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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Articles containing the keyword 'rime'

Category : Article

article id 5488, category Article
Matti Haapanen. (1992). Effect of plot size and shape on the efficiency of progeny tests. Silva Fennica vol. 26 no. 4 article id 5488.
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; efficiency; progeny testing; plot size; statistical methods; experimental design
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A simulation approach was applied to study the pattern of environmental variability and the relative statistical efficiency of 14 different plot types. The study material consisted of two nine-year-old field tests of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The area of the test sites was 1.57 and 0.67 hectares. The efficiency was measured as the error variance attached to the estimate of family mean and the total size of a test needed to detect a given, least significant difference between two family means. The statistical efficiency tended to decline along with increasing plot size. The importance of plot shape was negligible compared to plot size. The highest efficiency was obtained with single-tree plots. Non-contiguous plots appeared to be considerably more efficient than block plots of equal size. The effects of intergenotypic competition on the choice of plot type are discussed.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish

  • Haapanen, E-mail: mh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5327, category Article
Yrjö Sepänmaa. (1987). Metsäestetiikka ja metsän estetiikka. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 4 article id 5327.
English title: Forstästhetik and forest aesthetics.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; estetiikka; kulttuurimetsä; luonnonmetsä; symboliarvo
English keywords: natural forest; silviculture; aesthetics; cultural forest; symbol value
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Forstästhetik is a programme for forest management, resembling an art manifesto. Forest managers are programme executors. Forest aesthetics is forest investigation from the point of view of beauty. In the case of managed forests, it is possible to ask, what is the manager’s programme and his skill to achieve personal solutions. In forests, the functioning and sustainability of the ecosystem are basic principles affecting all other values. On this basis it is possible to evaluate the competence of taste systems and the logic of their application.

The paper is based on a lecture given in the seminar ‘The forest as a Finnish cultural entity’, held in Helsinki in 1986. The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Sepänmaa, E-mail: ys@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5088, category Article
Reijo Solantie, Kari Ahti. (1980). Säätekijöiden vaikutus Etelä-Suomen lumituhoihin v. 1959. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 4 article id 5088.
English title: The influence of weather on the snow damages for forests in Southern Finland in 1959.
Original keywords: Etelä-Suomi; lumituhot; sääolosuhteet; sääilmiöt; huurre
English keywords: snow damage; rime; weather conditions; Southern Finland; orographic precipitation
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Snow and rime, attached to branches of conifers, seriously damaged forests in a region of 11,000 km2 in Southern Finland during a passage of two nearly occluded cyclones in 1959. The roles of different weather elements were studied by considering the variations occurring in them over this region and its surroundings. Damage occurred only inside an accentuated pattern of copious orographic precipitation. Precipitation only became attached to and retained on branches in such parts of the area where temperature varied on both sides of freezing point but did not exceed 0.6°C. Furthermore, damage only occurred in forests where rime formed (above a certain level and on sloping towards the prevailing wind).

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Solantie, E-mail: rs@mm.unknown (email)
  • Ahti, E-mail: ka@mm.unknown
article id 5064, category Article
E. P. Prokazin. (1980). Geographic variation in forest trees. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 1 article id 5064.
Keywords: Scots pine; tree breeding; seed orchards; forest research; Symposiums; Soviet Union; USSR; provenience experiments
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Planting of forest trees takes place in USSR on millions of hectares but without permanent forest seed bases having yet been established in every region of the country. Consequently, local seed does not suffice the need, and it is necessary to secure it from other geographical regions. To avoid negative consequences of seed transfer it is necessary to study geographic variation of the genetic characteristics of forest trees and construct scientifically based division into seed zones. Geographic transfer of seed can also be regarded as a breeding measure. A large research program is being carried out in the USSR on the subject. Most of the existing trials are provenience tests of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Over 2,000 hectares of new provenience experiments is to be established in near future.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Prokazin, E-mail: ep@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4726, category Article
H. Lyr, G. Hoffmann. (1965). Studies on growth of roots and shoots of certain tree species. Silva Fennica no. 117 article id 4726.
Keywords: birch; larch; pine; tree species; growth; experiments
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Understanding the growth of trees is the prerequisite for meaningful forest management. Hence the studies on the ways the trees grow is important. The growth of roots and sprouts was studied by Larix leptolesis, Pinus silvestris, Betula pendula, Robinia pseudoacasia, Populus euramericana, Pseudotsuga taxifolia, Quercus borealis and some other species. The results of still ongoing experiments on pine, birch and larch are presented for root and shoot growth.

