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Articles containing the keyword 'transfer'

Category : Article

article id 5466, category Article
Hely Häggman. (1991). Application of biotechnology to forest tree breeding. Silva Fennica vol. 25 no. 4 article id 5466. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15624
Keywords: tree breeding; micropropagation; vegetative propagation; somatic embryogenesis; conventional breeding; somaclonal variation; biotechnology; gene transfer
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Forest tree breeding involves manipulation of genetic composition of populations and individuals, and biotechnology focuses on selected individuals. The new techniques cannot replace the conventional breeding techniques but both need effective cooperation of each other. Thus, the distinction between conventional breeding and biotechnology is artificial. The biotechnology methods are new and fast developing and the future with field and progeny testing will show which techniques will be permanently adopted into tree breeding. For instance, the earlier hope of the use of somaclonal variation as a new source of variability and a powerful tool for the breeder seem today quite the opposite. Somaclonal variation constituting a major problem in present-day micropropagation is due to the unpredictable variation. Based on knowledge of today, especially micropropagation via somatic embryos, transgenic trees and the identification of major genes seem to be good candidates to be permanently adopted into tree breeding.

  • Häggman, E-mail: hh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5356, category Article
Pekka Lähdesmäki, Pekka Pietiläinen. (1988). Seasonal variation in the nitrogen metabolism of young Scots pine. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 3 article id 5356. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15513
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; winter dormancy; amino acids; arginine; proteins; nitrate reductase; γ-glutamyltransferase; pine buds and needles; nitrogen metabolism
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Seasonal changed in total nitrogen, protein, amino acid, ammonia, nitrate and nitrite concentrations, and nitrate reductase and γ-glutamyltransferase activities in the needles, buds and shoots of young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were studied. A relationship between the variation in the nitrogen metabolism and both winter dormancy and its breaking was proposed. Pine tissues stored soluble nitrogen over the winter largely in the form of arginine which, in addition to a high nitrogen content, can neutralize acidic cytoplasmic constituents such as nitrates and nitrites. Specific nitrate reductase and γ-glutamyltransferase activities were highest in late summer or autumn, and is apparently connected to the mobilization of nitrogen reserves for the winter.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Lähdesmäki, E-mail: pl@mm.unknown (email)
  • Pietiläinen, E-mail: pp@mm.unknown

Category : Research article

article id 10695, category Research article
Ana de Lera Garrido, Terje Gobakken, Hans Ole Ørka, Erik Næsset, Ole M. Bollandsås. (2022). Estimating forest attributes in airborne laser scanning based inventory using calibrated predictions from external models. Silva Fennica vol. 56 no. 2 article id 10695. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10695
Keywords: forest inventory; LIDAR; calibration; area-based approach; spatial transferability; temporal transferability
Highlights: Three approaches to calibrate temporal and spatial external models using field observations from different numbers of local plots are presented; Calibration produced satisfactory results, reducing the mean difference between estimated and observed values in 89% of all trials; Using few calibration plots, ratio-calibration provided the lowest mean difference; Calibration using 20 plots gave comparable results to a local forest inventory.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Forest management inventories assisted by airborne laser scanner data rely on predictive models traditionally constructed and applied based on data from the same area of interest. However, forest attributes can also be predicted using models constructed with data external to where the model is applied, both temporal and geographically. When external models are used, many factors influence the predictions’ accuracy and may cause systematic errors. In this study, volume, stem number, and dominant height were estimated using external model predictions calibrated using a reduced number of up-to-date local field plots or using predictions from reparametrized models. We assessed and compared the performance of three different calibration approaches for both temporally and spatially external models. Each of the three approaches was applied with different numbers of calibration plots in a simulation, and the accuracy was assessed using independent validation data. The primary findings were that local calibration reduced the relative mean difference in 89% of the cases, and the relative root mean squared error in 56% of the cases. Differences between application of temporally or spatially external models were minor, and when the number of local plots was small, calibration approaches based on the observed prediction errors on the up-to-date local field plots were better than using the reparametrized models. The results showed that the estimates resulting from calibrating external models with 20 plots were at the same level of accuracy as those resulting from a new inventory.

