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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Articles by Reijo Solantie

Category: Article

article id 5533, category Article
Reijo Solantie. (1994). Effect of weather and climatological background on snow damage of forests in Southern Finland in November 1991. Silva Fennica vol. 28 no. 3 article id 5533.
Keywords: snow damages; climate; precipitation; temperature; snow damage; snow cover; storms
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Snow damage to forests in Southern Finland in November 1991 was examined in relation to meteorological conditions. The combined effect of different factors proved to be necessary for severe damage. First, the snow load, in terms of precipitation, should exceed a certain limit. The limit can be set for weak or moderate damage at about 40 mm and for very severe damage at about 60 mm. Second, temperature at the time of precipitation should be above 0°C, which enables the slightly wet snow to attach to twigs during the subsequent period with temperature below 0°C. On the other hand, temperatures exceeding 0.6°C prohibit damage by permitting the snow load to fall from the branches. Wind speed exceeding 9 ms-1, as observed 15 m above ground, were strong enough to dislodge the snow which is not attached, and thus reduce the damage. There are few statistics either of snow damage or of the relation between the snow damage and precipitation. However, there is causal connection between snow damage and heavy snowfalls. Therefore, the regions with a high frequency of heavy snowfalls, as indicated by orographical features and occurrence of thick snow cover, were investigated.

  • Solantie, E-mail: rs@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5523, category Article
Reijo Solantie. (1993). Snow and soil frost in Finnish forests. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 4 article id 5523.
Keywords: snow damages; Finland; ground vegetation; forest ecology; flora; snow cover; fauna
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Abundant snowfalls and thick snow cover influence forest ecology mainly in two ways. Snow loading increases the number of damaged stems, which increases the amount of decay in stems, in its turn important for many animals. Second, the ground remains unfrozen under the snow cover, which is of crucial importance for many perennial species of ground vegetation. These winter phenomena also have influenced the early Finnish culture as man in his everyday life in the wilderness was in close contact with nature. In this paper, ecological interactions between snow conditions, forest flora, fauna and early culture are discussed mainly with reference to the province of Uusimaa in Southern Finland.

  • Solantie, E-mail: rs@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5178, category Article
Reijo Solantie. (1983). "Mereisyyden - mantereisuuden" ja "humidisuuden" käsitteistä erityisesti tammen luontaisen levinneisyyden perusteella. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 1 article id 5178.
English title: Concepts of continentality-oceanity and humidity especially in the light of the natural distribution of Quercus robur.
Original keywords: tammi; levinneisyys; ilmasto; mereisyys; mantereisuus; levinneisyysalue; kasvukauden pituus; lämpösumma; ilmankosteus
English keywords: growing season; climate; distribution; Quercus robur; oak; northern boundary; oceanity; continentality; northern distribution limit; humidity
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Climatological factors determining the natural northern boundary in Europe of oak (Quercus robur L.) were investigated. The natural northern boundary of oak corresponds in detail to the curve at which the growing season, beginning at +5°C in spring and ending at +10°C in autumn, is of a certain constant length. The northern boundaries for more oceanic plants can be explained by prolonged autumn activity. This is obviously the general explanation or the concept of oceanity. Oak spread markedly in Finland in the summers during 1961–1975, which on an average were as warm but much dried than those during 1931–1960. The importance of humidity for oak was discussed.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Solantie, E-mail: rs@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5088, category Article
Reijo Solantie, Kari Ahti. (1980). Säätekijöiden vaikutus Etelä-Suomen lumituhoihin v. 1959. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 4 article id 5088.
English title: The influence of weather on the snow damages for forests in Southern Finland in 1959.
Original keywords: Etelä-Suomi; lumituhot; sääolosuhteet; sääilmiöt; huurre
English keywords: snow damage; rime; weather conditions; Southern Finland; orographic precipitation
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Snow and rime, attached to branches of conifers, seriously damaged forests in a region of 11,000 km2 in Southern Finland during a passage of two nearly occluded cyclones in 1959. The roles of different weather elements were studied by considering the variations occurring in them over this region and its surroundings. Damage occurred only inside an accentuated pattern of copious orographic precipitation. Precipitation only became attached to and retained on branches in such parts of the area where temperature varied on both sides of freezing point but did not exceed 0.6°C. Furthermore, damage only occurred in forests where rime formed (above a certain level and on sloping towards the prevailing wind).

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Solantie, E-mail: rs@mm.unknown (email)
  • Ahti, E-mail: ka@mm.unknown
article id 4905, category Article
Reijo Solantie. (1974). Kesän vesitaseen vaikutus metsä- ja suokasvillisuuteen ja linnustoon sekä lämpöolojen välityksellä maatalouden toimintaedellytyksiin Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 3 article id 4905.
English title: The influence of water balance in summer on forest and peatland vegetation and bird fauna and through the temperature on agricultural conditions in Finland.
Original keywords: suokasvillisuus; lämpötila; metsäkasvillisuus; sademäärä; ilmasto; haihdunta; vesitase
English keywords: Finland; climate; precipitation; temperature; forest vegetation; water budget; evaporation; peatland vegetation
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The significance of water budget in June and July for forest and peatland vegetation, and consequent effects on fauna, climate and agriculture has been studied.

In June, the difference between evaporation and precipitation is greater than it is later in the summer. North of the line zero difference of evaporation and precipitation, coinciding with a line of sharp change in forest vegetation, the uppermost part of podsol remains wet throughout the summer. During July, the line of zero difference moves from north to south over the greater part of Finland, run-off being minute and podsol at the driest in this month. This line, indicating the length of the period with evaporation greater than precipitation and causing a sharp change in forest vegetation, in frequency of peatlands, amount of growing stock productive capacity of forests etc. This line is significant also for cultivation: because of the lower evaporation north of this line, night temperature below the freezing point often appear in summer.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Solantie, E-mail: rs@mm.unknown (email)

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