The results indicate that the amount of light or shade the tree is having plays an important role in the growth. Hence some tree species are better adapted to shade than others, there are differences in their growth depending whether they are in light or in shade. 

  • Lyr, E-mail: hl@mm.unknown (email)
  • Hoffmann, E-mail: gh@mm.unknown

Category : Article

article id 7083, category Article
V. T. Aaltonen. (1923). Experiments on clarification of protective action of watery humus extracts. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 25 no. 8 article id 7083.
Keywords: soil; humus; experiments; protective action; hard pan
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The article deals with laboratory experiments of humus containing soil samples that were tested for leaching of iron and lime. The humus and soil samples were collected in five different areas in Silesian state forests, Germany.

The chemical content of the extracts was measured in the beginning of the test. The flocculation experiments and experiments in glass tubes took place. The stronger or weaker the podsolization, the greater or smaller was the protective action of hums at the respective place. However, more research is needed. The results of the glass tube experiments seem to indicate that with humus there were smaller amounts of Ca and Fe leaching than with merely water. 

  • Aaltonen, E-mail: va@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7082, category Article
V. T. Aaltonen. (1923). Knowledge on precipitation of iron in soil. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 25 no. 7 article id 7082.
Keywords: precipitation; iron; soil; working paper; laboratory experiments
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This is a working paper. It presents the laboratory experiments with soil samples from northern Finland, in which the precipitation of iron (Fe) was tested with limewater (Ca). There was no clear difference between samples with limewater and samples without limewater. However, the lime prevented the infiltration of iron almost totally.

The mineral content of soil effects the forest growth and yield and hence it is of interest for forestry. More research is needed both as field experiments and in the laboratory. 

  • Aaltonen, E-mail: va@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7081, category Article
V. T. Aaltonen. (1923). On the spatial order of plants on fields and in forests. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 25 no. 6 article id 7081.
Keywords: soil; forest types; roots; field experiment; corn
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The article contains a literature review about the spatial order of plants and a description of the small-scale experiments with corn. The literature is primarily of German origin. The question of the spatial conditions of trees in forest is important for practice of silviculture. The first part of the article illustrates based on the literature the importance of roots and root concurrence for the development of plants or forest stands. The second and third part deepens the methodological knowledge on root research. Fourth part is the field experiments with corn. There are no clear relation to be found between yield and the number of plants.  

  • Aaltonen, E-mail: va@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7535, category Article
Olli Heikinheimo. (1915). Observations about manufacturing and storage of firewood. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 4 no. 3 article id 7535.
Keywords: percentage of moisture; fire wood; experiment
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The moisture content of the wood has negative impact on transport, storage and use of wood, particularly this can be noticed on firewood. The moister the wood the harder is the transportation and storing. The high percentage of moisture also reduces the heating power of fire wood.

Drying of the wood of different tree species was studied at the forestry institute Tuomarniemi with following experiment setup: pines, spruces, birches, aspens and alders were logged and cut into one-meter split billets. Then they were dices according Huber’s formula. The wood was stacked in three similar ricks (stacks), varying the direction of the cut surface. The various tree species were distributed evenly to every rick. The split billets were weighted straight after manufacturing and after every month.

The wood dries fastest during spring and summer months. The direction of the cut surface of split billets in the rick makes no big differences in drying. The coniferous wood dries up to lower moisture content than broadleaved   woods.
  • Heikinheimo, E-mail: oh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7636, category Article
Kari Heliövaara, Rauno Väisänen. (1984). Effects of modern forestry on Northwestern European forest invertebrates: a synthesis. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 189 article id 7636.
Keywords: forest fires; forest management; insects; forestry; intensive silviculture; Scandinavia; forest invertebrates; primeval forests; changes in boreal forest dynamics
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The effects of modern forestry on northwest European forest invertebrates are summarized and analysed mainly on the basis of published literature. The direct influence of different practices including clear-cutting, thinning, burning-over, ploughing, changes in tree species composition of stands, fertilization, insecticides, pheromones and biological control are discussed from a forest zoological point of view. Also, the indirect effects of general changes in boreal forest dynamics, loss of primeval forests, cessation of natural fires and the dominance of young stands are described. The direct effects of different silvicultural practices on the species composition and diversity of forest invertebrates are usually considered to be striking but transient. However, when large areas are treated, the species associated with primeval forests, especially with the wood composition system in them, as well as the species associated with fires, seem to have drastically declined. In northwest Europe, efficient forestry has not caused such serious pest problems as is known from tropical countries or North America.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Heliövaara, E-mail: kh@mm.unknown (email)
  • Väisänen, E-mail: rv@mm.unknown