  • de Lera Garrido, Faculty of Environmental Sciences and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, NO-1432 Ås, Norway E-mail: ana.de.lera@nmbu.no (email)
  • Gobakken, Faculty of Environmental Sciences and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, NO-1432 Ås, Norway E-mail: terje.gobakken@nmbu.no
  • Ørka, Faculty of Environmental Sciences and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, NO-1432 Ås, Norway E-mail: hans-ole.orka@nmbu.no
  • Næsset, Faculty of Environmental Sciences and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, NO-1432 Ås, Norway E-mail: erik.naesset@nmbu.no
  • Bollandsås, Faculty of Environmental Sciences and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, NO-1432 Ås, Norway E-mail: ole.martin.bollandsas@nmbu.no
article id 10272, category Research article
Ana de Lera Garrido, Terje Gobakken, Hans Ole Ørka, Erik Næsset, Ole M. Bollandsås. (2020). Reuse of field data in ALS-assisted forest inventory. Silva Fennica vol. 54 no. 5 article id 10272. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10272
Keywords: airborne laser scanning; data reuse; temporal model transferability
Highlights: Six biophysical forest attributes were estimated for small stands without using up-to-date field data; The approaches included reused model relationships and forecasted field data; The accuracy of height estimates was comparable with the accuracy of an ordinary forest inventory with up-to-date field- and ALS data; Both approaches tended to produce estimates systematically different from the ground reference.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Forest inventories assisted by wall-to-wall airborne laser scanning (ALS), have become common practice in many countries. One major cost component in these inventories is the measurement of field sample plots used for constructing models relating biophysical forest attributes to metrics derived from ALS data. In areas where ALS-assisted forest inventories are planned, and in which the previous inventories were performed with the same method, reusing previously acquired field data can potentially reduce costs, either by (1) temporally transferring previously constructed models or (2) projecting field reference data using growth models that can serve as field reference data for model construction with up-to-date ALS data. In this study, we analyzed these two approaches of reusing field data acquired 15 years prior to the current ALS acquisition to estimate six up-to-date forest attributes (dominant tree height, mean tree height, stem number, stand basal area, volume, and aboveground biomass). Both approaches were evaluated within small stands with sizes of approximately 0.37 ha, assessing differences between estimates and ground reference values. The estimates were also compared to results from an up-to-date forest inventory relying on concurrent field- and ALS data. The results showed that even though the reuse of historical information has some potential and could be beneficial for forest inventories, systematic errors may appear prominent and need to be overcome to use it operationally. Our study showed systematic trends towards the overestimation of lower-range ground references and underestimation of the upper-range ground references.

  • de Lera Garrido, Faculty of Environmental Sciences and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, NO-1432 Ås, Norway E-mail: ana.maria.lera.garrido@nmbu.no (email)
  • Gobakken, Faculty of Environmental Sciences and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, NO-1432 Ås, Norway E-mail: terje.gobakken@nmbu.no
  • Ørka, Faculty of Environmental Sciences and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, NO-1432 Ås, Norway E-mail: hans-ole.orka@nmbu.no
  • Næsset, Faculty of Environmental Sciences and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, NO-1432 Ås, Norway E-mail: erik.naesset@nmbu.no
  • Bollandsås, Faculty of Environmental Sciences and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, NO-1432 Ås, Norway E-mail: ole.martin.bollandsas@nmbu.no
article id 7731, category Research article
Anneli Viherä-Aarnio, Pirkko Velling. (2017). Growth, wood density and bark thickness of silver birch originating from the Baltic countries and Finland in two Finnish provenance trials. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 4 article id 7731. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.7731
Keywords: Betula pendula; provenance; bark thickness; frost crack; seed transfer; wood basic density; wood discolouration
Highlights: Baltic origins of silver birch had significantly thicker bark than the Finnish ones; In terms of wood density, no consistent difference was detected between the Baltic and Finnish origins; Incidence of darkened core wood increased with increasing seed origin latitude; Frost cracks were most common in south Latvian origins grown in central Finland.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) seed origins from the Baltic countries and from Finland were compared in terms of growth, wood density, bark thickness and the incidence of darkened core wood, frost cracks and decay, and the effect of seed origin latitude was examined in two Finnish provenance trials. The material consisted of 21 stand and single tree origins ranging from latitudes 54° to 63°N from the Baltic countries and Finland. The trials, measured at the age of 22 years, were located at Tuusula (60°21´N), southern Finland and at Viitasaari (63°11´N), central Finland. The Baltic origins were superior to the Finnish ones in the southern trial regarding height, whereas in central Finland the Finnish origins grew better. There was no consistent difference between the Baltic and the Finnish group of origins in wood density. Bark thickness decreased with increasing seed origin latitude. The Baltic origins had significantly thicker bark than the Finnish origins. A moderate positive correlation was detected between the seed origin latitude and the incidence of darkened core wood in the southern trial, where the darkened core wood was more common in the Finnish origins than in the Baltic ones. The highest proportion of trees with frost cracks was detected in the south-western Latvian origins growing in central Finland. Seed transfers from the Baltic would have an increasing effect on the bark thickness of birch logs, but no or only minor effects on wood density. Based on our results, there is no reason to recommend the use of non-native Baltic seed origins in Finland instead of the native locally adapted seed sources.

