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Articles by Tiina Ylioja

Category : Climate resilient and sustainable forest management – Research article

article id 23069, category Climate resilient and sustainable forest management – Research article
John Alexander Pulgarin Diaz, Markus Melin, Tiina Ylioja, Päivi Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa, Heli Peltola, Olli-Pekka Tikkanen. (2024). Relationship between stand and landscape attributes and Ips typographus salvage loggings in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 58 no. 3 article id 23069. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.23069
Keywords: Picea abies; wind damage; clear-cuts; European spruce bark beetle; stand attributes
Highlights: In Finland, the European spruce bark beetle (SBB) prefers mature stands (high age and mean diameter at breast hight), herb-rich heath forest sites and semi-coarse or coarse heath forest soil type, as well as a short distance to the closest wind damage from the previous-year, SBB damage from previous-year and particularly to clear-cuts; These stand types should be prioritised for monitoring SBB damage.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Disturbances caused by the European spruce bark beetle (SBB; Ips typographus L.) on Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.), have increased immensely across Central and Northern Europe, and are expected to increase further as a result of climate change. While this trend has been noted in Finland, so far limited research has been published. To support proper SBB risk management in Finland, we compared stand properties between salvage loggings due to SBB damage during 2012–2020 (4691 cases) and spruce stands free of SBB damage. Also, we explored the role of landscape attributes as drivers of SBB damage. We considered the forest stand attributes of site fertility class, stand development class, soil type, stand mean diameter at breast height and mean stand age. Considered forest landscape attributes were the distance from SBB-damaged stands to the closest clear-cut, to previous-year SBB-damaged stands and to the previous-year wind-damaged stand. We used nationwide forest logging and forest stock data, and analysed forest stand attributes using chi-squared and Mann-Whitney U tests and landscape attributes using generalised linear mixed models. Based on our findings, the SBB didn’t damage stands randomly, but prevailed in mature stands (high age and high mean diameter at breast height), in herb-rich heath forest site types and in semi-coarse or coarse heath forest soil soils. We found correlation between the landscape variables and the number of salvage loggings, with a higher number of loggings due to SBB damage close to clear-cuts. Our results help to find risk areas of SBB damage.

  • Pulgarin Diaz, School of Forest Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0554-8254 E-mail: alexander.pulgarin.diaz@uef.fi (email)
  • Melin, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7290-9203 E-mail: markus.melin@luke.fi
  • Ylioja, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Latokartanonkaari 9, FI-0079 Helsinki, Finland ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8840-7504 E-mail: tiina.ylioja@luke.fi
  • Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa, School of Forest Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1884-3084 E-mail: paivi.lyytikainen-saarenmaa@ef.fi
  • Peltola, School of Forest Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail: heli.peltola@uef.fi
  • Tikkanen, School of Forest Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3875-2772 E-mail: olli-pekka.tikkanen@uef.fi

Category : Research article

article id 10568, category Research article
Juha Kaitera, Leena Aarnio, Tiina Ylioja, Jouni Karhu. (2021). Naohidemyces vaccinii sporulates on wild species of ground flora in Finnish Norway spruce seed orchards but Thekopsora areolata does not on other species than Prunus. Silva Fennica vol. 55 no. 5 article id 10568. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10568
Keywords: Picea abies; cherry-spruce rust; epidemics; Prunus; blueberry rust; Naohidemyces vaccinii
Highlights: Cherry-spruce rust, Thekopsora areolata, was not found on any of the common species of ground vegetation in Finnish Norway spruce seed orchards; Blueberry rust, Naohidemyces vaccinii, was common on Vaccinium myrtillus and occasional on V. vitis-idaea in all seed orchards; Thekopsora areolata occurs only on Prunus in Finnish Norway spruce seed orchards.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Thekopsora areolata (Fr.) Magnus is a serious cone pathogen that reduces seed crop of Picea abies (L.) Karst. and other Picea spp. Natural sporulation of T. areolata was investigated in nine Norway spruce seed orchards suffering from severe successive T. areolata epidemics in Finland. Habitats occupied by Vaccinium myrtillus L., V. vitis-idaea L., Empetrum nigrum L. and Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull, and a number of other wild species belonging to ground flora were investigated for Thekopsora areolata uredinia 9–10 times in May–September 2018–2019. Occurrence of Thekopsora uredinia was estimated in current-year leaves of the plants in ca. 25 sample plots of 1 m2 in each seed orchard. A sample of plant leaves with rust uredinia or necrotic pustules were collected from each plot. No rust fruiting stages of T. areolata were found on any of the test species of ground flora. However, rust uredinia were observed regularly on leaves of V. myrtillus and V. vitis-idaea in all seed orchards between mid-July and the end of September. Rust sporulation started on V. myrtillus in July and on V. vitis-idaea in August. Based on symptoms, uredinia and spore morphology, the rust on both V. myrtillus and V. vitis-idaea was identified as blueberry rust, Naohidemyces vaccinii (Jørst.) S. Sato, Katsuya & Y. Hirats. ex Vanderwegen & Fraiture. The uredinial stage of the rust on Vaccinium spp. were described. No evidence of natural sporulation of T. areolata on wild plant species other than Prunus was observed in Finnish Norway spruce seed orchards.

