Current issue: 57(2)
Under compilation: 57(3)
A simulation approach was applied to study the pattern of environmental variability and the relative statistical efficiency of 14 different plot types. The study material consisted of two nine-year-old field tests of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The area of the test sites was 1.57 and 0.67 hectares. The efficiency was measured as the error variance attached to the estimate of family mean and the total size of a test needed to detect a given, least significant difference between two family means. The statistical efficiency tended to decline along with increasing plot size. The importance of plot shape was negligible compared to plot size. The highest efficiency was obtained with single-tree plots. Non-contiguous plots appeared to be considerably more efficient than block plots of equal size. The effects of intergenotypic competition on the choice of plot type are discussed.
The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish
Forstästhetik is a programme for forest management, resembling an art manifesto. Forest managers are programme executors. Forest aesthetics is forest investigation from the point of view of beauty. In the case of managed forests, it is possible to ask, what is the manager’s programme and his skill to achieve personal solutions. In forests, the functioning and sustainability of the ecosystem are basic principles affecting all other values. On this basis it is possible to evaluate the competence of taste systems and the logic of their application.
The paper is based on a lecture given in the seminar ‘The forest as a Finnish cultural entity’, held in Helsinki in 1986. The PDF includes a summary in English.
Snow and rime, attached to branches of conifers, seriously damaged forests in a region of 11,000 km2 in Southern Finland during a passage of two nearly occluded cyclones in 1959. The roles of different weather elements were studied by considering the variations occurring in them over this region and its surroundings. Damage occurred only inside an accentuated pattern of copious orographic precipitation. Precipitation only became attached to and retained on branches in such parts of the area where temperature varied on both sides of freezing point but did not exceed 0.6°C. Furthermore, damage only occurred in forests where rime formed (above a certain level and on sloping towards the prevailing wind).
The PDF includes a summary in English.
Planting of forest trees takes place in USSR on millions of hectares but without permanent forest seed bases having yet been established in every region of the country. Consequently, local seed does not suffice the need, and it is necessary to secure it from other geographical regions. To avoid negative consequences of seed transfer it is necessary to study geographic variation of the genetic characteristics of forest trees and construct scientifically based division into seed zones. Geographic transfer of seed can also be regarded as a breeding measure. A large research program is being carried out in the USSR on the subject. Most of the existing trials are provenience tests of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Over 2,000 hectares of new provenience experiments is to be established in near future.
The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.
Understanding the growth of trees is the prerequisite for meaningful forest management. Hence the studies on the ways the trees grow is important. The growth of roots and sprouts was studied by Larix leptolesis, Pinus silvestris, Betula pendula, Robinia pseudoacasia, Populus euramericana, Pseudotsuga taxifolia, Quercus borealis and some other species. The results of still ongoing experiments on pine, birch and larch are presented for root and shoot growth.
The results indicate that the amount of light or shade the tree is having plays an important role in the growth. Hence some tree species are better adapted to shade than others, there are differences in their growth depending whether they are in light or in shade.
The article deals with laboratory experiments of humus containing soil samples that were tested for leaching of iron and lime. The humus and soil samples were collected in five different areas in Silesian state forests, Germany.
The chemical content of the extracts was measured in the beginning of the test. The flocculation experiments and experiments in glass tubes took place. The stronger or weaker the podsolization, the greater or smaller was the protective action of hums at the respective place. However, more research is needed. The results of the glass tube experiments seem to indicate that with humus there were smaller amounts of Ca and Fe leaching than with merely water.
This is a working paper. It presents the laboratory experiments with soil samples from northern Finland, in which the precipitation of iron (Fe) was tested with limewater (Ca). There was no clear difference between samples with limewater and samples without limewater. However, the lime prevented the infiltration of iron almost totally.
The mineral content of soil effects the forest growth and yield and hence it is of interest for forestry. More research is needed both as field experiments and in the laboratory.
The article contains a literature review about the spatial order of plants and a description of the small-scale experiments with corn. The literature is primarily of German origin. The question of the spatial conditions of trees in forest is important for practice of silviculture. The first part of the article illustrates based on the literature the importance of roots and root concurrence for the development of plants or forest stands. The second and third part deepens the methodological knowledge on root research. Fourth part is the field experiments with corn. There are no clear relation to be found between yield and the number of plants.
The moisture content of the wood has negative impact on transport, storage and use of wood, particularly this can be noticed on firewood. The moister the wood the harder is the transportation and storing. The high percentage of moisture also reduces the heating power of fire wood.
Drying of the wood of different tree species was studied at the forestry institute Tuomarniemi with following experiment setup: pines, spruces, birches, aspens and alders were logged and cut into one-meter split billets. Then they were dices according Huber’s formula. The wood was stacked in three similar ricks (stacks), varying the direction of the cut surface. The various tree species were distributed evenly to every rick. The split billets were weighted straight after manufacturing and after every month.The wood dries fastest during spring and summer months. The direction of the cut surface of split billets in the rick makes no big differences in drying. The coniferous wood dries up to lower moisture content than broadleaved woods.