Category : Research article

article id 10707, category Research article
Martin Goude, Urban Nilsson, Euan Mason, Giulia Vico. (2022). Comparing basal area growth models for Norway spruce and Scots pine dominated stands. Silva Fennica vol. 56 no. 2 article id 10707.
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; basal area; Picea abies; National Forest Inventory; regression; difference equation; long-term experiment
Highlights: Models were developed that predict basal area growth for Scot pine and Norway spruce stands in Sweden; There were no apparent differences in the ability to predict basal area development between a linear regression model for basal area growth or a compatible growth and yields model for basal area; The model based on data from the 80s had similar performance as the models with data from the 2000s, showing that both can reliably be used to predict forest development.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Models that predict forest development are essential for sustainable forest management. Constructing growth models via regression analysis or fitting a family of sigmoid equations to construct compatible growth and yield models are two ways these models can be developed. In this study, four species-specific models were developed and compared. A compatible growth and yield stand basal area model and a five-year stand basal area growth model were developed for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). The models were developed using data from permanent inventory plots from the Swedish national forest inventory and long-term experiments. The species-specific models were compared, using independent data from long-term experiments, with a stand basal area growth model currently used in the Swedish forest planning system Heureka (Elfving model). All new models had a good, relatively unbiased fit. There were no apparent differences between the models in their ability to predict basal area development, except for the slightly worse predictions for the Norway spruce growth model. The lack of difference in the model comparison showed that despite the simplicity of the compatible growth and yield models, these models could be recommended, especially when data availability is limited. Also, despite using more and newer data for model development in this study, the currently used Elfving model was equally good at predicting basal area. The lack of model difference indicate that future studies should instead focus on model development for heterogeneous forests which are common but lack in growth and yield modelling research.

  • Goude, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-230 53 Alnarp, Sweden ORCID E-mail: (email)
  • Nilsson, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-230 53 Alnarp, Sweden E-mail:
  • Mason, School of Forestry, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, New Zealand E-mail:
  • Vico, Department of Crop Production Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden E-mail:
article id 10230, category Research article
Mohammed Henneb, Osvaldo Valeria, Nelson Thiffault, Nicole Fenton. (2019). Black spruce seedling growth response in controlled organic and organic-mineral substrates. Silva Fennica vol. 53 no. 4 article id 10230.
Keywords: Picea mariana; paludification; seedling growth; seedling nutrition; semi-controlled experiment; substrate
Highlights: Seedling height and diameter were highest on clay and mesic substrates respectively; Foliar nutrients were relatively high in seedlings that were established on mesic substrates; We recommend the application of mechanical soil preparation techniques that promote the creation of organic-mesic substrates to support regeneration establishment.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In the boreal forest of eastern Canada, a large proportion of black spruce (Picea mariana [Mill.] Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.) stands are affected by paludification. Edaphic conditions that are created by paludification processes, including an abundance of microsites with high moisture and low nutrient contents, hinder forest regeneration. Disturbance of paludified sites by mechanical soil preparation (MSP) reduces organic layer thickness, while generating a range of substrates for regeneration establishment. Yet, little information is available regarding the effects of these substrates on tree growth. Our objective was to determine the effect of organic, mineral and organo-mineral substrates that are created following MSP of a paludified site on the growth and root development of black spruce seedlings in a semi-controlled environment. We demonstrated that substrate exerted a significant effect on seedling growth and foliar concentrations of N, P and K. Increase in height and diameter were respectively greatest on clay (mineral) and mesic substrates. Substrate effects did not affect total biomass increases or final root biomass. Foliar nutrients (N, P, K) were relatively high in seedlings that were established on mesic substrates and relatively low for those established on clay substrates. To ensure successful seedling establishment, we recommend the application of MSP techniques that expose organic-mesic substrates on sites that are susceptible to paludification.

