Current issue: 56(2)

Under compilation: 56(3)

Scopus CiteScore 2021: 2.8
Scopus ranking of open access forestry journals: 8th
PlanS compliant
Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles containing the keyword 'dbh'

Category: Article

article id 5609, category Article
Matti Maltamo. (1997). Comparing basal area diameter distributions estimated by tree species and for the entire growing stock in a mixed stand. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 1 article id 5609. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8510
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; Picea abies; Scots pine; dbh distribution; parameter prediction; Weibull distributions
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The purpose of this study was to compare the Weibull distributions estimated for the entire growing stock of a stand and separately for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) in describing the basal area diameter distributions in mixed stands. The material for this study was obtained by measuring 553 stands located in eastern Finland. The parameters of the Weibull distribution were estimated using the method of maximum likelihood. The models for these parameters were derived using regression analysis. Also, some parameter models from previous studies were compared with the measured distribution. The obtained distributions were compared using the diameter sums of the entire growing stock, diameter sums by tree species and of the sawtimber part of the growing stock. The results showed that far more accurate results were obtained when the distributions were formed using parameter models separately for the different tree species than when using parameter models for the entire growing stock. This was already true when considering the entire growing stock of the stand and especially when the results were examined by tree species. When the models for the entire growing stock were applied by tree species in relation to basal areas, the results obtained were overestimates for Norway spruce and underestimates for Scots pine. The models from earlier studies, where parameter models were estimated separately for tree species from the National Forest Inventory data, showed good fits also in regard to the data of this study.

  • Maltamo, E-mail: mm@mm.unknown (email)

Category: Research article

article id 300, category Research article
Jouni Siipilehto, Sakari Sarkkola, Lauri Mehtätalo. (2007). Comparing regression estimation techniques when predicting diameter distributions of Scots pine on drained peatlands. Silva Fennica vol. 41 no. 2 article id 300. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.300
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; drained peatland; dbh distribution; Johnson’s SB function; regression estimation methods
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
We compared different statistical methods for fitting linear regression models to a longitudinal data of breast height diameter (dbh) distributions of Scots pine dominated stands on drained peatlands. The parameter prediction methods for two parameters of Johnson’s SB distribution, fitted to basal-area dbh distributions, were: 1) a linear model estimated by ordinary least squares (OLS), 2) a multivariate linear model estimated using the seemingly unrelated regression approach (SUR), 3) a linear mixed-effects model with random intercept (MIX), and 4) a multivariate mixed-effects model (MSUR). The aim was to clarify the effect of taking into account the hierarchy of the data, as well as simultaneous estimation of the correlated dependent variables on the model fit and predictions. Instead of the reliability of the predicted parameters, we focused on the reliability of the models in predicting stand conditions. Predicted distributions were validated in terms of bias, RMSE, and error deviation in the generated quantities of the growing stock. The study material consisted of 112 successively measured stands from 12 experimental areas covering the whole of Finland (total of 608 observations). Two independent test data sets were used for model validation. All the advanced regression techniques were superior to OLS, when exactly the same independent stand variables were included. SUR and MSUR were ranked the overall best and second best, respectively. Their ranking was the same in the modeling data, whereas MSUR was superior in the peatland test data and SUR in the mineral soil test data. The ranking of the models was logical, but may not be widely generalized. The SUR and MSUR models were considered to be relevant tools for practical forest management planning purposes over a variety of site types and stand structures.
  • Siipilehto, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland E-mail: jouni.siipilehto@metla.fi (email)
  • Sarkkola, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland E-mail: ss@nn.fi
  • Mehtätalo, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, P.O. Box 111, 80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail: lm@nn.fi
article id 408, category Research article
Sakari Sarkkola, Hannu Hökkä, Timo Penttilä. (2004). Natural development of stand structure in peatland Scots pine following drainage: results based on long-term monitoring of permanent sample plots. Silva Fennica vol. 38 no. 4 article id 408. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.408
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; peatland; tree mortality; stand structure; drainage; dbh distribution
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
We studied the dynamics of stand structure on drained peatland sites in Scots pine dominated stands untreated with thinnings. The data consisted of consecutive stand measurements in 10 permanent sample plots where the monitoring periods varied from 29 to 66 years. We assumed that the stand’s structural development was driven by the natural processes of regeneration, growth, and mortality, all related to inter-tree competition within the stand. The DBH distributions of live and dead trees at different times of post-drainage stand development – smoothed by Weibull function – were analysed to characterise the change in stand structure. The initial uneven-sized structure of the natural, widely-spaced stands became more uneven during the first decades following drainage due to enhanced regeneration. Later, as stand density and mean tree size continuously increased, the DBH distributions approached bell-shaped distributions. Accordingly, the suppressed trees showed their highest mortality rate during the first decades, but the peak of the mortality distribution shifted to larger trees along stand succession. The change in structure was faster in southern Finland than in northern Finland. We assumed the changes in stand dynamics reflected increased inter-tree competition, initiated by enhanced site productivity and increased stand stocking resulting from the ditching operation.
  • Sarkkola, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Ecology, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland E-mail: sakari.sarkkola@helsinki.fi (email)
  • Hökkä, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Rovaniemi Research Station, P.O. Box 16, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland E-mail: hh@nn.fi
  • Penttilä, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Centre, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland E-mail: tp@nn.fi
article id 617, category Research article
Jouni Siipilehto. (2000). A comparison of two parameter prediction methods for stand structure in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 34 no. 4 article id 617. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.617
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Picea abies; parameter prediction; dbh and height distribution; Johnson’s SBB distribution; Näslund’s height curve
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
The objective of this paper was to predict a model for describing stand structure of tree heights (h) and diameters at breast height (dbh). The research material consisted of data collected from 64 stands of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) and 91 stands of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) located in southern Finland. Both stand types contained birch (Betula pendula Roth and B. pubescent Ehrh.) admixtures. The traditional univariate approach (Model I) of using the dbh distribution (Johnson’s SB) together with a height curve (Näslund’s function) was compared against the bivariate approaches, Johnson’s SBB distribution (Model II) and Model Ie. In Model Ie within-dbh-class h-variation was included by transforming a normally distributed homogenous error of linearized Näslund’s function to concern real heights. Basal-area-weighted distributions were estimated using the maximum likelihood (ML) method. Species-specific prediction models were derived using linear regression analysis. The models were compared with Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests for marginal distributions, accuracy of stand variables and the dbh-h relationship of individual trees. The differences in the stand characteristics between the models were marginal. Model I gave a slightly better fit for spruce, but Model II was better for pine stands. The univariate Model I resulted in clearly too narrow marginal h-distribution for pine. It is recommended applying of a constrained ML method for reasonable dbh-h relationship instead of using a pure ML method when fitting the SBB model.
  • Siipilehto, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Centre, P.O. Box 18, FIN-01301 Vantaa, Finland E-mail: jouni.siipilehto@metla.fi (email)
article id 650, category Research article
Jouni Siipilehto. (1999). Improving the accuracy of predicted basal-area diameter distribution in advanced stands by determining stem number. Silva Fennica vol. 33 no. 4 article id 650. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.650
Keywords: dbh distribution; parameter prediction; Johnson’s SB distribution; Weibull distribution
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
The objective of this paper was to study to what extent the accuracy of predicted basal-area diameter distributions (DDG) could be improved by means of stem number observations in advanced (H > 10 m) stands. In the Finnish forest management planning (FMP) inventory practice, stem number is determined only in young stands; in older stands stand basal area is used. The study material consisted of sixty stands of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) and ninety-one stands of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) with birch (Betula pendula Roth and B. pubescens Ehrh.) admixtures in southern and eastern Finland. For test data, 167–292 independent, National Forest Inventory-based, permanent sample plots were used. DDGs were estimated with the maximum likelihood method. Species-specific models for predicting the distribution parameters were derived using regression analysis. The two-parameter Weibull distribution was compared to the three-parameter Johnson’s SB distributions in predicting DDGs. The models were based on either predictors that are consistent with current FMP (model G), or assuming an additional stem number observation (model G+N). The predicted distributions were compared in terms of the derived stand variables: stem number, total and timber volumes. The results were similar in modelling and test data sets. Methods, based on the SB distribution obtained with model (G+N), proved to give the most accurate description of the stand structure. Differences were marginal in stand total volumes. However, the error variation in stem number was 20% to 80% lower than when applying model (G). SB and Weibull distributions gave very much the same results if model (G) was applied.
  • Siipilehto, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Centre, P.O. Box 18, FIN-01301 Vantaa, Finland E-mail: jouni.siipilehto@metla.fi (email)