  • Viherä-Aarnio, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Green technology, P.O. Box 2, FI-00791 Helsinki, Finland E-mail: anneli.vihera-aarnio@luke.fi (email)
  • Velling, E-mail: pike.velling@phnet.fi
article id 46, category Research article
Matti Rousi, Boy J.H.M. Possen, Risto Hagqvist, Barb R. Thomas. (2012). From the Arctic Circle to the Canadian prairies – a case study of silver birch acclimation capacity. Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 3 article id 46. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.46
Keywords: acclimation; Betula papyrifera; Betula pendula; birch adaptability; critical night length; provenance transfers
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Earlier provenance research has indicated poor success even in short distance transfers (> 2–3° latitude) of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) southward from their origin. These results may indicate poor adaptability of silver birch to a warming climate. Some of the scenarios for a warming climate in Finland suggest effective heat sums are likely to double in the north and increase 1.5 fold in the south for the period of 2070–2099. Consequently, the outlook for silver birch appears bleak. To study the acclimation of birch to this projected change we established a provenance trial in northeastern Alberta, Canada, at the temperature area currently predicted for Central Finland (lat. 64–66°N) at the turn of this century (1400 dd). Our 10-year experiment showed that all the Finnish provenances (origins 61–67°N) have acclimated well to the warmer growth conditions experienced in Alberta at 54°N. These results suggest that silver birch has the potential to acclimate to thermal conditions predicted for Finland at the end of the 21st century. Our results also indicate that silver birch has the potential as a plantation species in Canada, where the Finnish birch grew faster in the boreal forest region of Canada than local paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) provenances.
  • Rousi, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Finland E-mail: matti.rousi@metla.fi (email)
  • Possen, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Finland E-mail: bjhmp@nn.fi
  • Hagqvist, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Finland E-mail: rh@nn.fi
  • Thomas, University of Alberta, Dept of Renewable Resources, Edmonton & Alberta-Pacific Forest Industries Inc., Boyle, Alberta, Canada E-mail: brt@nn.ca
article id 690, category Research article
Bengt Persson. (1998). Will climate change affect the optimal choice of Pinus sylvestris provenances? Silva Fennica vol. 32 no. 2 article id 690. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.690
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; yield; survival; temperature sum; climatic warming; provenance transfer
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Provenance experiments with Pinus sylvestris (L.) were evaluated in Sweden north of latitude 60°N. Survival and yield were determined as functions of temperature sum of the site and latitudinal origin of the provenance. Altitudinal origin was of negligible importance. The effects of latitudinal transfer were influenced by temperature sum at the growing site. At the harshest situated sites southward transfer longer than 3° was optimal for survival and yield, whereas transfer effects in a mild climate were weak. Climatic warming would reduce demands of hardiness. However, moderate differences in productivity are expected between formerly optimal seed sources and the ones adapted to changed climatic conditions. Since mortality usually was low in plantations older than 20 years or higher than 2 m, established stands are expected to be robust against adverse effects of climate change.
  • Persson, Högskolan Dalarna, S-781 88 Borlänge, Sweden E-mail: bpn@du.se (email)

Category : Research note

article id 10683, category Research note
Aarne Hovi, Petr Lukeš, Lucie Homolová, Jussi Juola, Miina Rautiainen. (2022). Small geographical variability observed in Norway spruce needle spectra across Europe. Silva Fennica vol. 56 no. 2 article id 10683. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10683
Keywords: albedo; remote sensing; reflectance; transmittance; land surface modeling; leaf optical properties; radiative transfer modeling
Highlights: Spectra of Norway spruce needles were collected from three sites in Europe (49°–62°N); The same acquisition and processing parameters were applied throughout the campaign; Geographical variability in the needle spectra was small; Comparison of the spectra of coniferous needles and broadleaved tree foliage is also presented.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Foliage spectra form an important input to physically-based forest reflectance models. However, little is known about geographical variability of coniferous needle spectra. In this research note, we present an assessment of the geographical variability of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) needle albedo, reflectance, and transmittance spectra across three study sites covering latitudes of 49–62°N in Europe. All spectra were measured and processed using exactly the same methodology and parameters, which guarantees reliable conclusions about geographical variability. Small geographical variability in Norway spruce needle spectra was observed, when compared to variability observed between previous measurement campaigns (employing slightly varying measurement and processing parameters), or to variability between plant functional types (broadleaved vs. coniferous). Our results suggest that variability of needle spectra is not a major factor introducing geographical variability to forest reflectance. The results also highlight the importance of harmonizing measurement protocols when collecting needle spectral libraries. Furthermore, the data collected for this study can be useful in studies where accurate information on spectral differences between broadleaved and coniferous tree foliage is needed.