  • Henneb, Institut de recherche sur les forêts (IRF), Université du Québec en Abitibi-Témiscamingue, 445 boul. de l’Université, Rouyn-Noranda, QC J9X 5E4, Canada ORCID E-mail: (email)
  • Valeria, Institut de recherche sur les forêts (IRF), Université du Québec en Abitibi-Témiscamingue, 445 boul. de l’Université, Rouyn-Noranda, QC J9X 5E4, Canada ORCID E-mail:
  • Thiffault, Institut de recherche sur les forêts (IRF), Université du Québec en Abitibi-Témiscamingue, 445 boul. de l’Université, Rouyn-Noranda, QC J9X 5E4, Canada; Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Wood Fibre Centre, 1055 rue du PEPS, P.O. Box 10380, Stn Sainte Foy, Quebec, QC G1V 4C7, Canada ORCID E-mail:
  • Fenton, Institut de recherche sur les forêts (IRF), Université du Québec en Abitibi-Témiscamingue, 445 boul. de l’Université, Rouyn-Noranda, QC J9X 5E4, Canada ORCID E-mail:
article id 1120, category Research article
Ilari Lehtonen, Petri Hoppula, Pentti Pirinen, Hilppa Gregow. (2014). Modelling crown snow loads in Finland: a comparison of two methods. Silva Fennica vol. 48 no. 3 article id 1120.
Keywords: climate; forests; snow damage; rime; dry snow; wet snow; frozen snow
Highlights: A new method to model crown snow loads is presented and compared with a previously published simpler method; The heaviest crown snow loads in Finland are found to typically occur in the eastern parts of the country; The relative importance of different snow load types varies between different regions of Finland.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info
The spatial occurrence of heavy crown snow loads in Finland between 1961 and 2010 is studied by using for the first time a model that classifies the snow load into four different types: rime, dry snow, wet snow and frozen snow. In producing this climatology, we used meteorological observations made at 29 locations across Finland. The model performance is evaluated against classified daily images of canopy snow cover and with the help of two short case studies. The results are further compared to those achieved with a simpler method used in previous studies. The heaviest crown snow loads are found to occur typically in eastern Finland. The new method reveals that this holds not only for the total snow loads but also for the different snow load types, although there are certain differences in their geographical occurrence. The greatest benefit achieved with the new method is the inclusion of rime accretion. The forests most prone to heavy riming are those located on tree-covered hills in northern Finland, but as the terrain elevation affects riming efficiency greatly, these small-scale variations in the snow load amounts could not be described in this study in great detail. Moreover, the results are more inaccurate in northern Finland where variations in the terrain elevation are greater than elsewhere. Otherwise, the largest uncertainties in this study are related to wind speed measurements and possibly partly because of that, we were not able to detect any significant trends in the crown snow-load amounts over the study period.
  • Lehtonen, Finnish Meteorological Institute, P.O. Box 503, FI-00101 Helsinki, Finland E-mail: (email)
  • Hoppula, Finnish Meteorological Institute, P.O. Box 503, FI-00101 Helsinki, Finland E-mail:
  • Pirinen, Finnish Meteorological Institute, P.O. Box 503, FI-00101 Helsinki, Finland E-mail:
  • Gregow, Finnish Meteorological Institute, P.O. Box 503, FI-00101 Helsinki, Finland E-mail:
article id 359, category Research article
Paula Horne. (2006). Forest owners’ acceptance of incentive based policy instruments in forest biodiversity conservation – a choice experiment based approach. Silva Fennica vol. 40 no. 1 article id 359.
Keywords: forest owners; heterogeneity; incentive based policy mechanism; choice experiment method
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Finland has launched a new policy programme (METSO) to enhance conservation of forest biodiversity. In non-industrial private forests, the policy is based on economic incentives and voluntarism on the part of forest owners. While biodiversity conservation is the main target of the policy, social acceptability is considered to be of great importance. This study examined the factors that affect the acceptability of biodiversity conservation contracts among private forest owners, and the amount of compensation needed to keep the forest owners at least as well off as before the contract. Choice experiment method was used to analyse the data that were collected by surveying 3000 Finnish private forest owners. Analysing separately those respondents who were willing to enter into a conservation contract allowed an assessment of the impact of forest owners’ heterogeneity on compensation amount. The results show how the welfare of forest owners shifts when the contract terms are changed. In a base scenario the forest owner was assumed to be the initiator of the contract that would require only small patches of forest to be protected, and would also bind new forest owners over its duration of ten years. For all respondents, the average demand for compensation would be around 224 euros annually. When those always choosing the “no additional conservation” alternative were excluded, the average welfare impact of the base scenario was positive.
  • Horne, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Unioninkatu 40 A, FI-00170 Helsinki, Finland E-mail: (email)

