown (email)
  • Kangas, E-mail: ek@mm.unknown
  • Heikurainen, E-mail: lh@mm.unknown
article id 7493, category Article
Peitsa Mikola, Esko Kangas, Leo Heikurainen. (1959). Metsänhoitotieteellinen tutkimus Suomessa vuosina 1901-1959. Silva Fennica vol. 70 no. 3 article id 7493. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7493
English title: Silvicultural research in Finland from 1901 to 1959 .
Original keywords: metsäntutkimus; metsänhoito; Suomi
English keywords: forest management; Finland; forest research
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This paper is a review on the silvicultural research in Finland, researchers and the main subject of the research within the previous 50 years. The task of silvicultural research is to serve forest management work and create a foundation for the practical operations, on one hand, and to answer to the constantly arising questions in the practice of forest management, on the other.  

Forestry as an independent branch of science began in 1909. At first the research was primarily biological, dealing with both the foundations and practices of silviculture. The main subjects are divided to forest sites and vegetation, biology of trees and stand, and methods of forest management. 

The article is published in English in separate PDF Acta Forestalia Fennica vol 70 no 4. 

  • Mikola, E-mail: pm@mm.unknown (email)
  • Kangas, E-mail: ek@mm.unknown
  • Heikurainen, E-mail: lh@mm.unknown
article id 7487, category Article
Olavi Linnamies. (1959). Valtion metsät sekä niiden hoidon ja käytön yleissuunnitelma. Silva Fennica vol. 68 no. 5 article id 7487. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7487
English title: The state forests of Finland and a general management plan for them based on an inventory made in 1951-1955.
Original keywords: valtionmetsät; Metsähallitus; metsänhoito; metsävarat; metsäsuunnitelma; hoitosuunnitelma; VMI; valtakunnan metsien inventointi
English keywords: forest management; National Forest Inventory; Finland; forest resources; state forests; forest management plan
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The distances between the lines in the line survey in the first two National Inventories of Finland were too long to supply data for every State Forest district. Consequently, the Third National Forest Inventory offered an opportunity to supplement the inventory for State Forests in 1954 and 1955, and to gather data on forest resources of the State Fforests. On the basis of the results, a management plan for the State Forests was drafted. The first part of the paper describes the inventory procedure and results of the inventory, the second deduces future cuttings and a forest management programme.
In 1955 the total land area of the State Forests was 9.49 million ha. Drained peatlands cover 126,000 ha, drainable peatlands 798,000 ha and undrainable peatlands 2,621,000 ha. The average volume of growing stock in all State Forests was 55.2 m3/ha, including productive and unproductive forest land. The average increment in all State Forests was 1,39 m3/ha on productive land and in all lands in average 1,14 m3/ha.
Cutting budgets for the progressive yield were prepared by checking the silvicultural cut and estimating the allowable cut. They were made by age classes, developmental stages and for each region. The stock development was forecasted for a period of 40 years. In average the allowable cut was larger during the first decade than during the second. Allowable cut was estimated by the tree species and by timber assortments. The management plan included future forest management work, such as intermediate fellings, regeneration fellings, site preparation, artificial regenereation, tending of seedling stands, and draining of peatland.
The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Linnamies, E-mail: ol@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7467, category Article
Matti Nuorteva. (1956). Hakkuiden vaikutuksesta kaarnakuoriaisten esiintymiseen eräällä metsäalueella Etelä-Hämeessä. Silva Fennica vol. 65 no. 4 article id 7467. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7467
English title: Effect of fellings on bark beetle population in a forest area in Southern Finland.
Original keywords: hakkuut; kuusi; metsänhoito; hyönteistuhot; kaarnakuoriaiset
English keywords: forest management; bark beetles; Norway spruce; Picea abies; fellings; insect damage
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Bark beetle populations live usually in a balance in natural forests, and outbreaks occur seldom. The populations have been found to increase in managed forests. Fellings affect the structure of the forests, which influence the living conditions of the insects, and produce material for reproduction. In this study the occurrence of bark beetles was studied in a forest area in Etelä-Häme in Southern Finland using line plot survey.

The forests in the area were Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) dominated. Over third of the 140 sample plots studied were in forests which had never been cut or it was over ten years to the last logging. Bark beetles of 26 different species were found in 66 of the sample plots. The most common species was six-toothed spruce bark beetle (Pityogenes chalcographus L.), which was due to the abundance of growth material suitable for the species in the area. New species in the area were common double-eyed spruce bark beetle (Polygraphus polygraphus L.), Pityophthorus micrographus L., and Dryocetes-beetle (either Dryocetes autographus or D. hectographus). The fellings increased the occurrence of beetles. The amount and quality of logging residue affected the abundance of the insects.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Nuorteva, E-mail: mn@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7427, category Article
Toivo J. Komsi. (1954). Metsänhoitolain kaavailua sotatalvena 1944. Silva Fennica vol. 61 no. 15 article id 7427. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7427
English title: Draft proposals for a forest management act in Finland drawn up in the wartime winter of 1944.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; yksityismetsät; lainsäädäntö; metsänhoitolaki; yksityismetsälaki
English keywords: Finland; legislation; private forests; Private Forest Act; forest management act; forest managment
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A state committee report proposing the enactment of a Forest Management Act has recently been published in Finland. The act is intended to be considerably more binding on forest owners than the present law concerning private forests which it would replace. The author assumes that the publication will raise a keen discussion that will ensue pro and contra the proposed law. The article includes a review of the first draft for a Forest Management Act prepared in the wartime winter of 1944. At that time the then minister of forestry N.A. Osara and professor Eino Saari had studied the draft. The former commented the act to the author by saying that after the return of peace the forests would have to be prepared to be restored to good condition, using radical measures if necessary. He foresaw that a proposal for the forest management law might meet with some resistance, but thought it was important enough to be forced through nevertheless. Professor Saari pointed out that bearing in mind that hardly any other country in the world is dependent upon her forests to such a decree as Finland, the requirement expressed in the draft (forests must be managed with a view to the most advantageous return as regards tree species, quality and quantity) must be considered justified. The author hopes that despite the prevailing resistance foreseen by Osara, a law will be enacted to correct the situation under the present law which tends to leave the management of our forests to the mercy of arbitrary decisions.

The Silva Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari‘s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Komsi, E-mail: tk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7425, category Article
Emil Vesterinen. (1954). Metsämainostuksen rakenteesta. Silva Fennica vol. 61 no. 13 article id 7425. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7425
English title: The structure of promotion of forestry.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; metsätalous; valistus; metsänhoidon edistäminen
English keywords: forest management; forestry; promotion; propaganda
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The goal of improving forest management and doubling the yield of forests in Finland is a great task that requires law, encouragement, written propaganda, practical advice and purposeful work in the forests. In addition, it requires idealistic promotion and education of the citizens. The article discusses the nature and scope of forest propaganda. Different means of forest propaganda and promotion, such as lectures, films, newspapers, magazines, forest literature, stamps, placards and posters, excursions, exhibitions, fairs, forests along the main roads, competitions, education of youth etc are discussed, and their usefulness assessed.

