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Articles by Katri Hamunen

Category: Research article

article id 10525, category Research article
Markus Melin, Tiina Ylioja, Leena Aarnio, Katri Hamunen, Seppo Nevalainen, Antti Pouttu, Heli Viiri. (2021). Emergence levels of pine shoot beetles from roundwood piles of Scots pine and the cascading damage in the surrounding forests. Silva Fennica vol. 55 no. 5 article id 10525. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10525
Keywords: forest management; forestry; Tomicus piniperda; Tomicus minor; roundwood; legislation; timber storage
Highlights: Emerged pine shoot beetles were counted from piles of harvested Scots pine, and the shoot damage in the surrounding forests was measured; Damage was noticeable up to a distance of 40–60 m, being more severe near large piles; For piles smaller than 50 m3 the level of damage (fallen shoots) was mainly below known thresholds for growth losses; Logs with harvester-damaged bark were significantly less colonized by the beetles.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Bark beetles are amongst the most aggressive pest agents of coniferous forests. Due to this, many boreal countries have designated laws aiming to lower the risk of bark beetle epidemics. Finland’s forest legislation has pre-emptive measures targeted against bark beetles, and for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), the law concerns pine shoot beetles (Tomicus spp.). This study used data collected around 25 piles of Scots pine roundwood that were harvested in the winter but left in the forest until the following November. Thus, the pine shoot beetles were able to use the piles for breeding. We assessed the number of emerged insects from the piles and the cascading damage they caused in the surrounding forests. All roundwood piles, regardless of their volume, were used by the beetles for breeding. Highest densities of beetle exit holes were found from the parts of the log with thick and intact bark. If the bark of the log was damaged by the harvester head, the number of beetles decreased significantly. Depending on the volume of the roundwood pile, the cascading damage (fallen shoots) was noticeable up to ca. 40–60 m from the roundwood pile. Storing of piles smaller than 50 m3 did not cause excess damage. The number of fallen shoots per tree was generally below the known thresholds for when growth losses can occur. However, the study was conducted in mature forests, and it can be assumed that the recorded damage levels would severely affect the growth of young pines, raising the question of where to store the roundwood. As with other bark beetles, the role of Tomicus beetles as damage agents may change in the future, but based on this as well as past studies, the species can be viewed as a notable damage agents only around long-term wood storage sites in the current northern conditions.

  • Melin, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Bioeconomy and environment, Yliopistokatu 6b, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland E-mail: markus.melin@luke.fi (email)
  • Ylioja, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Natural resources, Latokartanonkaari 9, FI-00790 Helsinki, Finland E-mail: tiina.ylioja@luke.fi
  • Aarnio, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Natural resources, Latokartanonkaari 9, FI-00790 Helsinki, Finland E-mail: leena.aarnio@luke.fi
  • Hamunen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Bioeconomy and environment, Yliopistokatu 6b, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland E-mail: katri.hamunen@luke.fi
  • Nevalainen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Bioeconomy and environment, Yliopistokatu 6b, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland E-mail: seppo.nevalainen@gmail.com
  • Pouttu, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Natural resources, Latokartanonkaari 9, FI-00790 Helsinki, Finland E-mail: antti.pouttu@kolumbus.fi
  • Viiri, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Bioeconomy and environment, Yliopistokatu 6b, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland; UPM-Kymmene Oyj, UPM Forest, Peltokatu 26 C, PL 85, FI-33100, Tampere, Finland E-mail: heli.viiri@upm.com
article id 10392, category Research article
Paula Jylhä, Pasi Rikkonen, Katri Hamunen. (2020). Size matters – an analysis of business models and the financial performance of Finnish wood-harvesting companies. Silva Fennica vol. 54 no. 4 article id 10392. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10392
Keywords: profitability; business model; business model canvas; entrepreneur; success factor; wood-harvesting enterprise
Highlights: Economic success was related to company’s size, Small companies with a turnover of less than 600 000 € a–1 are struggling with profitability; Large enterprises continue to grow and innovate new business concepts; The competitive edge of large companies was reflected in large production capacity, efficient operations, versatile supply of services, and power in negotiations.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The size of Finnish wood harvesting enterprises has grown, and entrepreneurs have become responsible for various additional tasks, resulting in networking with other harvesting enterprises of various sizes and suppliers of supporting services, but the profitability of the wood harvesting sector has remained low. In the present study, the financial performance of 83 wood harvesting companies in Eastern and Northern Finland was evaluated, based on public final account data from a five-year period between 2013 and 2017. The factors underlying economic success were identified based on 19 semi-structured entrepreneur interviews. The Business Model Canvas framework was applied in the analyses. In particular, the smallest companies (with an annual turnover of less than 600 000 €) struggled with profitability. They showed increasing indebtedness, suffered from poor power in negotiations, had typically short-term contracts, and faced difficulties in retaining skilled operators. Most of the small companies were subcontractors of larger wood-harvesting companies. The better economic success of larger companies was likely based on their capacity to provide wood harvesting services in large volumes and supply versatile services, power in negotiations, and more cost-effective operations. The future development of wood harvesting seems to be polarised: larger enterprises are likely to continue growing, while the size of smaller enterprises has stabilised. Enhancing business management skills and practices is required in enterprises of all size groups.

