Current issue: 56(4)

Scopus CiteScore 2021: 2.8
Scopus ranking of open access forestry journals: 8th
PlanS compliant
Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles containing the keyword 'Butt rot'

Category: Article

article id 7289, category Article
P. S. Tikka. (1934). Butt rot in the coniferous forests of northern Finland. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 12 article id 7289. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7289
Keywords: coniferous forest; Butt rot; Fomitopsis annosa; Bjerkandera borealis
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

There are two fungi that cause butt rot: Fomitopsis annosa and Bjerkandera borealis. The losses they cause in pine forests are relatively mild, the share of rotten trees is between 6 and 12 % and the rot is restricted to the butt end of the tree.

In forests dominated with spruce the losses to timber are more notable. The share of trees infected with butt rot is between 10 and 40 % and of the volume at least 12 per cent. The more barren the heath forest site the greater the defect caused by decay. In the forests on peatland the pine swamps and spruce moors are the most affected.

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish.  

  • Tikka, E-mail: pt@mm.unknown (email)

Category: Research article

article id 10732, category Research article
Ana Aza, A. Maarit I. Kallio, Timo Pukkala, Ari Hietala, Terje Gobakken, Rasmus Astrup. (2022). Species selection in areas subjected to risk of root and butt rot: applying Precision forestry in Norway. Silva Fennica vol. 56 no. 3 article id 10732. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10732
Keywords: Norway spruce; Scots pine; growth modelling; precision forestry; root and butt rot severity; tree species selection
Highlights: We present the best species to plant on previously spruce-dominated sites with different site indexes and rot levels; We recommend planting Norway spruce on low-rot sites, Scots pine on higher-rot sites, and allowing natural regeneration on low site indexes; We demonstrate the Precision forestry method for determining the optimal tree species in heterogenous stands; In the case study, the method increased net present value by approximately 6% on average.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Norway’s most common tree species, Picea abies (L.) Karst. (Norway spruce), is often infected with Heterobasidion parviporum Niemelä & Korhonen and Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref.. Because Pinus sylvestris L. (Scots pine) is less susceptible to rot, it is worth considering if converting rot-infested spruce stands to pine improves economic performance. We examined the economically optimal choice between planting Norway spruce and Scots pine for previously spruce-dominated clear-cut sites of different site indexes with initial rot levels varying from 0% to 100% of stumps on the site. While it is optimal to continue to plant Norway spruce in regions with low rot levels, shifting to Scots pine pays off when rot levels get higher. The threshold rot level for changing from Norway spruce to Scots pine increases with the site index. We present a case study demonstrating a practical method (“Precision forestry”) for determining the tree species in a stand at the pixel level when the stand is heterogeneous both in site indexes and rot levels. This method is consistent with the concept of Precision forestry, which aims to plan and execute site-specific forest management activities to improve the quality of wood products while minimising waste, increasing profits, and maintaining environmental quality. The material for the study includes data on rot levels and site indexes in 71 clear-cut stands. Compared to planting the entire stand with a single species, pixel-level optimised species selection increases the net present value in almost every stand, with average increase of approximately 6%.