The Silva Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari‘s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Vesterinen, E-mail: ev@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7418, category Article
Paavo Yli-Vakkuri. (1954). Neuvontajärjestöjen ammattimiesten suorittamista leimauksista varsinaisissa yksityismetsissä. Silva Fennica vol. 61 no. 6 article id 7418. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7418
English title: Marking trees for cutting by professionals of advisory organizations in private forest in Finland.
Original keywords: hakkuut; yksityismetsät; metsänhoitoyhdistys; leimaus; metsänhoitolautakunnat
English keywords: fellings; private forests; crop marked for cutting; Forest Management Associatios; Regional Forestry Boards
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The archives of the advisory organizations for private forest owners in Finland, Regional Forestry Boards and Forest Management Associations, include statistics of fellings in private forests. This investigation assesses felling areas and proportion of different kinds of fellings in 1945-1952 based on the statistics. The statistics does not include fellings where the trees have been marked by a forest owner.

The total area marked annually for cutting was in average 498,300 ha. As there is 1,24 million ha of private forests in Finland, the marking gives opportunity to improve the silvicultural state of private forest relatively quickly. The share of regeneration fellings has increased after the Second World War in many parts of the country. The result indicates that the annual cuttings in private forests have corresponded the amount of fellings that has been estimated necessary according to the National Forest Inventory. There are, however, big differences between different parts of the country.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Yli-Vakkuri, E-mail: py@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7400, category Article
P. S. Tikka. (1949). Perä-Pohjolan koivikoiden laadusta. Silva Fennica vol. 57 no. 4 article id 7400. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7400
English title: Quality of birch (Betula sp.) stands in the northernmost Finland.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; koivu; Betula sp.; laho; laatu; koivikko
English keywords: forest management; birch; quality; decay; defects; stand quality
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The quality of birch (Betula sp.) stands in Perä-Pohjola in Northern Finland is low due to the harsh environment, unsuitable sites for the species and unsatisfactory silvicultural state. A total of 236 sample trees were felled and measured in 8 sample plots. The trees were over 80 years old.

Only third of the stand volume of birch in the stands had adequate quality for merchantable timber. This is due to birch growing often in sites unsuitable for the species, the low density of the stands, the small average size of stems, and the low amount of large sized trees. These problems may contribute to the fact that birch seem to be susceptible to decay. The trees have often grown from sprouts, which leads often to poor stem form and decay. The volume and quality of both pure and mixed birch stands was sufficient only in the most fertile sites. Also, decay was more common in poor sites.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Tikka, E-mail: pt@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7397, category Article
Erkki K. Kalela. (1949). Ecological character of tree species and its relation to silviculture. Silva Fennica vol. 57 no. 1 article id 7397. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7397
Keywords: forest management; succession; tree species; pioneer species; ecological succession; climax species; development of stands
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The tendency of successional development from young vegetation, rich in species and exposed to chance factors, towards regular plant communities, is found all around the world. Thee ecological groups of trees seem to be present in all forest regions in the world, namely the pioneer and the climax species, and a group of pre-climax species that can be ecologically either near the pioneer or the climax species. The succession of tree species in forest always leads to a climax stand, determined by climate, quality of soil and the mutual biotical strengths of the tree species in the region.

This division into ecological groups greatly facilitates choosing among different methods of treating stands and understanding the silvicultural methods of foreign regions. Stands formed by species of the same group must follow the same lines in their silvicultural treatment. For instance, mixed stand consisting of both pioneer and climax species represents a transition stage, in which the climax species strive for dominating position, and preservation of pioneer species is difficult. This indicates the broad lines for management of the stand. Also, regeneration methods of pioneer and climax species must be different. Studying the succession of natural forests can be used as a means to reach the highest possible silvicultural level. This is one reason why the preservation and study of virgin forests still in existence is indispensable.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kalela, E-mail: ek@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7389, category Article
P. S. Tikka. (1947). Perä-Pohjolan kuusikoiden laadusta. Silva Fennica vol. 55 no. 1 article id 7389. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7389
English title: Quality of Norway spruce stands in Peräpohjola in Northern Finland.
Original keywords: kuusi; metsänhoito; kuusikko; Peräpohjola; vikaisuus; laho; laatu
English keywords: forest management; Norway spruce; Picea abies; northern Finland; quality; decay
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The different kinds of injuries in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stands was studied in 52 sample plots in Peräpohjola in the northernmost Finland. The age classes of the stands varied from 100 years to over 220 years. Most of the stands were unevenaged, as is usual in the area.

In the younger age classes (121-160 years) majority of the trees were of normal quality or had smaller injuries in all forest types. In age classes over 160 years the trees of merchantable quality decreased markedly in all forest types. The quality of the trees decreases with the age especially because of butt rot, braking of trees and crooks, forks and heart and top decay caused by the injuries. To ensure future quality it would be important that the stand is healthy from the beginning. When old spruce stands of the area are in large extent diseased by the root rot, it is questionable if they can be regenerated using natural regeneration. The spruce stands of the area are also relatively branchy. This could be prevented by growing the young stands dense. Changing the dominant tree species to Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in the dry upland forest sites could be a way to improve the quality of the forests in the area.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Tikka, E-mail: pt@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7383, category Article
Esko Kangas. (1946). Kuusikoiden kuivumisesta metsätuho- ja metsänhoidollisena kysymyksenä. Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 5 article id 7383. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7383
English title: Drying of Norway spruce stands as forest damage and forest management issues in Finland.
Original keywords: kuusi; metsänhoito; metsätuhot; hyönteistuhot; kuusikko; sienitaudit; juurikääpä; laho; kuivuminen; maannousema
English keywords: forest management; Norway spruce; Picea abies; root rot; forest damage; insect damage; fungal diseases
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Observatons of drying of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stands increased in 1930s in Southern Finland. The aim of the study was to analyse the advance and causes of drying. The work was begun in 1930s before the Second World War, and the damages caused to the forests by the war was used as supplemental observations in the study. A special method, drying analysis, was developed to study the process. It was used both in cases of insect and fungal diseases in the four research areas in Raivola and Ruotsinkylä. In addition, 7 observation areas were studied.

Several causes for drying of the trees were observed in the Norway spruce stands. These included European spruce bark beetle (Dendroctonus micans), root rot (Heterobasidion annosum), pine weevils (Pissodes sp.), bark beetles and honey fungus (Armillaria mellea).

The role of primary and secondary causes for drying, resistance of the trees and the drying process are discussed. Finally, the influence of forest management in drying process is analysed. Forests in natural state can be considered to be in an ideal balance. On the other hand, forest management can be used to maintain the vitality and resistance of the forests. Drying of Norway spruce stands can be taken into consideration when the stands are managed.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Kangas, E-mail: ek@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7382, category Article
V. Lihtonen. (1944). Piirteitä metsätalouden järjestelyn rakennusmuodoista Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 4 article id 7382. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7382
English title: Review on forest management in Finland.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; metsätalous
English keywords: forest management; forestry
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The article gives a detailed review on the history and principles of forest management in Finland from the 19th century to the beginning of 21th century. Organized forest management begun in Finland in the middle of 19th century. The first method applied in Finland was based on annual cutting area and mainly used in state forests. By the beginning of 20th century saw-timber selection became the most usual felling method. Gradually the main principle changed to forest management by stands and revision of forest working plan.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Lihtonen, E-mail: vl@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7380, category Article
Olavi Linnamies. (1944). Eri suuruisten yksityismetsälöiden metsävaroista ja metsien tilasta. Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 2 article id 7380. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7380
English title: Forest resources and condition of the forests in forest holdings of various sizes.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; yksityismetsät; metsätilat; metsälön koko
English keywords: forest management; private forests; forest holdings; size of forests
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of the investigation was to study the effect of size of a forest holding to its forest resources or state and quality of the forests. The data was collected in the second national forest inventory in Finland, carried out in 1936-1938. The study focuses on farms in two areas in Southern Finland: provinces of Pohjois-Häme and Satakunta, and provinces of Uusimaa and Kaakkois-Häme.

