Current issue: 56(2)
Under compilation: 56(3)
A process-oriented tree and stand growth model is extended to be applicable to the analysis of timber quality, and how it is influenced by silvicultural treatments. The tree-level model is based on the carbon balance and it incorporates the dynamics of five biomass variables as well as tree height, crown base, and breast height diameter. Allocation of carbon is based on the conservation of structural relationships, in particular, the pipe model. The pipe-model relationships are extended to the whorl level, but in order to avoid a 3-dimensional model of entire crown structure, the branch module is largely stochastic and aggregated. In model construction, a top-down hierarchy is used where at each step down, the upper level sets constraints for the lower level. Some advantages of this approach are model consistency and efficiency of calculations, but probably at the cost of reduced flexibility. The detailed structure related with the branching module is preliminary and will be improved when more data becomes available. Model parameters are identified for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Southern Finland, and example simulations are carried out to compare the development of quality characteristics in different stocking densities.
The model predicts the base diameter of the thickest living branch of a tree growing in a planted or naturally regenerated even-aged stand. A mixed model type was used in which the residual variation was divided into within-stand and between-stand components. The study material consisted of 779 trees measured in 12 plots located in 20 to 35 years old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands (breast height age 10 to 20 years). Branch diameter was closely connected to the breast height diameter of the stem. In a stand of a certain age, competition by close neighbours slightly decreased branch diameter in a given diameter class. According to the model, the greatest difference is between trees subjected to very little competition and those subjected to normal competition. The model was used in simulated stands with varying age, density, and tree arrangement. The simulations showed that trees with rapid diameter growth at young age had thicker branches at a given breast height diameter than trees with slower diameter growth. However, a very slow growth rate did not produce trees with branches thinner than those possessing a medium growth rate.
The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.
The main stem of young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees was cut off halfway along the current leading shoot and the two previous years’ leading shoots to simulate moose (Alces alces) damage. Trees of the same size were chosen as controls before treatments. The experiment was inspected ten years after artificial stem breakage. Removing the current leading shoot and the second shoot did not essentially affect the height and diameter growth of the trees. Removal down to the third shoot reduced the height as well as diameter growth. The average loss in growth was equivalent to less than one year’s growth. When the stem was cut off at the second or third shoot, stem crookedness and the presence of knots resulted in stem defects that will subsequently reduce the sawtimber quality. A high proportion of the stem defects will obviously still be visible at the first thinning cutting. Removing injured trees as pulpwood and pruning the remaining parts of cut stems evidently improves the quality of pine stand with moose damage.
The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.
A computer model was developed for predicting knottiness of wood material of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and birch (Betula sp). The prediction included location of knots, their size and quality, i.e. if they are dead or living knots. The model suits best for tree species where branches are born at the base of shoots, in Finland such tree species is Scots pine.
The usefulness of the model was tested in the prediction of knots in wooden elements of joinery industry. According to the results, the shape of cross section affects the surface quality of elements. Especially useful is a quadratic cross section as it increases the probability to get a knotless surface.
The PDF includes an abstract in English.
Silva Fennica issue 42 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1936. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service
This presentation describes how pruning is used to produce quality timber.
The issue 39 of Silva Fennica includes presentations held in professional development courses in 1935 that were arranged for foresters working in public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level.
This presentation describes the quality of timber and coniferous forests in the point of view of saw industry.
The objective of the present investigation was to clarify the profitability of pruning silver birch (Betula verrucosa, now Betula pendula Roth) in the growing of raw material for veneer industry. Calculations were made on the grade, value, and price of pruned and untreated butt logs as well as on costs of pruning and the development of pruned trees.
The grade distribution of unpruned veneer butt logs, the grade distribution of the veneer yield, and consequently, the value of veneer yield and log prices at the plant are considerably better than those of average logs. The grade, value and price increased with increasing diameter. The value and price of pruned butt logs depended primarily on the difference between the turning pruning diameters, and their increase with decreasing pruning diameter and increasing turning diameter. The value of pruned butt logs is always considerably higher than that of unpruned logs. The increase in the value correlates to the pruning and turning diameters, and is, for example, in rotary-cut logs which have been pruned when 10 cm in diameter 80–130%.
Pruning increases the stumpage in naturally regenerated silver birch stands on Oxalis-Myrtillus site by 2,000–3,000 Fmk/ha when employed at 20 years of stand age and rotary cutting at 60–80 years of age respectively. The average pruning costs on Oxalis-Myrtillus site are 51–57 Fmk/ha.
