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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Articles containing the keyword 'ecosystems'

Category : Article

article id 5590, category Article
Heikki Hänninen, Seppo Kellomäki, Ilkka Leinonen, Tapani Repo. (1996). Overwintering and productivity of Scots pine in a changing climate. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 2–3 article id 5590.
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; climate change; ecosystems; frost damage; phenology; forest ecology; gap-type model; model accuracy; model realism; overvintering
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The productivity of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) under changing climatic conditions in the southern part of Finland was studied by scenario analysis with a gap-type forest ecosystem model. Standard simulations with the model predicted an increased rate of growth and hence increased productivity as a result of climatic warming. The gap-type model was refined by introducing an overwintering sub-model describing the annual growth cycle, frost hardiness, and frost damage of the trees. Simulations with the refined gap-type model produced results conflicting with those of the standard simulation, i.e., drastically decreased productivity caused by mortality and growth-reducing damage due to premature dehardening in the changing climate. The overwintering sub-model was tested with frost hardiness data from Scots pine saplings growing at their natural site 1) under natural conditions and 2) under elevated temperature condition, both in open-top chambers. The model predicted the frost hardiness dynamics quite accurately for the natural conditions while underestimating the frost hardiness of the saplings for the elevated temperature conditions. These findings show that 1) the overwintering sub-model requires further development, and 2) the possible reduction of productivity caused by frost damage in a changing climate is less drastic than predicted in the scenario analysis. The results as a whole demonstrated the need to consider the overwintering of trees in scenario analysis carried out with ecosystem model for boreal conditions. More generally, the results revealed a problem that exists in scenario analysis with ecological models: the accuracy of a model in predicting the ecosystem functioning under present climatic condition does not guarantee the realism of the model, nor for this reason the accuracy for predicting the ecosystem functioning under changing climatic conditions. This finding calls for the continuous rigorous experimental testing of ecological models used for assessing the ecological implications of climatic change.

  • Hänninen, E-mail: hh@mm.unknown (email)
  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown
  • Leinonen, E-mail: il@mm.unknown
  • Repo, E-mail: tr@mm.unknown
article id 5579, category Article
F.G. Hall, P.J. Sellers, D.L. Williams. (1996). Initial results from the boreal ecosystem-atmosphere experiment, BOREAS. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 2–3 article id 5579.
Keywords: climate change; Canada; evaporation; BOREAS; boreal ecosystems; carbon exchange
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

BOREAS is a four-year, regional-scale experiment to study the forested continental interior of Canada. It aims at improving our understanding of the interaction between the earths' climate system and the boreal forests at short and intermediate time scales, in order to clarify their role in global change.

During the winter, spring and summer of 1994, five field campaigns were conducted. About 85 investigation teams including nearly 300 scientists participated, including forest ecologists and ecophysiologists, atmospheric physicists, boundary-layer meteorologists, hydrologists, biochemists, atmospheric chemists and remote sensing specialists.

The findings so far have been significant in terms of their implication for global change. The boreal ecosystem, occupying roughly 17 percent of the vegetated land surface and thus an important driver of global weather and climate, absorbs much more solar energy than is assumed by operational numerical weather prediction models. Albedo measurement show that this forest absorbs nearly 91% of the sun's incident energy. Additionally, while it is known that much of the boreal ecosystems consists of forested wetlands, lakes, bogs and fens, the measurements show that the atmosphere above was extremely dry; humidity and deep boundary layer convection (3,000 m) mimicked conditions found only over deserts. Physiological measurements of the trees show that this atmospheric desiccation was a result of the forests' strong biological control limiting surface evaporation. This tight control was linked to the low soil temperature and subsequently reduced rates of photosynthesis. BOREAS measurement also focused on net ecosystem carbon exchange. Data acquired during the late spring and summer, showed the boreal forests to be a net carbon sink. However, no measurements were taken in the early spring following thaw, and in the late fall, where the balance between photosynthesis and respiration is poorly understood. During 1996 additional data will be acquired to resolve the annual carbon budget and how it might depend on interannual climate differences.

