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Articles by Risto Kasanen

Category: Research article

article id 10420, category Research article
Eeva-Liisa Terhonen, Jumoke Babalola, Risto Kasanen, Risto Jalkanen, Kathrin Blumenstein. (2021). Sphaeropsis sapinea found as symptomless endophyte in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 55 no. 1 article id 10420. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10420
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; Diplodia sapinea; Diplodia tip blight
Highlights: Sphaeropsis sapinea was found for the first time as an endophyte in healthy Scots pine in Finland; This finding confirms that S. sapinea can proliferate in a symptomless stage in Scots pine in Finland.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of this study was to determine if the ascomycete fungus Sphaeropsis sapinea (Fr.) Dyko & B. Sutton (syn. Diplodia sapinea (Fr.) Fuckel) could be cultured from surface sterilized Scots pine twigs presenting the endophytic stage of this fungus. This fungus causes the disease called Diplodia tip blight in conifers. Symptoms become visible when trees have been weakened by abiotic stressors related to temperature, drought and hailstorms. The disease is rapidly increasing and is observed regularly in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests in Europe. Changes in climatic conditions will gradually increase the damage of this pathogen, because it is favored by elevated temperatures and additionally the host trees will be more susceptible due to related environmental stress. Diplodia tip blight is emerging towards Northern latitudes, thus, actions to monitor the spread of S. sapinea in pine-dominated forests should be undertaken in Finland. Our aim was to search for S. sapinea in Scots pine along a transect in Finland. Branch samples were collected from healthy Scots pine, fungal endophytes were isolated and morphologically identified. Sixteen S. sapinea strains were found from four Scots pine trees from two locations. This finding confirms that S. sapinea is found as an endophyte in healthy Scots pine in Finland.

  • Terhonen, Forest Pathology Research Group, Department of Forest Botany and Tree Physiology, Faculty of Forest Sciences and Forest Ecology, University of Goettingen, Büsgen-Institute, Büsgenweg 2, D-37077 Göttingen, Germany E-mail: terhonen@uni-goettingen.de (email)
  • Babalola, Forest Pathology Research Group, Department of Forest Botany and Tree Physiology, Faculty of Forest Sciences and Forest Ecology, University of Goettingen, Büsgen-Institute, Büsgenweg 2, D-37077 Göttingen, Germany E-mail: j.babalola@stud.uni-goettingen.de
  • Kasanen, Forest Pathology Lab, Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, Latokartanonkaari 7, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland E-mail: risto.kasanen@helsinki.fi
  • Jalkanen, Rovaniemi Research Unit, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Eteläranta 55, FI-96300 Rovaniemi, Finland E-mail: ristjal@gmail.com
  • Blumenstein, Forest Pathology Research Group, Department of Forest Botany and Tree Physiology, Faculty of Forest Sciences and Forest Ecology, University of Goettingen, Büsgen-Institute, Büsgenweg 2, D-37077 Göttingen, Germany E-mail: kathrin.blumenstein@uni-goettingen.de
article id 104, category Research article
Eeva Terhonen, Teresa Marco, Hui Sun, Risto Jalkanen, Risto Kasanen, Martti Vuorinen, Fred Asiegbu. (2011). The effect of latitude, season and needle-age on the mycota of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 3 article id 104. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.104
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; needles; harsh environment; mycota; needle age; cryptic lifecycle; Hormonema dematioides
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
The seasonal and latitudinal influences on the diversity and abundance of mycota of Pinus sylvestris needles were investigated. A sample of 1620 needles resulted in a total of 3868 fungal isolates, which were assigned to 68 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The majority of these OTUs (65%) belong to Ascomycota and only 0.03% was grouped as Basidiomycota. The dominant and most frequently isolated OTU was Hormonema dematioides. Other well-known species with a saprotrophic nutritional mode such as Lophodermium spp. were also observed. The abundance of fungi increased from fall to spring. Frequencies varied significantly in Northern and Southern Finland suggesting that factors associated with latitudinal differences have an impact on the abundance of fungi.
  • Terhonen, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland E-mail: et@nn.fi (email)
  • Marco, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland E-mail: tm@nn.fi
  • Sun, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland E-mail: hs@nn.fi
  • Jalkanen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Rovaniemi Research Unit, Rovaniemi, Finland E-mail: rj@nn.fi
  • Kasanen, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland E-mail: rk@nn.fi
  • Vuorinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Research Unit, Suonenjoki, Finland E-mail: mv@nn.fi
  • Asiegbu, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland E-mail: fa@nn.fi

Category: Review article

article id 147, category Review article
Arja Lilja, Marja Poteri, Raija-Liisa Petäistö, Risto Rikala, Timo Kurkela, Risto Kasanen. (2010). Fungal diseases in forest nurseries in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 44 no. 3 article id 147. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.147
Keywords: damping-off; grey mold; root dieback; needle casts; snowblights; scleroderris canker; Sirococcus; pine twisting rust; stem lesions and top dying; leaf lesions; Venturia; powdery mildews
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Norway spruce (Picea abies), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and silver birch (Betula pendula) are the major tree species grown in Finnish forest nurseries where 99% of the seedlings are grown in containers first in plastic-covered greenhouses and later outdoors. The main diseases on conifer seedlings are Scleroderris canker (Gremmeniella abietina), Sirococcus blight and cankers (Sirococcus conigenum), snow blights (Herpotrichia juniperi and Phacidium infestans) and needle casts (Lophodermium seditiosum and Meria laricis). Also grey mould (Botrytis cinerea) and birch rust (Melampsoridium betulinum) are among the diseases to be controlled with fungicides. During last years Scleroderris canker has been a problem on Norway spruce, which has been since 2000 the most common species produced in Finnish nurseries. Root die-back (uninucleate Rhizoctonia sp.) on container-grown spruce and pine was a problem in the 1990s. Today the disease has become less common in modern nurseries due to improvements in hygiene and cultivation practice. Since 1991 stem lesions and top dying caused by Phytophthora cactorum has been a problem on birch. The ongoing climate change has already had effect on rusts and powdery mildews as well as other fungi infecting leaves. All diseases, which gain high precipitation and warm and long autumns. For same reasons winter stored seedlings need sprayings against grey mold. Fungal infections are also possible during short-day (SD) treatment, that is necessary for summer and autumn plantings and a beneficial step prior freezing temperatures outside or in freezer storage. Growers are encouraged to use cultural and integrated pest management techniques such as better nursery hygiene, including removing plant debris in nursery growing areas and hot water washing of containers plus removal of diseased, spore-producing seedlings and trees around the nursery.
  • Lilja, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa, Finland E-mail: arja.lilja@metla.fi (email)
  • Poteri, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki, Finland E-mail: mp@nn.fi
  • Petäistö, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki, Finland E-mail: rlp@nn.fi
  • Rikala, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki, Finland E-mail: rr@nn.fi
  • Kurkela, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa, Finland E-mail: tk@nn.fi
  • Kasanen, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, Helsinki, Finland E-mail: rk@nn.fi

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