Current issue: 56(4)
Under compilation: 57(1)
According to the statistics, the fuel wood consumption in Europe has declined since 1925/1929, when the total fuel wood consumption was 144 million m3. In 1960 the consumption was 108 million m3. Because of insufficient statistics in the early years, the drop may even be larger than shown by the figures. The aim of this paper is to assess what part of European fuel wood removals in 1960 could be used for industrial purposes by 1975.
It was estimated that in 1975 the use of fuel wood in Europe will be about 45–55 million m3 less than in 1960 and about 10 million m3 of this amount will consist of coniferous species. It is believed that about 45 million m3 could be transferred to industrial use by 1975, and 55 million m3 is supposed to be the maximum reduction achievable by 1975. The estimates are based on the revised European fuel wood removal figures.
The new European timber trends and prospects study reveals a shortage of small-sized coniferous wood of about 25–43 million m3, depending on whether the exports from Europe are curtailed or not. The decrease of coniferous fuel wood of 10 million m3 could almost entirely be transferred for the use of industry.
A more important question is, is there demand for the extra small-size broadleaved wood. It is important to note that there is no longer any technical limitations on the use of this kind of wood for producing pulp, paper paperboard and wood-based panel products.
Fuelwood is often collected by the farmer and used near the farm. If the wood is to be used in the industry, harvesting and transport costs need to be decreased. However, productivity of the logging and transportation may be significantly improved by cutting the trees into longer lengths and professional harvesting. About 40% of the potential transfer of fuelwood to industrial uses is concentrated in Finland (7 million m3), France (5 million m3), and Italy (7 million m3). Other countries with significant potential shifts could be Romania, Spain and Yugoslavia.
The PDF includes a summary in French, German, Dutch, Russian and Finnish.
A Commission was appointed to examine the significance of pulpwood exports from the political-economic and social point of view. A survey was made of the development of woodworking industry in Finland. The article includes a detailed review on paper industry in Finland and abroad, pulpwood resources in Finland and outlook of the industry. The export of pulpwood was significant in 1925-1927, the most important country being Germany. The commission notes that It would be more profitable to refine the wood into more expensive products. It does, however, not see it necessary to restrict export of pulpwood. If restrictions are considered necessary, prohibition of export is a better way than export duties.
The best way to promote domestic paper industry is to increase the supply of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.). Measures are suggested to increase the productivity of the forests through forest improvement. The annual increment of spruce is calculated to cover the consumption in near future, provided the export of pulpwood does not amount to 600,000 m3, and the local demand of pulpwood does not exceed 7.8 million m3 annually. The Commission proposes that state ownership of forests is increased, forest management is intensified, and restrictions of forest industry to acquire forest land are removed.
It suggests also reliefs in taxation and import duties on fields related to transport, and equipment and raw materials needed by the paper industry.
The PDF includes a summary in English.
The main source of data was the official industrial statistics in 1911‒1929. The data was complemented with information from other sources, and the figures converted to solid volumes under bark. The wood consumption of wood manufacturing industry in the period varied strongly, being lowest in 1918 (2.2 million m3) and highest in 1927 (18.1 million m3). The wood consumption dropped during the World War I.
The wood manufacturing industry in Finland concentrated on sawmilling industry which has used annually 70‒80% of the wood consumed in the whole wood manufacturing industry. Other sectors of industry using wood were plywood industry, wood-wool industry, spool factories, match industry, mechanical pulpwood industry and pulp industry.
The PDF includes a summary in German.