  • Hovi, Aalto University, School of Engineering, Department of Built Environment, P.O. Box 14100, FI-00760 Aalto, Finland ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4384-5279 E-mail: aarne.hovi@aalto.fi (email)
  • Lukeš, Global Change Research Institute of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Bělidla 986/4a, 603 00 Brno, Czech Republic ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3707-6557 E-mail: lukes.p@czechglobe.cz
  • Homolová, Global Change Research Institute of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Bělidla 986/4a, 603 00 Brno, Czech Republic ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7455-2834 E-mail: homolova.l@czechglobe.cz
  • Juola, Aalto University, School of Engineering, Department of Built Environment, P.O. Box 14100, FI-00760 Aalto, Finland ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6050-7247 E-mail: jussi.juola@aalto.fi
  • Rautiainen, Aalto University, School of Engineering, Department of Built Environment, P.O. Box 14100, FI-00760 Aalto, Finland; Aalto University, School of Electrical Engineering, Department of Electronics and Nanoengineering, P.O. Box 15500, FI-00760 Aalto, Finland ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6568-3258 E-mail: miina.a.rautiainen@aalto.fi
article id 10014, category Research note
Āris Jansons, Roberts Matisons, Virgilijus Baliuckas, Līga Purina, Oskars Krišāns, Jānis Jansons, Imants Baumanis. (2018). Performance variation of lodgepole pine provenances in Latvia. Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 5 article id 10014. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10014
Keywords: provenance trial; Pinus contorta var. latifolia; growth traits; transfer; spike knots
Highlights: Performance of 36 provenances of lodgepole pine in 14 trials was studied; The 29 year survival was ca. 40%; Provenance and provenance × trial interaction affected dimensions of lodgepole pine; Provenances from lower latitudes were the most productive.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Engelm.) has been extensively introduced in Scandinavia on less productive sites. Under a changing climate, it also has a high potential in the eastern Baltic region; still, its performance there has scarcely been reported. This study investigated the performance of 36 Canadian provenances in 14 trials in western Latvia. Tree dimensions showed notable provenance and provenance-by-environment variation, implying that local selection by provenance can be applied for improved yield. Southern provenances showed the best height growth, while southwestern (more oceanic) provenances excelled in diameter growth. Most of the quality traits were affected by provenance or provenance-by-environment interaction, yet the variation was lower than for the growth traits.

  • Jansons, Latvian State Forest Research Institute ”Silava”, Department of Forest Tree Breeding, Rigas St.t. 111, Salaspils LV-2169, Latvia E-mail: aris.jansons@silava.lv (email)
  • Matisons, Latvian State Forest Research Institute ”Silava”, Department of Forest Tree Breeding, Rigas St.t. 111, Salaspils LV-2169, Latvia E-mail: robism@inbox.lv
  • Baliuckas, Forest Institute, Lithuanian Centre for Agriculture and Forestry, Department of Forest Tree Genetics and Breeding, Liepu St. 1, Girionys, LT-53101 Kaunas distr., Lithuania E-mail: virgilijus.baliuckas@mi.lt
  • Purina, Latvian State Forest Research Institute ”Silava”, Department of Forest Tree Breeding, Rigas St.t. 111, Salaspils LV-2169, Latvia E-mail: liga.purina@silava.lv
  • Krišāns, Latvian State Forest Research Institute ”Silava”, Department of Forest Tree Breeding, Rigas St.t. 111, Salaspils LV-2169, Latvia E-mail: oskars.krisans@silava.lv
  • Jansons, Latvian State Forest Research Institute ”Silava”, Department of Forest Tree Breeding, Rigas St.t. 111, Salaspils LV-2169, Latvia E-mail: janis.jansons.silava@gmail.com
  • Baumanis, Latvian State Forest Research Institute ”Silava”, Department of Forest Tree Breeding, Rigas St.t. 111, Salaspils LV-2169, Latvia E-mail: imants.baumanis@silava.lv

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