  • Jylhä, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Production systems, Teknologiakatu 7, FI-67100 Kokkola, Finland E-mail: paula.jylha@luke.fi (email)
  • Rikkonen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Bioeconomy and environment, Lönnrotinkatu 7, FI-50100 Mikkeli, Finland E-mail: pasi.rikkonen@luke.fi
  • Hamunen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Bioeconomy and environment, Yliopistokatu 6B, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland E-mail: katri.hamunen@luke.fi
article id 1214, category Research article
Katri Hamunen, Outi Virkkula, Teppo Hujala, Juha Hiedanpää, Mikko Kurttila. (2015). Enhancing informal interaction and knowledge co-construction among forest owners. Silva Fennica vol. 49 no. 1 article id 1214. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1214
Keywords: communities of practice; forest owner clubs; guidance; knowledge sharing; learning communities; peer learning; social network
Highlights: Forest owners’ own communities could complement the present expert-driven forestry extension; Enhancing informal interaction between forest owners calls for sufficiently homogeneous reference groups and also new communication contexts; New purposes of forest ownership and innovative forest management practices are suggested topics for novel owner communities; Forest professionals may initiate these communities, but the continuity depends on the owners themselves.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info
It is a common concern that non-resident private forest owners are less able to make informed decisions regarding their forests. Moreover, the present guidance given by forest professionals is not reaching all owners. In this study, we suggest enhancing knowledge exchange among forest owners by increasing their mutual and informal interaction that could inspire them to co-construct new knowledge. The first objective is to identify present emerging activities that constitute knowledge exchange contexts (communities) for Finnish forest owners. The second objective is to discuss the challenges of current Finnish forest extension and their implications when introducing Communities of Practice as a complementary response to existing, yet insufficient, professional-led extension. Data consist of Finnish forest owners’ and forest professionals’ (n = 43) focus group interviews. The qualitative analysis was theoretically oriented followed by data-driven coding and grouping. According to the results, the role of expert-led encounters is strong in Finland and owners’ opportunities for good mutual communication are rare. Informal communities exist mainly in the countryside among neighbouring owners and within families. To enhance knowledge sharing among owners, one needs to identify innovative topics and activities that would inspire owners to commit to their forest property and perform active silviculture. These communities would operate as creative learning environments allowing participation of different levels. When cultivating forest owners’ communities it is important to consider actors’ roles. Forest owners themselves are responsible for the functions and continuity of these communities, although forest professionals could also initiate new and sufficiently homogenous reference groups for the owners.
  • Hamunen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), New Business Opportunities, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail: katri.hamunen@luke.fi
  • Virkkula, Oulu University of Applied Sciences, Kotkantie 1, FI-90250 Oulu, Finland E-mail: outi.virkkula@oamk.fi
  • Hujala, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), New Business Opportunities, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID http://orcid.org/0000-0002-7905-7602 E-mail: teppo.hujala@luke.fi (email)
  • Hiedanpää, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Economy and Society, Itäinen Pitkäkatu 3, FI-20520 Turku, Finland E-mail: juha.hiedanpaa@luke.fi
  • Kurttila, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), New Business Opportunities, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail: mikko.kurttila@luke.fi

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