Current issue: 56(2)
Under compilation: 56(3)
Within the European Community snow damage affects an estimated 4 million m3 of timber every year, causing significant economic losses to forest owners. In Northern Europe, for example, the occurrence of snow damage has increased over the last few decades mainly due to the increase in total growing stock. The most common form of damage is stem breakage, but trees can also be bent or uprooted. Trees suffering snow damage are also more prone to consequential damage through insect or fungal attacks.
Snow accumulation on trees is strongly dependent upon weather and climatological conditions. Temperature influences the moisture content of snow and therefore the degree to which it can accumulate on branches. Wind can cause snow to be shed, but can also lead to large accumulations of wet snow, rime or freezing rain. Wet snow is most likely in late autumn or early spring. Geographic location and topography influence the occurrence of damaging forms of snow, and coastal locations and moderate to high elevations experience large accumulations. Slope plays a less important role and the evidence on the role of aspect is contradictory. The occurrence of damaging events can vary from every winter to once every 10 years or so depending upon regional climatology. In the future, assuming global warming in northern latitudes, the risk of snow damage could increase, because the relative occurrence of snowfall near temperatures of zero could increase.
The severity of snow damage is related to tree characteristics. Stem taper and crown characteristics are the most important factors controlling the stability of trees. Slightly tapering stems, asymmetric crowns, and rigid horizontal branching are all associated with high risk. However, the evidence on species differences is less clear due to the interaction with location. Management of forests can alter risk through choice of regeneration, tending, thinning and rotation. However, quantification and comparison of the absolute effect of these measures is not yet possible. An integrated risk model is required to allow the various locational and silvicultural factors to be assessed. Plans are presented to construct such a model, and gaps in knowledge are highlighted.
A model for the mechanism of windfall and stem breakage was constructed for single Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) at the stand edge. The total turning moment arising from the wind drag and from the bending of stem and crown was calculated along with the breaking stress of the stem. Similarly, the support given by the root -soil plate anchorage was calculated. Windspeed variation within the crown and the vertical distribution of stem and crown weight were taken into account. Model computations showed that trees having a large height to diameter ratio were subjected to greater risk of falling down or breaking than trees with a small height to diameter ratio. The windspeed required to blow down a tree or break the stem of a tree decreased if the height to diameter ratio or the crown to stem ratio of trees increased.
The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.
The main stem of young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees was cut off halfway along the current leading shoot and the two previous years’ leading shoots to simulate moose (Alces alces) damage. Trees of the same size were chosen as controls before treatments. The experiment was inspected ten years after artificial stem breakage. Removing the current leading shoot and the second shoot did not essentially affect the height and diameter growth of the trees. Removal down to the third shoot reduced the height as well as diameter growth. The average loss in growth was equivalent to less than one year’s growth. When the stem was cut off at the second or third shoot, stem crookedness and the presence of knots resulted in stem defects that will subsequently reduce the sawtimber quality. A high proportion of the stem defects will obviously still be visible at the first thinning cutting. Removing injured trees as pulpwood and pruning the remaining parts of cut stems evidently improves the quality of pine stand with moose damage.
The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.
Exceptionally widespread snow damages occurred in January 1959 in the southern coastal region of Finland. An inquiry showed that significant devastation had occurred over an area of 42,620 ha. The purpose of the present investigation was to study the susceptibility to snow damages of different stands in different locations. Only the stem breakage was recorded. 924 stands along 92 one-kilometre lines were studied in the western continuation of Salpausselkä ridge in the summer 1960. A supplementary study was carried out in 1961 in separate stands.
Most heavily damaged stands were found in a damage zone closest (31–40 km) to the coast of Gulf of Finland. The damages were 39% fewer in the zone 61–70 km from the coast. No stands over 140 m above sea level escaped damage. Stands on the edge of an open area such as a field, lake etc. fared better than areas within the forest. Eastern slopes were more susceptible for snow damages in these weather conditions. Also, conifers were more frequently damaged than deciduous trees. Dense stands, and stands aged 61–100 years had most damages.
The PDF includes a summary in English.
Strong wind is the major natural disturbance in European forests, that periodically causes tremendous damages to forestry. Yet, factors that affect the probability of wind damage for birch (Betula pendula Roth and B. pubescens Ehrh.), the most common deciduous tree species in hemiboreal forests, are studied scarcely. This study aimed to assess the effects of several tree- and stand-scale variables on the probability of wind damage to birch using data from the Latvian National Forest Inventory (2004–2018), and determine individual tree characteristics that affect the height of the stem breakage. The data analysis was done using the Bayesian binary logistic generalized linear mixed-effects model and a linear mixed-effects model. The probability of wind damage significantly increased by stand age, basal area, and slenderness ratio. Trees with prior damage had a significantly higher probability (odds ratio 4.32) for wind damage. For wind-damaged trees, the snapping height was significantly decreased by an increase in the slenderness ratio (p = 0.03) and prior damage (p = 0.003). Previously damaged trees were more frequently (73%) snapped in the lowest 40% of tree height than trees without prior damage (54%). The probability of wind damage is largely set by factors related to the selection of site, species composition, and rotation. The damage probability could be decreased by management measures that lower competition within the stand with particular regard to preserving intact remaining trees during these manipulations. Factors that reduce the probability of the damage simultaneously increase the snapping height, emphasizing their relevance for mitigation of the wind damages.