Current issue: 57(1)

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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Articles containing the keyword 'MELA'

Category: Article

article id 5611, category Article
Arja Lilja, Timo Kurkela, Sakari Lilja, Risto Rikala.. (1997). Nursery practices and management of fungal diseases in forest nurseries in Finland. A review. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 1 article id 5611.
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Picea abies; forest nursery; Betula spp.; Finland; damping-off; grey mold; root dieback; scleroderris canker; pine twisting rust; seedlings; fungal diseases; Godronia multispora; Lophodermium needle cast; snow blights; birch rust; stem lesions of birch; leaf lesions of birch; Lophodermium pinastri; Botrytis cinerea; Melampsora pinitorqua; Melampsoridium betulinum
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The purpose of this article was to collate the literature on fungal diseases that occur on seedlings in forest nurseries. It describes the symptoms of the diseases, the infection pattern of each fungus and the possibilities of controlling the diseases. As background a short introduction is given on forests and nursery practices in Finland.

  • Lilja, E-mail: al@mm.unknown (email)
  • Kurkela, E-mail: tk@mm.unknown
  • Lilja, E-mail: sl@mm.unknown
  • Rikala., E-mail: rr@mm.unknown
article id 5415, category Article
Kim von Weissenberg. (1990). Host-parasite relationships in forest ecosystems: A review. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 1 article id 5415.
Keywords: Pinus; resistance; Ophiostoma; rust diseases; Cronartium; Cryphonectria; Melampsora; polygenic; oligogenic; gene-for-gene
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Based on a survey of world literature it is concluded that 1) the better -researched epidemic forest pathosystems are caused by anthropogenic factors, 2) the systems most likely have a polygenic background, and 3) resistance breeding should maintain polygenic resistance with restrictive incorporation of oligogenic resistance. Corresponding objectives are valid in breeding programs of presently balanced pathosystems, which may turn epidemic if man causes changes in the gene pool and alters critical environmental conditions.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Weissenberg, E-mail: kw@mm.unknown (email)

Category: Article

article id 7390, category Article
Onni Pohjakallio, Olli Vaartaja. (1948). Occurrence and spore production of Coleosporium melanpyri Kleb. (pine needle rust) on different sites and host plants. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 55 no. 2 article id 7390.
Keywords: site; occurrence; Coleosporium melanpyri Kleb; host; spore production; Coleosporium spp.
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Department of plant pathology of University of Helsinki conducted studies in the surrounding forests of Viikki test farm and on the Hyytiälä forest training station to find about occurrence and spore production of pine needle rust.

The damages have been minor. Most often the infection did not cause yellowing of the needles, only individual needles might have dried up. There were no dead young trees.

The spore production was strongest at the more fertile sites, with abundant occurrence of cow-wheat (Melanpyrum spp.). The infection caused more harm on the cow-wheat than on the pines. In many cases the foliage died prematurely. Melanpyrum spp. were more strongly infected on sites with more light. However, there was no difference found with the fertility of the site.

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish. 