  • Aza, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, PO Box 5003, NO-1432, Ås, Norway ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6416-6697 E-mail: anfe@nmbu.no (email)
  • Kallio, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, PO Box 5003, NO-1432, Ås, Norway E-mail: maarit.kallio@nmbu.no
  • Pukkala, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail: timo.pukkala@uef.fi
  • Hietala, Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, PO Box 115, NO-1431 Ås, Norway E-mail: ari.hietala@nibio.no
  • Gobakken, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, PO Box 5003, NO-1432, Ås, Norway E-mail: terje.gobakken@nmbu.no
  • Astrup, Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, PO Box 115, NO-1431 Ås, Norway E-mail: rasmus.astrup@nibio.no
article id 1191, category Research article
Tore Skrøppa, Halvor Solheim, Arne Steffenrem. (2015). Genetic variation, inheritance patterns and parent–offspring relationships after artificial inoculations with Heterobasidion parviporum and Ceratocystis polonica in Norway spruce seed orchards and progeny tests. Silva Fennica vol. 49 no. 1 article id 1191. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1191
Keywords: blue stain; heritability; root and butt rot; lesion length
Highlights: Genetic variation is demonstrated in response to artificial inoculations with Heterobasidion parviporum and Ceratocystis polonica both between parents and their offspring;Strong relationships are observed between the male parents and their off-spring, less so between the female parents and their offspring.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Inoculations with the two fungi Heterobasidion parviporum and Ceratocystis polonica were made in two series of progeny tests each containing full-sib families planted at two sites and on grafts of the parents in two seed orchards. Significant variation among families in lesion lengths after inoculation was found for both fungi and a predominantly additive inheritance was indicated. The estimates of narrow sense heritability were 0.13 and 0.22 for H. parviporum and C. polonica, respectively. The estimate of the genetic correlation between the lesion lengths of the two fungi was as low as 0.12. Significant variation in lesion lengths was also found among parental clones, and within ramets of the same clone, in the seed orchards. In one of the series a high positive correlation (r = 0.88) was found between the H. parviporum lesion lengths of the male parents and offspring, but not for the female parents and off-spring. The results confirm earlier conclusions that the genetic variation and heritabilities are large enough for practical breeding for resistance.
  • Skrøppa, Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute, Box 115, 1431 Ås, Norway E-mail: tore.skroppa@skogoglandskap.no (email)
  • Solheim, Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute, Box 115, 1431 Ås, Norway E-mail: halvor.solheim@skogoglandskap.no
  • Steffenrem, Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute, Box 115, 1431 Ås, Norway E-mail: arne.steffenrem@skogoglandskap.no
article id 473, category Research article
Ulla Mattila, Tuula Nuutinen. (2007). Assessing the incidence of butt rot in Norway spruce in southern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 41 no. 1 article id 473. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.473
Keywords: Norway spruce; logistic regression; Heterobasidion; Butt rot; quality loss
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
The aim of this study was to analyze the occurrence of butt rot damage to Norway spruce in different parts of southern Finland and to quantify the associated loss of quality. The data used in the study are from the 9th National Forest Inventory and consist of 5998 sample plots and 8007 spruce sample trees of saw-timber size. To predict the probability of damage to stands and trees, logistic regression models were constructed. Separate models were made for the whole study area, for the area where the general risk of Heterobasidion root and butt rot damage is high and for the area where the damage frequency is relatively low. In the high-risk area, the probability of damage decreased with increasing elevation and increased with increasing temperature sum. In addition, damage was more common on fertile sites and less common on peatlands; and thick peat layer decreased the risk of damage. The probability of damage was also higher in stands where special or selective cuttings had been carried out. In the sample tree data, the probability of damage increased slightly with increasing diameter and age of the tree. In the low-risk areas, elevation was the only variable that explained the probability of damage to a spruce tree. Site fertility and previous cuttings (more than ten years ago) explained the probability of damage to stands only weakly. For spruce damaged by butt rot, the saw-timber volume was reduced, on average, by 60% both in the high-risk area and in the low-risk area.
  • Mattila, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Unit, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail: um@nn.fi (email)
  • Nuutinen, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Unit, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail: tn@nn.fi
article id 500, category Research article
Jarkko Hantula, Eeva Vainio. (2003). Specific primers for the differentiation of Heterobasidion annosum (s.str.) and H. parviporum infected stumps in northern Europe. Silva Fennica vol. 37 no. 2 article id 500. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.500
Keywords: IS group S; IS group P; molecular identification; root and butt rot
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Two separate amplification products from random amplified microsatellite fingerprints of Heterobasidion annosum (s.str.) and H. parviporum were converted to specific markers. The markers were tested to be species specific and combined to a single PCR-reaction, which allowed the detection and identification of the two fungi directly from wood samples.
  • Hantula, Finnish Forest Research Institute. Fax +358 9 8570 5531 E-mail: jarkko.hantula@metla.fi (email)
  • Vainio, Finnish Forest Research Institute. Fax +358 9 8570 5531 E-mail: ev@nn.fi
article id 519, category Research article
Magnus Lindén, Gudmund Vollbrecht. (2002). Sensitivity of Picea abies to butt rot in pure stands and in mixed stands with Pinus sylvestris in southern Sweden. Silva Fennica vol. 36 no. 4 article id 519. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.519
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; Picea abies; logistic regression; Heterobasidion annosum; Butt rot; mixed forest
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Repeatedly sampled data from permanent experimental plots in southern Sweden were used to model butt rot development in Norway spruce growing in pure stands and in mixed stands with Scots pine. The data come from 29 sites with pure spruce, altogether 100 plots, and from 15 sites of mixed spruce and pine, altogether 22 plots. A logistic model provided the best fit to the data. The study material revealed that in mixed stands the proportion of spruce trees with butt rot is lower than in pure Norway spruce stands. The difference in the incidence of butt rot cannot be explained by silviculture or windthrow since both factors are accounted for in the study. The most significant effect on butt rot development in Norway spruce by an admixture of Scots pine, was found when the Scots pine admixture was 50%. In order to reduce the incidence of butt rot in Norway spruce, the study material indicate that there is little to be gained by increasing the Scots pine admixture to much more than 50%.
  • Lindén, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre c/o Asa Experimental Forest, SLU, S-360 30 Lammhult, Sweden E-mail: magnus.linden@ess.slu.se (email)
  • Vollbrecht, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre c/o Asa Experimental Forest, SLU, S-360 30 Lammhult, Sweden E-mail: gv@nn.se
article id 642, category Research article
Jonas Rönnberg. (2000). Logging operation damage to roots of clear-felled Picea abies and subsequent spore infection by Heterobasidion annosum. Silva Fennica vol. 34 no. 1 article id 642. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.642
Keywords: Norway spruce; logging damage; Butt rot; root rot; clear felling; stump root infection
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Two studies were carried out to examine the effects of clear-felling operations on stump roots of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). In study I, the number of cases and the degree of damage to stump roots of Norway spruce were investigated on three clear-felled sites in northern and southern Sweden respectively. The cutting was done in winter or spring. A mean of 37% of the stumps had signs of root damage caused by clear-felling operations. Study II was carried out on two sites in southern and two sites in northern Sweden. The trees were clear-felled in June or July. The frequency of natural infection by Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref. through damaged roots was compared to infection through stump surfaces. The total area of damage on roots was 88% of the stump surface area. On average, 54% of the stumps were infected through the stump surface and 19% through locations of root damage. The root infections, however, were generally small in size as compared to stump surface infections. The study shows that damage to roots at clear-felling may be extensive, but this probably is not of great importance for the efficacy of stump treatment against H. annosum.
  • Rönnberg, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, P.O. Box 49, SE-230 53 Alnarp, Sweden E-mail: jonas.ronnberg@ess.slu.se (email)

Register
Click this link to register to Silva Fennica.
Log in
If you are a registered user, log in to save your selected articles for later access.
Contents alert
Sign up to receive alerts of new content
Your selected articles