In 1938 about 53% of forests in Finland were owned by private forest holdings, the sizes of which varied from under 5 ha to over 1,000 ha. About 75 % of the holdings were under 50 ha. After 1918 the number of private forest holdings increased markedly, mainly due to settlement and tenant farmers gaining ownership to their farms.

The smaller the forest holdings were, the poorer was the silvicultural state of the forests and the smaller the standing stock. When the area of the forest holding increases, also the volume of the standing stock per hectare, the number of timber-trees, and average size of the timber trees increases. This is due to larger proportion of older age-classes and somewhat better forest management. Fellings have usually been stronger in the smaller forest holdings. The poor state of the forests originates often from use of the forests before the present ownership, such as slash and burn culture, grazing and cutting wood for household use. To improve the state of the forests, education and forest improvement practices are needed.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Linnamies, E-mail: ol@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7365, category Article
Eric Appelroth. (1942). Om behovet av periodiskt återkommande inventering av enskilda skogsbruk. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 12 article id 7365. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7365
English title: Requisite for periodical inventories of private forest holdings in Finland.
Keywords: forest management; forest inventory; inventory; forestry; forest owners; private forests
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The article discusses the state of forest management of private forests and the need to awaken the forest owners for sustainable use of forests. According to the latest national forest inventory in Finland, only 15% of forests had good productivity, 50% had satisfactory and 35% low productivity. This is partly due to the forest owners’ insufficient knowledge on efficient forest management and the actual value of their forest. If the forest owners should have information of the wood resources of their forests in the level production, value and what kind of wood assortments it can in the future produce, there would be a pressure for more efficient forest management. The writer suggests that inventory of private forest holdings larger than, for instance, 25 hectares should be conducted in each municipality. The inventory could be performed in 10% of the forests each year. In this way the forests would be surveyed every 10 years. The information could also be used in taxation of forests. The best method to conduct the survey would be a line survey combined with circular sample plots.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Appelroth, E-mail: ea@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7355, category Article
Olavi Linnamies, Erkki Rautvuori. (1941). Suomen kaupunkikuntien metsät. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 2 article id 7355. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7355
English title: Forests owned by urban municipalities in Finland.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; metsätalous; kuntatalous; metsämaa; kaupunkikunnat
English keywords: forest management; forestry; forest land; forest resources; urban municipalities; municipal economy
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

According to the 1st national forest inventory of Finland, municipalities owned 178,000 hectares of forests in 1922, about 0.7% of the total forest area of the country. Only 60,000 hectares of these belonged to urban municipalities. The amount had increased to 73,000 hectares by 1938. Although the area was small, forests were important for municipal economy. The aim of this study was to investigate the state and forest management practices of forests in urban municipalities. The data was collected mainly by interviewing the authorities of the municipalities in 1936-1938.

Forests covered 50-80% of the area of the urban municipalities, the total area varying from 111 hectares to 7,791 hectares. Only four municipalities owned more than 5,000 hectares of forests. Annual profit of forestry in all urban municipalities totalled about 4.6 million Finnish marks in 1931-1935. Quality of productive forest lands was relatively good, but the volume and growth of the forests rather low. The silvicultural state of the forests could be improved. The article points out that this requires continuous planning. The basis of this is forest management plan, which has been demanded of municipal forests since 1893. However, some of the urban municipalities still lacked a forest management plan, or it was not fully used in forest management.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Linnamies, E-mail: ol@mm.unknown (email)
  • Rautvuori, E-mail: er@mm.unknown
article id 7354, category Article
P. S. Tikka. (1940). Puiden vikanaisuuksien merkitys ja huomioon ottaminen Perä-Pohjolan mäntymetsien hoidossa. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 1 article id 7354. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7354
English title: The effect of injuries in trees on forest management of Scots pine stands in Northern Finland.
Original keywords: Pohjois-Suomi; metsänhoito; mänty; sienitaudit; vikaisuus; latvuskerrokset; tervasroso
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; forest management; Scots pine; Cronartium flaccidum; pathogens; crown class; injuries; diseases; Scots pine blister rust
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of the study was to find out what are the causes of damage in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands and the frequency of different kinds of injuries, which are then discussed in relation to the silvicultural state and management of the stands in comparison to ideal forests. Sample plots were studied in over 80-year old Scots pine dominated stands in mineral soil sites of different forest types in Northern Finland in the area of Perä-Pohjola. 10–40 trees were chosen as sample trees in each sample plot. The sample trees were felled, and the diameter, height of crown and injuries outside and inside of the stem were recorded.

Length of knot-free part of the stem was higher in the dominant trees and in older age classes of the trees. The form of the stem becomes broader and rounder with the age. The crowns are, however, longer in Northern Finland compared to Southern Finland. In management of Scots pine stands, all trees diseased by Scots pine blister rust (Cronartium flaccidum) should be removed. The disease is common in Northern Finland, and the number of diseased trees increases as the stands get older. Decay was more common in trees that had fire wounds. In general, injuries decreased the length and diameter growth of the trees. From the dominant trees should only injured and diseased trees removed in the thinnigs. Codominant trees can be left to grow when spare trees are needed to replace missing dominant trees. Detailed instruction of selection of the removed trees are given for each age class.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Tikka, E-mail: pt@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7353, category Article
M. Lappi-Seppälä. (1940). Suomen evankelisluterilaisten seurakuntien kirkollisvirkatalojen metsät ja metsätalous. Silva Fennica vol. 49 no. 6 article id 7353. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7353
English title: Forestry and forest holdings of the residences of Evangelical Lutheran parishes in Finland.
Original keywords: Metsähallitus; metsänhoito; metsätalous; kirkollismetsät; virkatalo
English keywords: forest management; forestry; Forest Service; forest income; parish
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Residences of priests in Evangelical Lutheran parishes in Finland, and the forest holdings belonging to them, have been received in different ways. Some have been donated to the church, some belonged originally to the state, and some have been parceled out from the lands of local farmers. The forests holdings were, therefore, not considered to be property of the church. The use of the forests was limited, and they were managed by a forest management plan under supervision of Metsähallitus (Forest Service). The aim of the study was to survey the extent of forests properties of the parishes, how they have been managed, and their incomes to the parishes in 1933-1938.

The 784 residences had 217,600 hectares of forests. The forest holdings of the residences were larger than private forests in general. Also the forest resources, as well as the stocks of standing timber were larger than in private forests. The growing stock has grown further, because increment has exceeded the fellings. The fellings and income of the forestry had been increasing. At the same time, the costs of forestry were increasing. The forest holdings were divided unevenly between the parishes. About 15% of the parishes had no forest income, while the annual income of 10% of them was over 100,000 Finnish marks. In average, the forest income coverd 21.8% of all income of the parishes. Thus, the amount of forest income influenced the height of the church taxes.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Lappi-Seppälä, E-mail: ml@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7348, category Article
E. E. Metsäpelto. (1940). Suomen yhteismetsät. Silva Fennica vol. 49 no. 1 article id 7348. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7348
English title: Jointly owned forests in Finland.
Original keywords: isojako; lahjoitusmaa; asutusyhteismetsät
English keywords: forest management; forest ownership; settlement joined forests
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The shared forests of the villages were generally parceled out to farms in the general parceling out of land (isojako) in Finland, that begun in 1775. The state established also jointly owned forests, mostly in the beginning of 2000th century when land was donated for landless population. Some have been established voluntarily. Act on Jointly Owned Forests was enacted in 1925 to ensure proper management of the forests. It contains instructions of administration of the forests.