  • Hall, E-mail: fh@mm.unknown (email)
  • Sellers, E-mail: ps@mm.unknown
  • Williams, E-mail: dw@mm.unknown
article id 5468, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki, Heikki Hänninen, Taneli Kolström, Risto Lauhanen, Ulla Mattila, Brita Pajari, Hannu Väisänen. (1992). A simulation model for the succession of the boreal forest ecosystem. Silva Fennica vol. 26 no. 1 article id 5468.
Keywords: succession; gap dynamics; ecosystems; simulation models; forest ecology
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A model for the succession of the forest ecosystem is described. The growth and development of trees and ground cover are controlled by temperature and light conditions and the availability of nitrogen and water. In addition, the effects of the annual cycle of trees including the risk of frost damage, wild fire, and wind damages are contained in the model as factors which control the survival and productivity of trees. The model also makes it possible to evaluated the risk of insect attack assuming that this risk is inversely related to the growth efficiency of trees.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown (email)
  • Hänninen, E-mail: hh@mm.unknown
  • Kolström, E-mail: tk@mm.unknown
  • Lauhanen, E-mail: rl@mm.unknown
  • Mattila, E-mail: um@mm.unknown
  • Pajari, E-mail: bp@mm.unknown
  • Väisänen, E-mail: hv@mm.unknown
article id 5025, category Article
Eero Paavilainen. (1979). MAB 2 -projekti Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 2 article id 5025.
English title: MAB 2 project in Finland.
Original keywords: seminaarit; maankäyttö; metsäekosysteemit
English keywords: Finland; forest ecosystems; land uses; seminar; MAB
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The article examines the problems of interdisciplinary research and the Finnish participation in MAB Project 2, which concentrates on the influences of man’s activities on forests. From the Finnish point of view, the main research areas are the effects of forestry activities which affect large areas, multiple use of forests, forests and environmental pollution, and the effects of energy economy.

This paper was presented in the ‘Man and the Biosphere’ programme project 2 seminar held on August 24–25 1978 in Hyytiälä research station of University of Helsinki.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Paavilainen, E-mail: ep@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5023, category Article
Anu Pärnänen. (1979). Erilaisten maankäyttötapojen ja hoitotoimenpiteiden ekologiset vaikutukset metsiin. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 2 article id 5023.
English title: Ecological effects of different land uses and management practices on boreal landscapes – Man and the Biosphere Programme, seminar of Project 2.
Original keywords: ekosysteemit; metsäekologia; seminaarit; maankäyttö; MAB
English keywords: forest ecology; forest ecosystems; land uses; UNESCO; seminar
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Man and the Biosphere (MAB) programme of UNESCO was launched in 1970. This interdisciplinary programme represents a new integrated approach to research, training and action aimed at improving man’s partnership with the environment. It consists of 14 project areas.

The Academy of Finland and the Finnish Committee for the MAB, in cooperation with the University of Helsinki and the city of Tampere organized a seminar with an aim of reviewing the execution of the Finnish participation in the MAB project No. 2. The seminar took place at Hyytiälä, a forest research station of the University of Helsinki, on August 24–25 1978.

During the seminar, an excursion was made to Pyynikki esker, a unique natural park close to the centre of the city of Tamper. Eight papers were presented and discussed in the seminar. The papers are published in this issue of Silva Fennica.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Pärnänen, E-mail: ap@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4943, category Article
Matti Leikola. (1976). Näkökohtia metsikköekologisten ympäristötekijöiden mittaamisesta. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 2 article id 4943.
English title: Measuring environmental factors in a forest ecosystem.
Original keywords: ekosysteemit; metsäekologia; ympäristötekijät
English keywords: ecosystems; environmental factors; forest research; forest ecosystems
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In the article some aspects concerning the measurement of environmental factors are discussed. Special attention is given to the following questions: The correct way of determining the active surface in a forest ecosystem, the time factor in measurement processes, and the mutual correlative relationships between the environmental factors. Analysis of the data is also taken into consideration.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Leikola, E-mail: ml@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4688, category Article
L. Heikurainen, Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1960). Symposio metsätyypeistä ja metsäekosysteemeistä Motrealissa elokuun 24. päivänä 1959. IX Kansainvälisen kasvitieteellisen kongressin yhteydessä. Silva Fennica no. 105 article id 4688.
English title: Symposium on forest types and forest ecosystems during the IX international botanical congress Montreal, August 24th 1959.
Original keywords: kasvillisuus; metsätyypit; bibliografiat; ekosysteemit; kasvupaikkaluokitus; kokoukset; metsäekologia
English keywords: vegetation; ecosystems; forest types; bibliographies; site classification; Symposiums
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper is a review on the topics of Symposium on forest types and forest ecosystems, held in connection to the IX internal botanical congress in Montreal in August 1959, the chairman of which was Ilmari Hustich. The article includes 18 preparatory papers that were distributed among the participants of the symposium. The common theme of the papers was the question of finding common platform for the different schools of forest types and forest ecosystems. In addition to the papers, the article includes a summary of the proceedings and discussions of the symposium.