The effects of modern forestry on northwest European forest invertebrates are summarized and analysed mainly on the basis of published literature. The direct influence of different practices including clear-cutting, thinning, burning-over, ploughing, changes in tree species composition of stands, fertilization, insecticides, pheromones and biological control are discussed from a forest zoological point of view. Also, the indirect effects of general changes in boreal forest dynamics, loss of primeval forests, cessation of natural fires and the dominance of young stands are described. The direct effects of different silvicultural practices on the species composition and diversity of forest invertebrates are usually considered to be striking but transient. However, when large areas are treated, the species associated with primeval forests, especially with the wood composition system in them, as well as the species associated with fires, seem to have drastically declined. In northwest Europe, efficient forestry has not caused such serious pest problems as is known from tropical countries or North America.
The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.
Models that predict forest development are essential for sustainable forest management. Constructing growth models via regression analysis or fitting a family of sigmoid equations to construct compatible growth and yield models are two ways these models can be developed. In this study, four species-specific models were developed and compared. A compatible growth and yield stand basal area model and a five-year stand basal area growth model were developed for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). The models were developed using data from permanent inventory plots from the Swedish national forest inventory and long-term experiments. The species-specific models were compared, using independent data from long-term experiments, with a stand basal area growth model currently used in the Swedish forest planning system Heureka (Elfving model). All new models had a good, relatively unbiased fit. There were no apparent differences between the models in their ability to predict basal area development, except for the slightly worse predictions for the Norway spruce growth model. The lack of difference in the model comparison showed that despite the simplicity of the compatible growth and yield models, these models could be recommended, especially when data availability is limited. Also, despite using more and newer data for model development in this study, the currently used Elfving model was equally good at predicting basal area. The lack of model difference indicate that future studies should instead focus on model development for heterogeneous forests which are common but lack in growth and yield modelling research.
In the boreal forest of eastern Canada, a large proportion of black spruce (Picea mariana [Mill.] Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.) stands are affected by paludification. Edaphic conditions that are created by paludification processes, including an abundance of microsites with high moisture and low nutrient contents, hinder forest regeneration. Disturbance of paludified sites by mechanical soil preparation (MSP) reduces organic layer thickness, while generating a range of substrates for regeneration establishment. Yet, little information is available regarding the effects of these substrates on tree growth. Our objective was to determine the effect of organic, mineral and organo-mineral substrates that are created following MSP of a paludified site on the growth and root development of black spruce seedlings in a semi-controlled environment. We demonstrated that substrate exerted a significant effect on seedling growth and foliar concentrations of N, P and K. Increase in height and diameter were respectively greatest on clay (mineral) and mesic substrates. Substrate effects did not affect total biomass increases or final root biomass. Foliar nutrients (N, P, K) were relatively high in seedlings that were established on mesic substrates and relatively low for those established on clay substrates. To ensure successful seedling establishment, we recommend the application of MSP techniques that expose organic-mesic substrates on sites that are susceptible to paludification.
Trees are particularly susceptible to climate change due to their long lives and slow dispersal. However, trees can adjust the timing of their growing season in response to weather conditions without evolutionary change or long-distance migration. This makes understanding phenological cueing mechanisms a critical task to forecast climate change impacts on forests. Because of slow data accumulation, unconventional and repurposed information is valuable in the study of phenology. Here, I develop and use a framework to interpret what phenological patterns among provenances of a species in a common garden reveal about their leafing cues, and potential climate change responses. Species whose high elevation/latitude provenances leaf first likely have little chilling requirement, or for latitude gradients only, a critical photoperiod cue met relatively early in the season. Species with low latitude/elevation origins leafing first have stronger controls against premature leafing; I argue that these species are likely less phenologically flexible in responding to climate change. Among published studies, the low to high order is predominant among frost-sensitive ring-porous species. Narrow-xylemed species show nearly all possible patterns, sometimes with strong contrasts even within genera for both conifers and angiosperms. Some also show complex patterns, indicating multiple mechanisms at work, and a few are largely undifferentiated across broad latitude gradients, suggesting phenotypic plasticity to a warmer climate. These results provide valuable evidence on which temperate and boreal tree species are most likely to adjust in place to climate change, and provide a framework for interpreting historic or newly-planted common garden studies of phenology.
The projections of vegetation zones suggest increasing growth potential of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in Northern Europe. Such changes usually are most apparent in the marginal populations. In this study, survival of young beech growing in an experimental plantation under canopy of a mixed coniferous stand in the central part of Latvia was assessed after 33 years since the establishment. The planting material originated from an older experimental stand in the western part of Latvia. Although, at present, the studied plantation could be considered as the northeasternmost beech stand in Europe, a good survival was observed – ca. 80% of the seedlings have survived, despite several cold spells of ca. –30 °C that occurred during the recent three decades. Additionally, some self-regeneration i.e. branch sprouting was observed. The saplings were rather low, as their mean height was ca. 4 m. Still, some individuals, which were growing under canopy openings, reached considerable dimensions; their height and stem diameter exceeded 10 m and 9 cm, respectively. The distribution of sapling dimensions had the reverse-J shape that is typical for shade tolerant species, indicating normal development of the beech regrowth. The crowns of saplings were narrow and the stems were spindly, suggesting that trees with a good stem quality might be bred. Hence, our results suggest that environmental conditions in the central part of Latvia have been satisfactory for beech, thus encouraging establishment of more extensive trials within the region.