A survey was conducted to study the conditions of the jointly owned forests. The forests, a total of 37,843 ha, are distributed evenly over the country. Average size of settlement jointly owned forests in Southern Finland are 314 ha, initial jointly owned forests in Southern Finland 1,726 ha, settlement joined forests in the county of Oulu in Northern Finland 592 ha, and initial joined forests in Northern Finland 1,268 ha. The forest lands are poorer than in other private forests. The most common age class is 41-80 years in Southern Finland and 61-120 years in the north. The forests resources were larger in the initial joined forests than in the settlement joined forests when the joined forests were established. In settlement joined forests fellings were smaller than the increment, while in initial joined forests fellings were slightly larger than the increment. Joined forests have given the owners rather good and regular income, which has probably been larger than if the forests had been managed as farm forests. Joined forests have, therefore, met their objectives.

The PDF includes a summary in German.
  • Metsäpelto, E-mail: em@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7330, category Article
Erkki K. Kalela. (1936). Tutkimuksia Itä-Suomen kuusi-harmaaleppä-sekametsiköiden kehityksestä. Silva Fennica vol. 44 no. 2 article id 7330. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7330
English title: Studies on the development of mixed forest of Norway spruce and grey alder in Eastern Finland.
Original keywords: Picea abies; metsänhoito; alikasvos; sekametsä; kaskeaminen; juuristokilpailu; Alnus incana
English keywords: forest management; root competition; mixed stand
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Shifting cultivation, practiced earlier in Finland, was beneficial for grey alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench). It can produce seeds early and the early growth of the seedlings is fast. Areas where shifting cultivation was intensive, the areas next to the fields were pure alder stands, next circle was Betula sp. dominated, beyond that could be found Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), and finally Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.). When shifting cultivation ended, Norway spruce became more common. Many young mixed stands had Norway spruce undergrowth and alder overgrowth. The aim of the study was to find out how the stands develop to spruce dominated stands, and how they should be managed.

The density of spruce undergrowth affects the further development of both spruce and alder. The number of alder stems decreases the faster the denser the spruce undergrowth is. Alder overgrowth slow down the early diameter and height growth of spruce compared to pure stands. Also the diameter and height growth of alder remains smaller in mixed stands. The basal area of spruce develops slowly in the beginning, increases significantly by the age of 30, and surpasses the growth of pure spruce stands in Oxalis-Myrtillus site type. Thus, Norway spruce do not suffer from growing in the undergrowth. In the first years, fast growing alder seedlings limits growth of ground vegetation and protects spruce seedlings from frost.  Later thinning or removal of alder benefits spruce growth. The density of spruce undergrowth decides how much alder can be leaved in the stand. If the spruce undergrowth is thin, more alder can be left in the stand.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Kalela, E-mail: ek@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7328, category Article
A. Benj. Helander. (1936). Anton Gabriel Blomqvist ja hänen aikalaisensa. Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 2 article id 7328. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7328
English title: Anton Gabriel Blomqvist and his contemporaries.
Original keywords: metsänhoidon historia; metsäopetus; Evon metsäopisto
English keywords: forest education; Evo Forest Institute; history of forest management
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The article is a biography of Dr. Anton Gabriel Blomqvist, who was the head of Evo Forest Institute in Southern Finland in 1874‒1903. He developed higher forest education in Finland, and continued his career as forest scientist alongside his work in the forest institute. His works include growth and yield tables for the main tree species of Finland. His had also big influence in the development of forest management in the country. The article describes also the work of several of his colleague.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Helander, E-mail: ah@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7312, category Article
V. R. Toijala. (1934). Yksityismetsätalouden edistäminen ja valvonta Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 40 no. 35 article id 7312. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7312
English title: Promotion and supervision of private forestry in Finland.
Original keywords: metsänparannus; yksityismetsätalous; yksityismetsälaki
English keywords: forest management; private forests
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The state of Finland controls the private forestry by legislation and by promoting forest management. The initial reason for regulating the private forestry in the 1600s was to prevent forest devastation and the decrease of the forest resources in the country. The Private Forest Act came into effect in 1929. It required that regeneration of the forest is cared for after fellings and that an announcement is given of planned fellings. There are several organizations to promote private forestry and advice the private forest owners, for instance, District Forest Boards, Central Forestry Association Tapio and the Forest Management Associations. It is concluded that the Private Forest Act and the organizations have fulfilled their objectives.

  • Toijala, E-mail: vt@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7305, category Article
P. Kokkonen. (1934). Maanjakotoimituksessa syntyvien palstojen muodosta metsätalouden kannalta. Silva Fennica vol. 40 no. 28 article id 7305. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7305
English title: Conditions of forestry in land plots formed in the parceling of land.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; maanjako; tilajako; metsäpalsta
English keywords: forest management; forest ownership
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The shape of land lots formed in parceling of land has been affected by many variables. It is an important economic factor when the land is used in forestry or agriculture. The report concentrates on the larger farms with relatively large forest holdings. In the general parceling of the land that started in the middle of 1700s, the allotted plots were often long and narrow, and the width of the plot could be 20‒50 meters. Later these farms may have been further parceled.

Narrow plots are difficult to manage from the forestry point of view. For example, it is not possible to build a forest road in the plot, and wood harvesting is difficult. To use natural regeneration for a specific tree species is impossible, because the seed trees in the adjacent plot are so near. When the boundaries are long and the properties narrow, there is bigger risk for felling trees on the land of the neighbour. The optimal form for a plot is rectangle which is 3‒6 times longer than its width. Local examples of parceling and the effects of the shape of the plots are given in the article.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Kokkonen, E-mail: pk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7298, category Article
V. T. Aaltonen. (1934). The development of a forest stand and the growth factors. Silva Fennica vol. 40 no. 21 article id 7298. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7298
Keywords: forest management; light; forest stand; growth factor; water
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Water and amount of light are the most important growth factors and the article discusses their relationship. It is knows that the more space is needed by a tree the worse the site is. The number of stems varies between tree species. Common understanding is that amount of light is decisive to self-thinning and regeneration of a stand. On a good site the adequacy of water may substitute the lack of light. However, the fertility of soil and moisture content is more important than light.

The question of the importance of light, soil fertility and water content, as well as their relationship is important when optimizing the forest management.       

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish.  

  • Aaltonen, E-mail: va@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7296, category Article
T. Rancken. (1934). Erfarenheter om asken som skogsträd i Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 40 no. 19 article id 7296. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7296
English title: Experiences of cultivation of ash as a forest tree in Finland.
Keywords: forest management; Finland; Fraxinus exelsior; ash; quality timber
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Cultivation of ash (Fraxinus exelsior L.), even though it is a native species in Finland, has been hindered by the belief that it cannot produce quality timber in Finland. However, it can be concluded that the quality of ash timber is as good as that of timber imported to the country, if the trees are grown in a fertile site, the crown density is high, and the stand is tended properly. In these conditions, ash wood may have 3 mm ring width or more. Measurements made in ash stands in Turku region and in Åland show that at the best sites ash trees reach a height of 20–22 m in 70–80 years. According to the field tests made by the author, it can be concluded that ash can be successfully grown in Southern Finland in Åland, Turku region, in the coastal areas of Uusimaa and in Karelian isthmus. The species requires a fertile, moist upland forest site. The early growth is best secured by planting the seedlings under a well thinned broadleaved stand, which is then thinned every fifth year. Open lands growing grass should be avoided.