Category : Review article

article id 10381, category Review article
Carl F. Salk. (2020). Interpreting common garden studies to understand cueing mechanisms of spring leafing phenology in temperate and boreal tree species. Silva Fennica vol. 54 no. 5 article id 10381.
Keywords: photoperiod; bud break; budburst; chilling; elevation gradients; latitudinal gradients; leaf flush; reciprocal transplant experiments; xylem anatomy
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Trees are particularly susceptible to climate change due to their long lives and slow dispersal. However, trees can adjust the timing of their growing season in response to weather conditions without evolutionary change or long-distance migration. This makes understanding phenological cueing mechanisms a critical task to forecast climate change impacts on forests. Because of slow data accumulation, unconventional and repurposed information is valuable in the study of phenology. Here, I develop and use a framework to interpret what phenological patterns among provenances of a species in a common garden reveal about their leafing cues, and potential climate change responses. Species whose high elevation/latitude provenances leaf first likely have little chilling requirement, or for latitude gradients only, a critical photoperiod cue met relatively early in the season. Species with low latitude/elevation origins leafing first have stronger controls against premature leafing; I argue that these species are likely less phenologically flexible in responding to climate change. Among published studies, the low to high order is predominant among frost-sensitive ring-porous species. Narrow-xylemed species show nearly all possible patterns, sometimes with strong contrasts even within genera for both conifers and angiosperms. Some also show complex patterns, indicating multiple mechanisms at work, and a few are largely undifferentiated across broad latitude gradients, suggesting phenotypic plasticity to a warmer climate. These results provide valuable evidence on which temperate and boreal tree species are most likely to adjust in place to climate change, and provide a framework for interpreting historic or newly-planted common garden studies of phenology.

  • Salk, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 49, SE- 230 53 Alnarp, Sweden; Faculty of International Studies, Utsunomiya University, 350 Minemachi, Utsunomiya-shi, Tochigi 321-8505 Japan; Institute for Globally Distributed Open Research and Education (IGDORE) E-mail: (email)

Category : Research note

article id 1656, category Research note
Līga Puriņa, Roberts Matisons, Āris Jansons, Silva Šēnhofa. (2016). Survival of European beech in the central part of Latvia 33 years since the plantation. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 4 article id 1656.
Keywords: Fagus sylvatica; introduction experiment; sapling mortality; northeasternmost beech trial
Highlights: Beech saplings growing in the central part of Latvia had ca. 80% survival during the recent three decades; The dimensions of saplings varied greatly likely due to canopy conditions; Some beech self-regeneration was observed; Mainly saplings had narrow crowns; The distribution of sapling dimensions had the reverse-J shape, suggesting successful development of beech.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The projections of vegetation zones suggest increasing growth potential of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in Northern Europe. Such changes usually are most apparent in the marginal populations. In this study, survival of young beech growing in an experimental plantation under canopy of a mixed coniferous stand in the central part of Latvia was assessed after 33 years since the establishment. The planting material originated from an older experimental stand in the western part of Latvia. Although, at present, the studied plantation could be considered as the northeasternmost beech stand in Europe, a good survival was observed – ca. 80% of the seedlings have survived, despite several cold spells of ca. –30 °C that occurred during the recent three decades. Additionally, some self-regeneration i.e. branch sprouting was observed. The saplings were rather low, as their mean height was ca. 4 m. Still, some individuals, which were growing under canopy openings, reached considerable dimensions; their height and stem diameter exceeded 10 m and 9 cm, respectively. The distribution of sapling dimensions had the reverse-J shape that is typical for shade tolerant species, indicating normal development of the beech regrowth. The crowns of saplings were narrow and the stems were spindly, suggesting that trees with a good stem quality might be bred. Hence, our results suggest that environmental conditions in the central part of Latvia have been satisfactory for beech, thus encouraging establishment of more extensive trials within the region.

  • Puriņa, LSFRI “Silava”, Rigas str. 111, Salaspils, Latvia, LV2169 E-mail:
  • Matisons, LSFRI “Silava”, Rigas str. 111, Salaspils, Latvia, LV2169 E-mail: (email)
  • Jansons, LSFRI “Silava”, Rigas str. 111, Salaspils, Latvia, LV2169 E-mail:
  • Šēnhofa, LSFRI “Silava”, Rigas str. 111, Salaspils, Latvia, LV2169 E-mail:
article id 609, category Research note
Aleksei Fedorkov. (2001). Climatic adaptation of seed maturity in Scots pine and Norway spruce populations. Silva Fennica vol. 35 no. 1 article id 609.
Keywords: Norway spruce; Scots pine; climatic adaptation; provenance experiment; seed maturation; X-ray method
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Seed maturation of Scots pine and Norway spruce in a provenance experiment at Kortkeros (northern Russia) was examined by the X-ray method. Logarithmic relationships were found between seed anatomy development and long-term average thermal sum. Seed development in the northern populations of Scots pine and Norway spruce was a little faster than in the southern ones.
  • Fedorkov, Russian Academy of Sciences, Komi Science Centre, Institute of Biology, Kommunisticheskya St., 28, 167610 Syktyvkar, Russia E-mail: (email)

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