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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Articles containing the keyword 'carbon balance'

Category : Article

article id 5632, category Article
Annikki Mäkelä, Veli-Pekka Ikonen, Petteri Vanninen. (1997). An application of process-based modelling to the development of branchiness in Scots pine. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 3 article id 5632.
Original keywords: puutavara; mänty; kasvu; hiili; läpimitta; biomassa; oksat; laatu; latvus; simulointi; kasvumallit; mallit; hiilitase; oksaisus
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; carbon balance; simulation; pipe model; timber quality; growth model; branching; crown structure; whorl
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A process-oriented tree and stand growth model is extended to be applicable to the analysis of timber quality, and how it is influenced by silvicultural treatments. The tree-level model is based on the carbon balance and it incorporates the dynamics of five biomass variables as well as tree height, crown base, and breast height diameter. Allocation of carbon is based on the conservation of structural relationships, in particular, the pipe model. The pipe-model relationships are extended to the whorl level, but in order to avoid a 3-dimensional model of entire crown structure, the branch module is largely stochastic and aggregated. In model construction, a top-down hierarchy is used where at each step down, the upper level sets constraints for the lower level. Some advantages of this approach are model consistency and efficiency of calculations, but probably at the cost of reduced flexibility. The detailed structure related with the branching module is preliminary and will be improved when more data becomes available. Model parameters are identified for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Southern Finland, and example simulations are carried out to compare the development of quality characteristics in different stocking densities.

  • Mäkelä, E-mail: am@mm.unknown (email)
  • Ikonen, E-mail: vi@mm.unknown
  • Vanninen, E-mail: pv@mm.unknown
article id 5623, category Article
Harry T. Valentine. (1997). Height growth, site index, and carbon metabolism. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 3 article id 5623.
Keywords: height growth; carbon balance; carbon allocation; carbon dioxide; Bertalanffy model; Mitscherlich model; pipe-model theory; site inxed
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A metabolic model of height growth and site index is derived from a parametrization of the annual carbon balance of a tree. The parametrization is based on pipe-model theory. Four principal variants of the height-growth model correspond to four combinations of assumptions regarding carbon allocation: (a) the apical shoot is autonomous or (b) it is not; and (A) the specific rate of elongation of a shoot equals that of a woody root or (B) it does not. The bB model is the most general as it includes the aA, bA, and aB models as special cases. If the physiological parameters are constant, then the aA model reduces to the form of the Mitscherlich model and the bA model to the form of a Bertalanffy model. Responses of height growth to year-to-year variation in atmospheric conditions are rendered through adjustments of a subset of the model's parameters, namely, the specific rate of production of carbon substrate and three specific rates of maintenance respiration. As an example, the effect of the increasing atmospheric concentration of CO2 on the time-course of tree height of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) is projected over 50-year span from 1986. Site index is predicted to increase and, more importantly, the shape of the site-index curve is predicted to change.

  • Valentine, E-mail: hv@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5578, category Article
Mika Aurela, Tuomas Laurila, Juha-Pekka Tuovinen. (1996). Measurements of O3, CO2 and H2O fluxes over a Scots pine stand in eastern Finland by the micrometeorological eddy covariance method. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 2–3 article id 5578.
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; CO2; ecosystem; eddy covariance technique; net carbon balance; ozone deposition; rnicrometeorology
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The eddy covariance technique is a novel micrometeorological method that enables the determination of the atmosphere-biosphere exchange rate of gases such as ozone and carbon dioxide on an ecosystem scale. This paper describes the technique and presents results from the first direct measurements of turbulent fluxes of O3, CO2 and H2O above a forest in Finland. The measurements were performed during 15 July-5 August 1994 above a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand near the Mekrijärvi research station in Eastern Finland.

The expected diurnal cycles were observed in the atmospheric fluxes of O3, CO2 and H2O. The data analysis includes interpretation of the O3 flux in terms of the dry deposition velocity and evaluation the dependency of the net CO2 flux on radiation. The eddy covariance method and the established measurement system has proved suitable for providing high-resolution data for studying ozone deposition to a forest as well as the net carbon balance and related physiological processes of an ecosystem.

  • Aurela, E-mail: ma@mm.unknown (email)
  • Laurila, E-mail: tl@mm.unknown
  • Tuovinen, E-mail: jt@mm.unknown
article id 5398, category Article
Timo Karjalainen, Seppo Kellomäki, Ari Pussinen. (1994). Role of wood-based products in absorbing atmospheric carbon. Silva Fennica vol. 28 no. 2 article id 5398.
Keywords: wood products; Finland; carbon balance; timber; lifespan
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The amount of carbon (C) stored in wood products manufactured in Finland was calculated with the help of a model using wood harvesting statistics, product flows and lifespans in order to study how much C could be set aside from the atmospheric C cycle outside the forest ecosystem. The calculations showed that on the average 9.9 Tg C/a was in harvested timber in 1986–1991 in Finland. C emissions of timber harvest and transport were 0.1 Tg C/a. In production processes about one third of the C bound in in timber was released into the atmosphere, but two thirds was still bound in products. After 50 and 100 years, more than 40% and 33% of the C initially in products was either in products still in use or disposed to landfills. The wood product C storage was most sensitive to landfill decay rate and to the burning of abandoned products for energy, but not to the same extent to the length of the lifespan of products.