The PDF includes a Finnish and German summary.

  • Rancken, E-mail: tr@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7249, category Article
E. A. Martin Hagfors. (1929). Paper on essence of forestry. Silva Fennica vol. 34 no. 36 article id 7249. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7249
Keywords: profitability; economic theory; continuous forest management system
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

There are several competing theories about forestry: school on continuous forest management system, school on profitability of forestry and a dynamic view on economics. The article discusses the pros and cons of the different theories or viewpoints and wider the essence of forest as an economic asset.

To serve the needs of the practical forestry and the economics related to forests the forestry needs to seek for standardization in relation to growth potential of the forests and market orientation of the timber. A modern theory of forestry needs to base itself on both.  

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander.

  • Hagfors, E-mail: eh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7239, category Article
A. Benj. Helander. (1929). Pekkalan kartanon metsätalous. Silva Fennica vol. 34 no. 26 article id 7239. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7239
English title: Forestry in the Pekkala estate.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; yksityismetsätalous; maatila; torppari
English keywords: forest management; private forests; history; farmers; tenants
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The article is a review on the history of forestry in Pekkala estate, a private woodland estate in Ruovesi in Southern Finland. The estate had 7,300 hectares of land in 1929, of which 500 hectares were agricultural lands. It was owned by the Aminoff family since 1822.

The household wood harvesting of the tenants was considered a problem until the farms of the tenants (crofters) became independent in 1921, when the farms of the tenants were parceled out from the main estate. The shifting cultivation of tenants was banned already in 1824. Demand of wood was low until 1870s. in 1865 the freeing of regulation of sawmills increased the demand of wood in Finland, and gave start to significant timber sales in Pekkala estate. The first forest officers were hired in the estate at the time. The first guidelines of forest management for the estate were compiled in 1912, and the first survey of the forests was made in 1916, and repeated in 1922 and 1926. The fellings were planned in consideration of the growth of the forests.

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Helander, E-mail: ah@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7233, category Article
Nils Schager. (1929). Nordsveriges skogspolitiska problem. Silva Fennica vol. 34 no. 20 article id 7233. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7233
English title: Forest policy problems in northern Sweden.
Keywords: forest management; forest policy; forestry; Lapland; Sweden; legislation
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Forests and forestry in northern Scandinavia is affected by the climate, as well as economic and demographic questions. In northern Norway the issues of forest management are related to broadleaved forests, in Northern Sweden and Finland, the forests are mainly coniferous. These forests are still mostly primeval forests as the exploitation of the forests have begun slower than in the south. The Finnish forests are mainly owned by the state which makes the challenges of forestry a management problem within the Forest Service. In Sweden, the rational use of forest resources of the north has been lively discussed. Rational management of forests has begun in the southern and central parts of the country, but as the rationalization process reached the northern Sweden, many biological, economic and forest policy problems emerged. This paper outlines the forest resources, forest policy and legislation (so called lappmarkslag, an act that regulate the use of forest in the region) concerning the problems of forest management in northern Sweden.

  • Schager, E-mail: ns@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7227, category Article
D. Fehér. (1929). Biology of forest soil and its physiological meaning in the life of forest. Silva Fennica vol. 34 no. 14 article id 7227. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7227
Keywords: forest management; regeneration; forest soil; soil physiology
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The article presents three studies about different aspects of the bio-chemical functions of forest soil. The three studies are i) research on microflora and microfauna of forest soils; ii) study on carbon nutrition of forests in relation to microbial functions of soil and effecting site factors and iii) study on nitrogen metabolism of forest soil. The results of the studies are summarized by every study.

The article discusses the meaning of the results for forest management in practice. The good biological and physiological condition of forest soil is important for the forest growth and it needs to be taken care in regeneration and other forest management. The natural regeneration seems to be better for soil functions. Favoring broadleaved trees as undergrowth enhances the biological processes of forest soil.   

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander.

  • Fehér, E-mail: df@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7201, category Article
Lauri Ilvessalo. (1926). Forest research work in Finland : the origins and development of forest research work and a review of the investigations carried out up to date. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 2 article id 7201. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7201
Keywords: forest management; silviculture; forest technology; forest mensuration; forest research; history; The Finnish Society of Forest Science; Forest Research Institute
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The article is a review of forest research carried out in Finland. The article includes a short review of the origins of forest research in the country and the research institutions in the country. It describes the main studies in different fields of forest research, divided on biological and silvicultural research, forest mensuration and forest policy research, and research on forest utilization.  English translation of the article was published at the same time with an Finnish article. A need for an English summary of the forest research was realized, because the publications have mainly been written in Finnish or German.

  • Ilvessalo, E-mail: li@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7200, category Article
Lauri Ilvessalo. (1926). Metsätieteellinen tutkimustoiminta Suomessa : metsätieteellisen tutkimustoiminnan synty ja kehitys sekä yleiskatsaus toimitettuihin tutkimuksiin. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 1 article id 7200. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7200
English title: Forest research in Finland: the origins and development of forest research and a review of the investigations carried out up to date.
Original keywords: metsäntutkimus; metsänhoito; Suomen Metsätieteellinen Seura; metsäntutkimuslaitos; metsäteknologia; metsien arviointi
English keywords: forest management; silviculture; forest technology; forest mensuration; forest research; history; The Finnish Society of Forest Science; Forest Research Institute
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The article is a review of forest research carried out in Finland. The article includes a short review of the origins of forest research in the country and the research institutions in the country. It describes the main studies in different fields of forest research, divided on biological and silvicultural research, forest mensuration and forest policy research, and research on forest utilization. An English translation of the article was published at the same time. A need for an English summary of the forest research was realized, because the publications have mainly been written in Finnish or German.

  • Ilvessalo, E-mail: li@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7090, category Article
Yrjö Ilvessalo. (1923). Tutkimuksia yksityismetsien tilasta Hämeen läänin keskiosissa. Silva Fennica vol. 26 no. 2 article id 7090. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7090
English title: Studies on the condition of private forests in the central part of the Häme province.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; yksityismetsät; linja-arviointi; inventointi
English keywords: forest management; inventory; private forests; strip-survey
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A strip survey was performed in the counties of Sahalahti and Kuhmalahti in Häme, situated in Central Finland, to study the condition of the private forests. The forests cover 78% of the total land area of 37,420 hectares. The forest site types were relatively fertile. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) dominated forest covered 43%, Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) 30% and Betula sp. 23% of the forest land. The productivity of the forests could be improved by changing the species so that they suit the site. The volume of the standing crop is 67.2 m3 per hectare. The volume of the growing stock in the area could be 1 million m3 larger if the forests were nearer to the natural state. The annual growth of the forests is low, and could be much improved by correct forest management.

One of the aims of the survey was to study how the distance between survey lines should be adjusted to give acceptably accurate results, in a way that the strip-survey method can be adapted to large areas. The largest distance between the lines that gave results that differed less than 10% from the correct results, varied between 10 and 1.5 kilometres depending on the variables. For instance, to get accurate results for the rarest forest site types required line distance of 1.5 kilometres, but accurate results for the most common forest site types could be achieves with line distance of 10 kilometres.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Ilvessalo, E-mail: yi@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7084, category Article
V. T. Aaltonen. (1924). On newer forest management regimes in Germany. Silva Fennica vol. 25 no. 9 article id 7084. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7084
Keywords: forest management; continuous cover forestry; felling methods; practice; clear cut
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Forest management practices have deployed during the centuries very differently in different regions. The geographical as well as other nature related factors influence them heavily. During the first half of 19th century was shelterwood felling much used practice especially in Prussia. Meanwhile the clearcutting with planting the seedlings became also more popular. The method is still widely used in many countries. Becoming more popular the clear cut and planting practice changed the modus operandi of forestry from close-to-nature to economically-oriented.