The PDF includes a summary English.
Pruning growing trees influences tree growth and value of the wood and yield of timber of the stand. Pruning living branches create open wounds on the stems that can risk the growth of tree species that are vulnerable to injuries. For instance, pruning has been shown to cause decay in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.), while Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) can quickly heal over the branch scars. Pruning of living branches reduces the crown, the effect of which remains small if only the lowest branches are pruned. Pruning of dry branches has little effect on the health of the tree. The main objective of pruning is to improve the quality of timber. Knottiness decreases strength and appearance of timber. Pruning increases the yield of knot-free sapwood, which is especially valuable in veneer timber. Pruning is, therefore, at present most suitable for birch and aspen which are used in veneer industry. In both species pruning should be directed mainly to dry branches.
The PDF includes a summary in German.
The quality of timber is very important in trade and dependable on the purpose of the timber. The article describes the influence of the forest type on the mechanic-technical properties of the timber. The studied properties are weight, the mean breadth of the annual growth rings, and the compression strength.
The percentage of the annual growth rings that is formed during the autumn is characteristic for the compression strength, and it varies accordingly on different forest types. The result from the formula of Janka depends on the forest type.
Being able to classify the timber according its quality makes it possible to have better price for it. it is also important when deciding for what purpose the timber can be used.
The PDF contains a summary in Finnish.
The hard climate and other environmental conditions cause irregularities in the growth of trees in Lapland. Those changes weaken the characteristics of the tree for industrial use and hence lowers the timber price. The eccentricity is mainly caused by the strong wind burden.
The data for the article consists of 428 increment core samples from pine trees different ages, sizes and growth rate. There were collected in years 1910-1912 in Finnish Lapland, regions Utsjoki and Inari. The increment cores were collected on the height of 1.3 meters in south-north direction straight crosswise through the whole tree. The difference of length was measured between southern and northern half rays. Earlier studies show that the eccentricity remains the same in different heights of the tree. Hence studying the variations only on the breast height radiuses is possible.
The mean eccentricity is 12.3% and its maximum varies mostly between 20 and 25%. There are no differences in eccentricity between trees of different age classes or diameter.
In 1972, all Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) trees of a minimum 7 cm diameter at breast height growing in the sample plots of the Sixth National Forest Inventory were examined on the main island of Aland, Finland. The soundness of standing trees was estimated by means of external characteristics and increment borer chips. The trees were then felled and measured. They were cut into lengths, and the type and extent of decay were studied.
30% of the trees examined was affected by butt rot, ca. 3% by wound decay. A comparison of the results with those of the Sixth National Forest Inventory justifies the estimate that in Aland 23% of spruce trees exceeding 7 cm in diameter at 1.3 m had butt rot.
The proportion of decayed trees in the cubic volume was 31%. Decayed wood material accounted for 5% of the volume including bark. Butt rot increased towards the mature stands. The reduction in the number of timber trees due to decay was 14.5%, in their volume 21.5%, and in the volume of sulphite pulpwood 12%. The share of sulphate pulpwood increased from 1 to 10%. The total reduction in usable wood was 6.3%. The stumpage price of the trees fell by 10.3%. As the degree of decay increased the increment percentage of the trees decreased. The most common cause of butt rot was Fomes annosus (Heterobasidion annosum) found in 46% of the number of decayed trees. Armillaria mellea was found in 16%. Bacteria were found in 50% of the decayed trees.
The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.
Moose (Alces alces L.) browsing causes severe damage in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedling stands. The effects of this damage on the quality of sawlogs were studied in a long-term controlled experiment. This article reports the stem size and external quality characteristics of Scots pine stems 34 years after artificial moose browsing damage. Damaging the trees by clipping the main stem at the seedling stage reduced the diameter, height, and tree volume of the trees at the end of the experiment. The tree growth reduction was dependent on the severity of clipping. The differences between the damaged and the control trees were more obvious in diameter than in height at the time of final felling. Stem form defects and vertical branches were the most typical externally detectable defects caused by clipping. Defects in the butt logs were detected in 71–89% of the damaged trees, depending on the clipping treatment severity. The stronger the clipping treatment, the more likely the stem form was defected and the more commonly were vertical branches and crooks detected in the stems. The results indicate that both tree dimensions and stem quality suffer from moose browsing. The findings of this controlled experiment more likely underestimate than overestimate the damage in comparison to real moose browsing. Further analyses are required to assess the effects of browsing damage on the internal quality of sawlogs and subsequent economic outcomes.