Category: Commentary

article id 475, category Commentary
Petteri Muukkonen, Raisa Mäkipää. (2006). Biomass equations for European trees: addendum. Silva Fennica vol. 40 no. 4 article id 475. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.475
Keywords: aboveground biomass; allometry; biomass functions; belowground biomass; dbh; tree diameter; tree height
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
A review of stem volume and biomass equations for tree species growing in Europe (Zianis et al. 2005) resulted in suggestions for additional equations. The numbers of original equations, compiled from scientific articles were 607 for biomass and 230 for stem volume. On the basis of the suggestions and an updated literature search, some new equations were published after our review, but more equations were also available from earlier literature. In this addendum, an additional 188 biomass equations and 8 volume equations are presented. One new tree species (Pinus cembra) is included in the list of volume equations. Biomass equations for twelve new tree species are presented: Abies alba, Carbinus betulus, Larix decidua, P. cembra, P. nigra, Quercus robur, Salix caprea, S. ‘Aquatica’, S. dasyclados, S. phylicifolias, S. triandra and S. accuparia. The tree-level equations predict stem volume, whole tree biomass or biomass of certain components (e.g., foliage, roots, total above-ground) as a function of diameter or diameter and height of a tree. Biomass and volume equations with other independent variables have also been widely developed but they are excluded from this addendum because the variables selected may reflect locally valid dependencies that cannot be generalized to other geographical regions. Most of the equations presented here are developed for Sweden, Finland and Norway in northern Europe, for Austria in central Europe and for Italy in southern Europe. There are also few equations from Poland and Belgium. Most of the equations deal with above-ground components such as stem, branches and foliage, but some new equations are also available for root biomass. Zianis et al. (2005) and this addendum can be used together as guides to the original publications of these equations. Our updated database of the biomass and volume equations is available also from the website www.metla.fi/hanke/3306/tietokanta.htm.
  • Muukkonen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland E-mail: petteri.muukkonen@metla.fi
  • Mäkipää, Finnish Forest Research Institute, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland E-mail: raisa.makipaa@metla.fi (email)

Register
Click this link to register to Silva Fennica.
Log in
If you are a registered user, log in to save your selected articles for later access.
Contents alert
Sign up to receive alerts of new content
Your selected articles