The article discusses based on literature the most important developments of the forest management practices, especially regarding felling and regeneration methods. The article concludes with the view that usage of boarder selection felling as well as continuous forest management system are not suitable for small-scale forestry (on small private estates) on in Finland common barren sites. On more fertile soils the boarder selection felling would give good results and could be recommended also for more use. However, the bad market conditions make the more intensive forest management impossible in most parts of Finland. More research is needed in order to find best felling methods for fertile small-scale private forests.
  • Aaltonen, E-mail: va@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7059, category Article
Olli Heikinheimo, Eino Saari. (1922). Forestry in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 2 article id 7059. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7059
Keywords: forest management; forest industry; forest resources
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

About 60%, 20.5 million hectares, of Finland is covered by forests. Of this area 10.5 million hectares are peatlands. The forests are divided in fertile forest land (17 million hectares), forest land of low productivity (3.5 million hectares) and nonproductive lands (about 10 million hectares). Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is the dominant species in 60%, Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) in 23%, and Betula sp. 17% of the forests. The younger age classes are poorly represented, but despite the abundance of older age classes, the growing stock and productivity of the forests are not very high. The reason is low density of the forests, unfavorable tree species composition and the condition of the forests. Timber is used as household timber in towns and in rural areas (16.5 million m3), in traffic (1.3 million m3), fuelwood in industry (3 million m3), raw material in wood industry (9.1 million m3) and export (4 million m3). State owns 36.9% of forest lands, companies and associations 8.1% and other private forest owners 53.5%. The article describes the administration of state and private forests, and forest education in Finland. There was about 600 sawmills, 25 mechanical pulpwood mills, 24 pulp mills and 31 paper mills in the country in 1920.

  • Heikinheimo, E-mail: oh@mm.unknown (email)
  • Saari, E-mail: es@mm.unknown
article id 7058, category Article
Olli Heikinheimo, Eino Saari. (1922). Suomen metsät ja metsätalous. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 1 article id 7058. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7058
English title: Forestry in Finland.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; metsätalous; puunkäyttö; metsäteollisuus; puuvarat
English keywords: forest management; forest industry; forest resources
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

About 60%, 20.5 million hectares, of Finland is covered by forests. Of this area 10.5 million hectares are peatlands. The forests are divided in fertile forest land (17 million hectares), forest land of low productivity (3.5 million hectares) and nonproductive lands (about 10 million hectares). Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is the dominant species in 60%, Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) in 23%, and Betulasp. 17% of the forests. The younger age classes are poorly represented, but despite the abundance of older age classes, the growing stock and productivity of the forests are not very high. The reason is low density of the forests, unfavorable tree species composition and the condition of the forests. Timber is used as household timber in towns and in rural areas (16.5 million m3), in traffic (1.3 million m3), fuelwood in industry (3 million m3), raw material in wood industry (9.1 million m3) and export (4 million m3). State owns 36.9% of forest lands, companies and associations 8.1% and other private forest owners 53.5%. The article describes the administration of state and private forests, and forest education in Finland. There was about 600 sawmills, 25 mechanical pulpwood mills, 24 pulp mills and 31 paper mills in the country in 1920.

  • Heikinheimo, E-mail: oh@mm.unknown (email)
  • Saari, E-mail: es@mm.unknown
article id 7040, category Article
Yrjö Ilvessalo. (1920). Metsämaitten puuntuotantokyvyn, nykyisen tuoton ja puunkulutuksen välisestä suhteesta. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 2 article id 7040. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7040
English title: The relation of the productive capacity of forests, their current production and wood utilization.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; puuntuotantokyky; puun käyttö; ylihakkuut
English keywords: forest management; forest utilization; overcutting; forest devastation; productive capacity
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Annual variations in wood utilization makes it complicated to estimate the balance between wood utilization and wood production of forests. According to the article, the balance is unsustainable especially in the private forests in the southern part of Finland. The annual wood utilization of the country was 37.3 million m3 in 1913, and the annual wood production 35.2 million m3, according to a report of a committee that was appointed to find methods to prevent overcutting. The committee suggested legislation to forbid forest devastation. Also the growth of the forests could be increased, if the forests are well managed, the article argues. To prove this, the potential wood production capacity is estimated for the municipalities of Viipuri, Mikkeli and Kuopio, and compared to the present wood production and wood utilization of the area.

The PDF includes a German summary.

  • Ilvessalo, E-mail: yi@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7020, category Article
S. E. Multamäki. (1919). Tutkimuksia metsien tilasta Savossa ja Karjalassa. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 2 article id 7020. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7020
English title: Studies on state of forests in Savo and Karelia.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; linja-arviointi; metsävarat; metsätyyppi; metsänarviointi; puulajisuhteet
English keywords: forest management; forest resources; forest mensuration; forest site type; strip survey; distribution of tree species
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A strip survey was made to define the forest and peatland site class distribution and the condition of the forests in Savo and Karelia in central and eastern parts of Finland. According to the survey, 24% of the forested lands are peatlands. Fresh mineral soil sites (26%) were the most common mineral soil site type. Intermediately dry forest soil sites covered 22% of the area, forest sites with grass-herb vegetation 12,79%, rich grass-herb forest soil sites 3,16% and dry forest soil sites 9,59% of the forested area. The most common tree species were Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), 39%, Betula sp., 26%, Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.), 18%, and grey alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench), 10% of the forest land. The article includes a review about the wood harvesting in the forests, and their present silvicultural state. According to the study, about 30% of the forested lands (not including peatlands) were unproductive; mostly mixed alder and birch stands of poor quality or open lands.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Multamäki, E-mail: sm@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7636, category Article
Kari Heliövaara, Rauno Väisänen. (1984). Effects of modern forestry on Northwestern European forest invertebrates: a synthesis. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 189 article id 7636. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7636
Keywords: forest fires; forest management; insects; forestry; intensive silviculture; Scandinavia; forest invertebrates; primeval forests; changes in boreal forest dynamics
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The effects of modern forestry on northwest European forest invertebrates are summarized and analysed mainly on the basis of published literature. The direct influence of different practices including clear-cutting, thinning, burning-over, ploughing, changes in tree species composition of stands, fertilization, insecticides, pheromones and biological control are discussed from a forest zoological point of view. Also, the indirect effects of general changes in boreal forest dynamics, loss of primeval forests, cessation of natural fires and the dominance of young stands are described. The direct effects of different silvicultural practices on the species composition and diversity of forest invertebrates are usually considered to be striking but transient. However, when large areas are treated, the species associated with primeval forests, especially with the wood composition system in them, as well as the species associated with fires, seem to have drastically declined. In northwest Europe, efficient forestry has not caused such serious pest problems as is known from tropical countries or North America.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Heliövaara, E-mail: kh@mm.unknown (email)
  • Väisänen, E-mail: rv@mm.unknown
article id 7617, category Article
Risto Savolainen, Seppo Kellomäki. (1981). Metsän maisemallinen arvostus. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 170 article id 7617. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7617
English title: Scenic value of forest landscape.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; virkistyskäyttö; maisema; metsämaisema; maiseman arvostus; luontoelämys
English keywords: forest management; recreation; forest landscape; attractiveness; scenic value
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Two approaches were applied in measuring the scenic value of forest landscapes. In the field, the scenic value of forest lands representing clear cut areas, as well as young closed stands and mature stands with varying tree species composition, were assessed. In the laboratory, the scenic value of the same stands was measured with the help of photographs of the same stand. The same persons representing forest students (36 persons) and city dwellers (25 persons) made the evaluation.