The following papers were presented in the symposium:

Aichinger, E. Können wir eine gemeinsame Platform für die verscheidenen Schulen in der Waldtypenklassifikationen finden?

Arnborg, T. Can we find a common platform for the different schools of forest type classifications?

Dansereau, P. A combined structural and floristic approach to the definition of forest ecosystems.

Daubenmire, R. Some major problems in vegetation classification

Ellenberg, H. Können wir eine gemeinsame Platform für die verscheidenen Schulen in der Waldtypenklassifikationen finden?

Hills, G.A. Comparison of forest ecosystems (vegetation and soil) in different climatic zones

Kalela, A. Classification of the vegetation, especially of the forest, with particular reference to regional problems

Krajina, V.J. Can we find a common platform for the different schools of forest type classifications?

Kühler, A.W. Mapping tropical forest vegetation

Linteau, A. Y. a-t-il. Un terrain d’entente possible entre les différentes écoles au sujet de la classification de types forestiers?

Medvecka-Kornaś, A. Some problems of forest climaxes in Poland

Ovington, J.D. The ecosystem concept as aid to forest classification

Puri, G.S. The concept of climax in forest botany as applied in India

Rowe, J.S. Can we find a common platform for the different schools of forest type classifications?

Scamoni, A. Können wir eine gemeinsame Grundlage für die verscheidenen Schulen in der Waldtypenklassifikationen finden?

Sukachev, V.N. The correlation between the concept ’forest ecosystem’ and ’forest biogeocoenise’ and their importance for the classification of forests

Webb, L.J. A new attempt to classify Australian rain forest

  • Heikurainen, E-mail:
  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, E-mail:

Category : Research article

article id 23045, category Research article
Laura Pikkarainen, Harri Strandman, Eerik Vento, Aaron Petty, Olli-Pekka Tikkanen, Antti Kilpeläinen, Heli Peltola. (2024). Effects of forest conservation and management on timber, ecosystem carbon, dead wood and habitat suitability area in a boreal forest under climate change. Silva Fennica vol. 58 no. 2 article id 23045.
Keywords: saproxylic species; simulation; carbon storage; forest fertilization; Fennoscandia; forest ecosystems services; improved regeneration material
Highlights: Increasing forest conservation areas increased all other ecosystem services except timber yield. Intensive forest management enhanced this increase; Increased conservation area decreased timber yield, but intensive forest management reduced this effect and even overcompensated it at the end of simulation period in the 10% conservation scenario with intensified forest management; Climate change increased all other ecosystem services, except carbon stocks.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

We used forest ecosystem model simulations to study how forest conservation and management intensity affected timber yield, ecosystem carbon stocks, amount of dead wood, and habitat suitability area in a middle boreal forest region of Finland under changing climate over a 90-year simulation period. We used the following forest conservation and management scenarios: baseline forest management (BM), BM with 10 or 20% increase of conservation area with or without intensified forest management (i.e. improved forest regeneration material and forest fertilization). The simulations were done under current climate (reference period of 1981–2010), and Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) climate change projections under the RCP2.6 and RCP4.5 forcing scenarios. Overall, increasing the forest conservation area decreased timber yield and increased the ecosystem carbon stock, the amount of dead wood and consequently the area of suitable habitat for saproxylic species. The use of intensified forest management reduced the loss of timber yield, increased ecosystem carbon stock, the amount of dead wood and area of suitable habitat for saproxylic species. At the end of simulation period, the use of intensified forest management even overcompensated (4–6% higher) the timber loss from 10% increase of conservation area. Under changing climate, timber yield, the amount of dead wood and the area of suitable habitats for saproxylic species increased. To conclude, with intensified forest management it is possible, in the short term, to decrease the loss of timber yield through increased forest conservation area and in the long term maintain or even increase it compared to baseline forest management.