  • Kaitera, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Natural Resources and Bioproduction, FI-90570 Oulu, Finland E-mail: juha.kaitera@luke.fi (email)
  • Aarnio, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Natural Resources and Bioproduction, FI-00790 Helsinki, Finland E-mail: leena.aarnio@luke.fi
  • Ylioja, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Natural Resources and Bioproduction, FI-00790 Helsinki, Finland E-mail: tiina.ylioja@luke.fi
  • Karhu, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Natural Resources and Bioproduction, FI-90570 Oulu, Finland E-mail: jouni.karhu@luke.fi
article id 10525, category Research article
Markus Melin, Tiina Ylioja, Leena Aarnio, Katri Hamunen, Seppo Nevalainen, Antti Pouttu, Heli Viiri. (2021). Emergence levels of pine shoot beetles from roundwood piles of Scots pine and the cascading damage in the surrounding forests. Silva Fennica vol. 55 no. 5 article id 10525. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10525
Keywords: forest management; forestry; Tomicus piniperda; Tomicus minor; roundwood; legislation; timber storage
Highlights: Emerged pine shoot beetles were counted from piles of harvested Scots pine, and the shoot damage in the surrounding forests was measured; Damage was noticeable up to a distance of 40–60 m, being more severe near large piles; For piles smaller than 50 m3 the level of damage (fallen shoots) was mainly below known thresholds for growth losses; Logs with harvester-damaged bark were significantly less colonized by the beetles.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Bark beetles are amongst the most aggressive pest agents of coniferous forests. Due to this, many boreal countries have designated laws aiming to lower the risk of bark beetle epidemics. Finland’s forest legislation has pre-emptive measures targeted against bark beetles, and for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), the law concerns pine shoot beetles (Tomicus spp.). This study used data collected around 25 piles of Scots pine roundwood that were harvested in the winter but left in the forest until the following November. Thus, the pine shoot beetles were able to use the piles for breeding. We assessed the number of emerged insects from the piles and the cascading damage they caused in the surrounding forests. All roundwood piles, regardless of their volume, were used by the beetles for breeding. Highest densities of beetle exit holes were found from the parts of the log with thick and intact bark. If the bark of the log was damaged by the harvester head, the number of beetles decreased significantly. Depending on the volume of the roundwood pile, the cascading damage (fallen shoots) was noticeable up to ca. 40–60 m from the roundwood pile. Storing of piles smaller than 50 m3 did not cause excess damage. The number of fallen shoots per tree was generally below the known thresholds for when growth losses can occur. However, the study was conducted in mature forests, and it can be assumed that the recorded damage levels would severely affect the growth of young pines, raising the question of where to store the roundwood. As with other bark beetles, the role of Tomicus beetles as damage agents may change in the future, but based on this as well as past studies, the species can be viewed as a notable damage agents only around long-term wood storage sites in the current northern conditions.

  • Melin, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Bioeconomy and environment, Yliopistokatu 6b, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland E-mail: markus.melin@luke.fi (email)
  • Ylioja, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Natural resources, Latokartanonkaari 9, FI-00790 Helsinki, Finland E-mail: tiina.ylioja@luke.fi
  • Aarnio, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Natural resources, Latokartanonkaari 9, FI-00790 Helsinki, Finland E-mail: leena.aarnio@luke.fi
  • Hamunen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Bioeconomy and environment, Yliopistokatu 6b, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland E-mail: katri.hamunen@luke.fi
  • Nevalainen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Bioeconomy and environment, Yliopistokatu 6b, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland E-mail: seppo.nevalainen@gmail.com
  • Pouttu, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Natural resources, Latokartanonkaari 9, FI-00790 Helsinki, Finland E-mail: antti.pouttu@kolumbus.fi
  • Viiri, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Bioeconomy and environment, Yliopistokatu 6b, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland; UPM-Kymmene Oyj, UPM Forest, Peltokatu 26 C, PL 85, FI-33100, Tampere, Finland E-mail: heli.viiri@upm.com

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