Stands of moderate density containing individual tall trees and a coniferous undergrowth had the greatest scenic value, independently of the tree species composition. However, birch was preferred to Scots pine and Norway spruce. Measurements made in the field by means of interviews, and in the laboratory based on photographs, gave very similar results. Photographs seem to represent a reliable tool for estimating the scenic value of forest landscapes.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Savolainen, E-mail: rs@mm.unknown (email)
  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown
article id 7599, category Article
Veikko Juhana Palosuo. (1979). MERA-ohjelmat Suomen metsätaloudessa. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 165 article id 7599. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7599
English title: MERA programmes in the Finnish forestry.
Original keywords: metsänparannus; metsänhoito; metsäpolitiikka; Suomi
English keywords: forest management; forest policy; Finland; forest improvement work
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The Forest Financing Committee played an important role in Finnish Forestry in the 1960's. This voluntary working group prepared three plans for financing basic forest improvement work from 1965 to 1975.

The report describes the origin of the MERA I (1965–70) and the volunteer work of the Forestry Financing (MERA) Committee in preparing the second and third programmes (1966–75). It deals the initiative of the Committee aiming to finance forest improvement works also from international sources, resulted later on to the Forest Improvement Project (1973–76). Its costs were covered for 16% by the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development in form of a State Loan. The report includes comments about the forest policy in Finland during the 60s and 70s as well as the results of the programmes.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish and Swedish.

  • Palosuo, E-mail: vp@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7577, category Article
Pekka Kilkki, Raimo Pökälä. (1975). A long-term timber production model and its application to a large forest area. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 143 article id 7577. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7577
Keywords: forest management; forestry; timber production; methods; timber production model
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A long-term timber production model was developed. The model is based upon numerical simulation and it is viewed only as a means of providing the decision-maker with values of the predicting variables in his utility function. Special attention was paid to the development of automatic cutting decision rules. The model was applied to the area of 2,752,000 hectares of forest land in Central Finland. The measurement data were extracted from the Sixth National Forest Inventory, which was made in 1973. Utilities from a hypothetical utility function were attained to a number of feasible timber production policies. The Bayes and maximin criteria were employed to evaluate these policies.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kilkki, E-mail: pk@mm.unknown (email)
  • Pökälä, E-mail: rp@mm.unknown
article id 7569, category Article
Heikki Vesikallio. (1974). Yksityismetsälöiden alueelliset yhdentymisratkaisut puunkorjuun ja metsänhoitotöiden kustannusten kannalta. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 135 article id 7569. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7569
English title: Regional cooperation in farm forests in Finland. Possibilities to control the costs of wood harvesting and silvicultural operations.
Original keywords: metsätalous; yksityismetsät; kustannukset; yhteistyö; yhteisomistus; yhteismetsät
English keywords: forest management; forestry; costs; private forests; cooperation; joined ownership
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper deals with the possibilities of decreasing the costs of timber harvesting and silvicultural work through regional cooperation between private forest owners in Finland. Alternatives based on joint management and, on the other hand, joint ownership were compared with activities on a forest-unit basis. According to the results obtained, considerable savings in costs can be gained through cooperation on a regional basis. Examination of the data obtained from the study shows that in the case of harvesting some 40 million Finnish marks can be saved annually by application of the joint-management alternative, and as much as 90 million marks annually by the joint-ownership alternative, when taking the whole country into consideration. The corresponding values for silvicultural work were 2 million marks and 4 million marks, respectively.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Vesikallio, E-mail: hv@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7564, category Article
Kauko Hahtola. (1973). The rationale of decision-making by forest owners. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 130 article id 7564. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7564
Keywords: forest management; forest owners; private forests; farm forestry; decision-making
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The study explores the mental and environmental factors affecting the normative and strategic decision-making of forest owners. Four value orientations: preference for subsistence economy, attachment to land, resistance to change and traditionalism are defined by the aid of factor analysis, as well as six ecological types of farming: (1) problem farming, (2) extensive part-time farming, (3) prosperous field farming, (4) labour-intensive family farming, (5) part-time farming, and (6) commercial farming. The decisions analysed on the basis of these theoretical constructs concern management, cooperation and the promotion of private forestry. Some philosophical problems connected with the use of mental variables are also discussed.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Hahtola, E-mail: kh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7556, category Article
Pekka Kilkki. (1971). Optimization of stand treatment based on the marginal productivity of land and growing stock. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 122 article id 7556. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7556
Keywords: forest management; forest management planning; methods; stand treatment; marginal productivity
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Production of timber in forest stands is described by a production function. The variable inputs of the function are land and growing stock and the output is the annual value growth. The partial derivatives of this production function express the marginal productivity of the land and of auction function express the marginal productivity of the land and of the growing stock. These marginal productivities can be utilized for determination of the need of regeneration and thinning. The stand should be regenerated when the marginal productivity of the land falls below the annual rent of a unit area of open land and thinned when the marginal productivity of the growing stock falls below the annual rent of one unit of growing stock.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kilkki, E-mail: pk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7554, category Article
Matti Keltikangas. (1971). Time factor and investment calculations in timber growing. Theoretical fundamentals. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 120 article id 7554. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7554
Keywords: forest management; profitability; investment; time factor; interest rates
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The role of the time factor is discussed from the viewpoint that investment calculations are expected to be used to transform and condense information and not necessarily to show the optimum. Some general conclusions are drawn concerning the recommendable form of such a calculation when used by a consultant advising a forest owner. A few of the practical problems arising in the connection of applications to timber growing are also discussed.

In conclusion, a recommendation was developed for the calculation procedure to be used in the so-called contractual research into the profitability sequence of forest improvements. It would seem advisable to carry out the calculations using both varying interest rates and varying time horizons. In addition, it is justifiable also to present the expected series of cash flow changes, such as they are, among the results. Further studies will follow.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Keltikangas, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7543, category Article
Päiviö Riihinen. (1970). The forest owner and his attitudes toward forestry promotion. A study based on forest owners in Ostrobothnia, Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 109 article id 7543. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7543
Keywords: forest management; forest owners; attitudes; forestry promotion
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The purpose of this study is (1) to develop, on the basis of sociological and economic theory, and of occasional observations, a frame of reference capable of providing a starting point for an empirical analysis of the behaviour of forest owners, and (2) to provide an insight into attitudes, and relate these with such general characteristics of forest owners as are theoretically defensible and supported by empirical findings.

The analysis of the results show that the more forest owners know about forestry the more generally are they willing to mark themselves trees for cutting, the more negative toward forest management associations, and the more inclined to believe that teaching forestry in elementary school is useful.

In general, it seems that the attitudes of forest owners toward forestry promotion in its »traditional» form become more negative as industrialization and urbanization raise the level of knowledge and technical know-how. However, this shift is not linear; there is first a weakening of negative attitudes (shift from mechanical to organic solidarity), while a further social change characterized by industrialization, urbanization, etc. seems to result in increasingly negative attitudes.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Riihinen, E-mail: pr@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7600, category Article
Pekka Kilkki. (1968). Income-oriented cutting budget. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 91 article id 7600. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7600
Keywords: forest management; forest management planning; income; methods; forest holdings; cutting budget
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of this study was to develop cutting budget methods for a forest undertaking. Cutting budget provides information on the future income from the forest undertaking, and on the development of the forest.