  • Pohjakallio, E-mail: op@mm.unknown (email)
  • Vaartaja, E-mail: ov@mm.unknown

Category: Research article

article id 544, category Research article
Perttu Anttila. (2002). Updating stand level inventory data applying growth models and visual interpretation of aerial photographs. Silva Fennica vol. 36 no. 2 article id 544.
Keywords: aerial photographs; stand level inventory; MELA; updating of inventory data; visual interpretation
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
In this study two procedures for updating stand level inventory data were developed and tested. The development of the growing stock of 62 stands over 12 years was simulated in the MELA stand simulator with no prior information of rapid changes, such as clear-cuttings. The acceptability of the simulation was decided standwise with visual interpretation of aerial false-colour photographs. If the simulated data were not accepted, new stand attributes were assessed with photo interpretation in procedure 1. In procedure 2, on the other hand, it was possible to utilise old management proposals. In case a cutting or other operation had been proposed and it looked like the operation had been realised, the interpreters accepted the proposal. Otherwise the last implemented operation and implementation year were interpreted. In case no operation had been carried out during the updating period but the growth model updated data were not acceptable, the same stand characteristics were estimated as in procedure 1. Stands where a proposal had been accepted or an operation interpreted were later updated again in MELA so that the program simulated the operations. The Root Mean Squared Errors of stem volume were 62 and 57 m3 per ha (34 and 30%) with procedures 1 and 2. With procedure 2 the accuracy of updating was comparable with a stand level field inventory carried out in the study area. The productivity of the photo interpretation procedures was 57 and 84 ha per h, respectively, whereas the productivity of a field inventory has been 3.3–5 ha per h.
  • Anttila, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail: (email)
article id 586, category Research article
Tuula Nuutinen, Seppo Kellomäki. (2001). A comparison of three modelling approaches for large-scale forest scenario analysis in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 35 no. 3 article id 586.
Keywords: MELA; carbon budget; forestry model; scenario modelling; EFISCEN; SIMA
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Forests play an important role in the sequestration of carbon dioxide and the storage of carbon. The potential and efficiency of mitigation options in forestry have been studied using large-scale forestry scenario models. In Finland, three models have been applied in attempts to estimate timber production and related carbon budgets. In this study, these models are compared. The oldest, MELA, was designed in the 1970s for the regional and national analysis of timber production. The European Forest Information Scenario Model, EFISCEN, originally a Swedish area matrix model, was developed in the early 1980s. SIMA, a gap-type ecosystem model, was utilised in the 1990s for regional predictions on how the changing climate may affect forest growth and timber yield in Finland. In EFISCEN, only the development of growing stock is endogeneous because the assumptions on growth, and the removal and rules for felling are given exogeneously. In the SIMA model, the rules for felling are exogeneous but the growth is modelled based on individual trees reacting to their environment. In the MELA model, the management of forests is endogeneous, i.e. the growth, felling regimes and the development of growing stock are the results of the analysis. The MELA approach integrated with a process-based ecosystem model seems most applicable in the analyses of effective mitigation measures compatible with sustainable forestry under a changing climate. When using the scenarios for the estimation of carbon budget, the policy makers should check that the analyses cover the whole area of interest, and that the assumptions on growth and management together with the definitions applied correspond with the forestry conditions in question.
  • Nuutinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Centre, Box 68, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail: (email)
  • Kellomäki, University of Joensuu, Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail:
article id 636, category Research article
Tuula Nuutinen, Hannu Hirvelä, Jari Hynynen, Kari Härkönen, Hannu Hökkä, Kari T. Korhonen, Olli Salminen. (2000). The role of peatlands in Finnish wood production – an analysis based on large-scale forest scenario modelling. Silva Fennica vol. 34 no. 2 article id 636.
Keywords: peatlands; MELA; wood production; forest scenario modelling
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Using the Finnish MELA model, a set of scenarios were produced and used to map the possibilities and risks surrounding the utilisation of peatlands in wood production in Finland. One of the scenarios was an estimate of allowable-cut calculated by maximising the net present value of the future revenues using a four per cent interest rate subject to non-decreasing flow of wood, saw logs and net income over a 50-year period, and net present value after the 50 year period greater or equal than in the beginning. The estimate for maximum regionally sustained removal in 1996–2005 was 68 million m3 per year – approaching 74 million m3 during the next decades. In this scenario, 14 per cent of all cuttings during the period 1996–2005 would be made on peatlands, which comprise ca. 31 per cent of the total area of forestry land. By the year 2025, the proportion of peatland cuttings would increase to over 20 per cent. The increase in future cutting possibilities on peatlands compensated for a temporary decrease in cuttings and growing stock on mineral soils. The allowable-cut effect was especially pronounced in northern Finland, where peatlands play an important role in wood production. In addition, the sensitivity of cutting possibilities for assumptions related to growth and price were analysed. The estimate of maximum sustainable yield as defined here seems to be fairly robust on the whole, except in northern Finland where the cutting scenarios were sensitive to the changes in the price of birch pulpwood. The proportion of peatland stands that are profitable for timber production depends on the interest rate: the higher the rate of interest the less peatland stands are thinned. The effect of cutting profile on future logging conditions and resulting costs were analysed in two forestry centres. If clear cuttings on mineral soils are to be cut first, an increase in future logging costs is inevitable.
  • Nuutinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Station, P.O. Box 68, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail: (email)
  • Hirvelä, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Station, P.O. Box 68, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail:
  • Hynynen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Station, P.O. Box 68, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail:
  • Härkönen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Station, P.O. Box 68, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail:
  • Hökkä, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Station, P.O. Box 68, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail:
  • Korhonen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Station, P.O. Box 68, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail:
  • Salminen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Station, P.O. Box 68, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail:

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