  • Pikkarainen, School of Forest Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Yliopistokatu 7, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland ORCID E-mail: (email)
  • Strandman, School of Forest Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Yliopistokatu 7, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland ORCID E-mail:
  • Vento, School of Forest Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Yliopistokatu 7, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland E-mail:
  • Petty, School of Forest Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Yliopistokatu 7, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland ORCID E-mail:
  • Tikkanen, School of Forest Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Yliopistokatu 7, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland ORCID E-mail:
  • Kilpeläinen, School of Forest Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Yliopistokatu 7, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland ORCID E-mail:
  • Peltola, School of Forest Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Yliopistokatu 7, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland E-mail:
article id 88, category Research article
Seppo Rouvinen, Jari Kouki. (2011). Tree regeneration in artificial canopy gaps established for restoring natural structural variability in a Scots pine stand. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 5 article id 88.
Keywords: ecosystems; diversity; restoration
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
In Finland and elsewhere in Europe, many protected forest areas include also stands that were previously managed and that lack several naturally occurring stand characteristics. In these areas, ecosystem restoration can be used to facilitate and accelerate the formation of structural and habitat features resembling those of natural forests. For example, by creating small gaps it could be possible to diversify forest structure and tree species composition and to produce dead wood while still maintaining mostly continous canopy coverage. We examined experimentally the effects of artificial gap formation on post-disturbance tree regeneration in the gaps in a young protected, but formerly commercially managed pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) dominated forest. In the experimental sites, gap size and the portion of girdled trees out of all treated trees (girdled and felled trees combined) in the gaps varied. Natural and artificial (direct seeding of silver birch Betula pendula Roth) tree regeneration and development was monitored both on disturbed (scarified soil patches) and undisturbed forest floor during three growing seasons. Results show that gaps can be valuable in diversifying stand structure but to be successful and rapid, tree regeneration needs disturbed forest floor. Pine regenerated numerously, but birch had clearly lower regeneration, especially on small-sized gaps. In conclusion, increasing tree diversity in young pine-dominated forests seems to be difficult when only small artificial gaps are used. But even small gaps can be used to create and maintain diverse cohort structure of the dominant species and thus they can contribute to restoration goals.
  • Rouvinen, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, Joensuu, Finland E-mail: (email)
  • Kouki, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, Joensuu, Finland E-mail:

Category : Discussion article

article id 270, category Discussion article
Seppo Rouvinen, Jari Kouki. (2008). The natural northern European boreal forests: unifying the concepts, terminologies, and their application. Silva Fennica vol. 42 no. 1 article id 270.
Keywords: human influence; biodiversity; natural ecosystems; natural forests; protection; terminology
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Recent emphasis on conserving the biodiversity has stressed the value of natural ecosystems in saving the species from extinction. In the Fennoscandian region the conifer-dominated boreal forests form the largest single ecosystem. The forests have been under varying intensity of human influence for decades or centuries. Recent attempts have tried to seek the last remaining natural forests to be included in the protection programmes. However, due to long and widespread human influence, finding and defining the natural forests has proven to be extremely difficult, not only because they are so rare but also because the concept of natural forest is vague. These difficulties are partly seen through the diverse terminology used. We first review the varying terminology as seen in recent studies. Secondly, we propose the basis for defining the natural forest and show some intriguing and challenging difficulties are involved in the concept. These difficulties are at least partly related to inherent strong and long-term dynamic component in boreal forest ecosystems that is manifested over several temporal and spatial scales. Finally, we outline a more general terminology with associated indicators and measurements that might be used in the classification and terminology. Conceptual clarification is necessary, for example, to compile ecologically justified and representative global, national and regional forest statistics. Many currently applied definitions of “forest” and “natural” that are applied in the context of forest statistics overlook ecologically important components of natural forests, and thus provide quite misleading or inadequate data of existing diversity patterns in these ecosystems.
  • Rouvinen, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail:
  • Kouki, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail: (email)

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