  • Karjalainen, E-mail: tk@mm.unknown (email)
  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown
  • Pussinen, E-mail: ap@mm.unknown

Category : Research article

article id 23019, category Research article
Victor F. Strîmbu, Tron Eid, Terje Gobakken. (2023). A stand level scenario model for the Norwegian forestry – a case study on forest management under climate change. Silva Fennica vol. 57 no. 2 article id 23019.
Keywords: forest planning; carbon balance; climate change mitigation; forest stand simulator
Highlights: GAYA 2.0: a new scenario analysis model focusing on forest carbon fluxes; Carbon sequestration potential estimated at regional level; GAYA 2.0 may be used to estimate the costs of obtaining carbon benefits by adapting the forest management.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Carbon sequestration and income generation are competing objectives in modern forest management. The climate commitments of many countries depend on forests as carbon sinks which must be quantified, monitored, and projected into the future. For projections we need tools to model forest development and perform scenario analyses to assess future carbon sequestration potentials under different management regimes, the expected net present value of such regimes, and possible impacts of climate change. We propose a scenario analysis software tool (GAYA 2.0) that can assist in answering these types of questions using stand level simulations, detailed carbon flow models and an optimizer. This paper has two objectives: (1) to describe GAYA 2.0, and (2) demonstrate its potential in a case study where we analyze the forest carbon balance over a region in Norway based on national forest inventory sample plots. The tool was used to map the optimality front between the carbon benefit and net present value. We observed changes in net present value for different levels of carbon benefit as well as changes in optimal management strategies. We predicted future changes in several forest carbon pools as well as albedo and illustrated the impact of gradual increase in forest productivity (i.e., due to climate warming). Having been updated and modernized from its previous version with increased attention to forest carbon and energy fluxes, GAYA 2.0 is an effective tool that offers multiple opportunities to perform various types of scenario analyses in forest management.
  • Strîmbu, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Environmental Sciences and Natural Resource Management, NO-1432 Ås, Norway ORCID E-mail: (email)
  • Eid, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Environmental Sciences and Natural Resource Management, NO-1432 Ås, Norway E-mail:
  • Gobakken, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Environmental Sciences and Natural Resource Management, NO-1432 Ås, Norway ORCID E-mail:
article id 145, category Research article
Jianbang Gan, C. T. Smith. (2010). Coupling greenhouse gas credits with biofuel production cost in determining conversion plant size. Silva Fennica vol. 44 no. 3 article id 145.
Keywords: bioethanol; production cost; carbon balance; feedstock supply radius; life-cycle analysis
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Biofuel plant size is one of the key variables in biofuel supply chain analysis as it plays a pivotal role in controlling the efficacy of both feedstock supply and feedstock-to-biofuel conversion. The unit production cost and greenhouse gas (GHG) balance of biofuels vary with plant size. We develop an analytical framework for integrating biofuel production costs and GHG balance derived from life-cycle analysis into supply chain optimization, followed by its application to ethanol production using forest biomass in the southern United States. We derive formulas for determining the optimal biofuel plant size and the corresponding feedstock supply radius based on the minimization of biofuel production costs less GHG benefits. Our results indicate that though biofuel plant size and feedstock supply radius should be augmented by considering GHG benefits, the GHG price will have a more significant impact on net biofuel production costs than on conversion plant size or feedstock supply radius. With a rise in the GHG price the net biofuel production cost tends to increase while the directions of change in plant size and feedstock supply radius are uncertain, depending upon the costs and GHG emissions of biomass transport and feedstock-to-fuel conversion. Combining GHG offset values with biofuel production costs enables us to more holistically examine the biofuel supply chain.
  • Gan, Department of Ecosystem Science and Management, Texas A&M University, Texas, USA E-mail: (email)
  • Smith, Faculty of Forestry, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada E-mail:
article id 585, category Research article
Meinrad Rohner, Klaus Böswald. (2001). Forestry development scenarios: timber production, carbon dynamics in tree biomass and forest values in Germany. Silva Fennica vol. 35 no. 3 article id 585.
Keywords: carbon balance; forestry scenario modeling; forest valuation
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
The dynamics of the age class structure stands at the center of modeling long-run forestry scenarios. This insight has been applied to the construction of the Forest Development and Carbon Budget Simulation Model (ForCaBSiM), a model which is used for the study of several interrelated questions: the development of timber stocks and the potential level of sustainable harvests, the stocks and fluxes of tree carbon in managed forests, the economy-wide effects of management practices on the value of forest lands and timber stocks. The combined study of these issues allows to assess development scenarios with regard to the productive potential of forestry, the carbon cycle, and forest values. At present, the model is adapted to German data, but it is designed for use with other data sets as well. This paper provides a description of core mechanisms in ForCaBSiM. On this background, the choice and impact of crucial assumptions is examined. Illustrative results are used to demonstrate the use of the model. The paper focuses on the impact of varying rotation ages and the tree species composition. Particular attention is given to the concept of steady states.
  • Rohner, Renewable Resource Modeling, D-63477 Maintal, Germany E-mail: (email)
  • Böswald, Factor Consulting + Management AG, CH-8045 Zurich, Switzerland E-mail:

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