Two cutting budget models have been developed, by the application of simulation and linear programming. Both of the models are deterministic in nature, i.e. there is only one possible outcome once the stated input information has been given. To make the models simpler, it has been assumed that thinning and clear cutting with reforestation are the only activities that can occur in the forest. The models are directly applicable only to forests consisting of even-aged Scots pine stands at three different forest types. However, they can easily be extended to cover forests comprising several tree species and more sites.

In the light of this study, simulation seems today to be more appropriate than linear programming in the preparation of cutting budgets. However, the increasing capacity of computers may even in the near future make linear programming quite competitive, especially as if it is borne in mind that the theoretical basis of linear programming is much firmer than that of simulation. The most advisable cutting budget method might consist of a combination of simulation and linear programming. Simulation could be employed to find a rough cutting schedule, and linear programming to test and improve the solution.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kilkki, E-mail: pk@mm.unknown (email)

Category: Research article

article id 10573, category Research article
Jari Miina, Inka Bohlin, Torgny Lind, Jonas Dahlgren, Kari Härkönen, Tuula Packalen, Anne Tolvanen. (2021). Lessons learned from assessing the cover and yield of bilberry and lingonberry using the national forest inventories in Finland and Sweden. Silva Fennica vol. 55 no. 5 article id 10573. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10573
Keywords: forest management planning; berry models; field measurements; predictions
Highlights: Model-based predictions of the berry yields of an average crop year are produced using the Finnish National Forest Inventory (NFI); Inventory-based estimates of seasonal berry yields are produced using the Swedish NFI observations; The inventory-based method provides seasonal estimates, whereas models can be utilised to integrate vegetation cover and berry yields in numerical multi-objective forest planning.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and lingonberry (V. vitis-idaea L.) can be a part of healthy diet and are important for many animals. Two approaches are described to assessing their vegetation cover and berry yield via national forest inventory (NFI) observations. The aim was to provide estimates and predictions of the abundance and yield of the species at regional and national levels in Finland and Sweden. In Finland, the model-based predictions are used in evaluating the impacts of cutting intensity on forest berries needed in forest-related decision making. In Sweden, seasonal inventory-based estimates are used to evaluate the annual national and regional berry yields, and in a forecasting system aimed at large public and berry enterprises. Based on the NFI sample plots measured between 2014 and 2018, the total annual yields are estimated to be 208 Mkg of bilberry and 246 Mkg of lingonberry on productive forest land (increment at least 1 m3 ha–1 year–1) in Finland, and 336 and 382 Mkg respectively in Sweden (average of NFI inventories in 2015–2019). The predicted development of berry yields is related to the intensity of cuttings in alternative forest management scenarios: lower removals favoured bilberry, and higher removals lingonberry. The model-based method describes the effects of stand development and management on berry yields, whereas the inventory-based method can calibrate seasonal estimates through field observations. In providing spatially and timely more accurate information concerning seasonal berry yields, an assessment of berry yields should involve the elements of both inventory-based and model-based approaches described in this study.

  • Miina, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Yliopistokatu 6 B, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8639-4383 E-mail: jari.miina@luke.fi (email)
  • Bohlin, Swedish University of Agricultural sciences (SLU), Department of Forest Resource Management, Skogsmarksgränd, S-901 83 Umeå, Sweden E-mail: inka.bohlin@slu.se
  • Lind, Swedish University of Agricultural sciences (SLU), Department of Forest Resource Management, Skogsmarksgränd, S-901 83 Umeå, Sweden E-mail: torgny.lind@slu.se
  • Dahlgren, Swedish University of Agricultural sciences (SLU), Department of Forest Resource Management, Skogsmarksgränd, S-901 83 Umeå, Sweden E-mail: jonas.dahlgren@slu.se
  • Härkönen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Latokartanonkaari 9, FI-00790 Helsinki, Finland E-mail: kari.harkonen@luke.fi
  • Packalen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Yliopistokatu 6 B, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland; Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry of Finland, P.O. Box 30, FI-00023 Government, Finland E-mail: tuula.packalen@mmm.fi
  • Tolvanen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Paavo Havaksentie 3, FI-90014 University of Oulu, Finland E-mail: anne.tolvanen@luke.fi
article id 10525, category Research article
Markus Melin, Tiina Ylioja, Leena Aarnio, Katri Hamunen, Seppo Nevalainen, Antti Pouttu, Heli Viiri. (2021). Emergence levels of pine shoot beetles from roundwood piles of Scots pine and the cascading damage in the surrounding forests. Silva Fennica vol. 55 no. 5 article id 10525. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10525
Keywords: forest management; forestry; Tomicus piniperda; Tomicus minor; roundwood; legislation; timber storage
Highlights: Emerged pine shoot beetles were counted from piles of harvested Scots pine, and the shoot damage in the surrounding forests was measured; Damage was noticeable up to a distance of 40–60 m, being more severe near large piles; For piles smaller than 50 m3 the level of damage (fallen shoots) was mainly below known thresholds for growth losses; Logs with harvester-damaged bark were significantly less colonized by the beetles.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Bark beetles are amongst the most aggressive pest agents of coniferous forests. Due to this, many boreal countries have designated laws aiming to lower the risk of bark beetle epidemics. Finland’s forest legislation has pre-emptive measures targeted against bark beetles, and for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), the law concerns pine shoot beetles (Tomicus spp.). This study used data collected around 25 piles of Scots pine roundwood that were harvested in the winter but left in the forest until the following November. Thus, the pine shoot beetles were able to use the piles for breeding. We assessed the number of emerged insects from the piles and the cascading damage they caused in the surrounding forests. All roundwood piles, regardless of their volume, were used by the beetles for breeding. Highest densities of beetle exit holes were found from the parts of the log with thick and intact bark. If the bark of the log was damaged by the harvester head, the number of beetles decreased significantly. Depending on the volume of the roundwood pile, the cascading damage (fallen shoots) was noticeable up to ca. 40–60 m from the roundwood pile. Storing of piles smaller than 50 m3 did not cause excess damage. The number of fallen shoots per tree was generally below the known thresholds for when growth losses can occur. However, the study was conducted in mature forests, and it can be assumed that the recorded damage levels would severely affect the growth of young pines, raising the question of where to store the roundwood. As with other bark beetles, the role of Tomicus beetles as damage agents may change in the future, but based on this as well as past studies, the species can be viewed as a notable damage agents only around long-term wood storage sites in the current northern conditions.

  • Melin, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Bioeconomy and environment, Yliopistokatu 6b, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland E-mail: markus.melin@luke.fi (email)
  • Ylioja, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Natural resources, Latokartanonkaari 9, FI-00790 Helsinki, Finland E-mail: tiina.ylioja@luke.fi
  • Aarnio, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Natural resources, Latokartanonkaari 9, FI-00790 Helsinki, Finland E-mail: leena.aarnio@luke.fi
  • Hamunen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Bioeconomy and environment, Yliopistokatu 6b, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland E-mail: katri.hamunen@luke.fi
  • Nevalainen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Bioeconomy and environment, Yliopistokatu 6b, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland E-mail: seppo.nevalainen@gmail.com
  • Pouttu, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Natural resources, Latokartanonkaari 9, FI-00790 Helsinki, Finland E-mail: antti.pouttu@kolumbus.fi